The bush dog Speothos venaticus, a rarely seen Neotropical canid categorized as Near Threatened globally, is categorized as Vulnerable in Brazil. In the Atlantic Forest occurrence data of this species are extremely rare. Here we document new records of the bush dog in four reserves in a large remnant of continuous coastal Atlantic Forest in Paraná state, southern Brazil. From a total of 4,112 trap days in two camera-trap surveys in 2009 and 2011 we obtained one opportunistic sighting and three independent photographic records of the bush dog. Additionally, park guards reported previous sightings (>4 years earlier) in three of these reserves, including the reserve where we did not record the species. Our results indicate that the remnant coastal Atlantic Forest of Paraná state is an important region for the conservation of the bush dog in southern Brazil. Given the rarity of this species in its natural habitat we suggest that conservation efforts in this region should focus on minimizing the potential threats (prey depletion from poaching and disease transmission from domestic dog) to the species.
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