Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Status and conservation of primates in Odzala National Park, Republic of the Congo

  • Magdalena Bermejo (a1)

A survey of diurnal primate populations was carried out in Odzala National Park, Republic of the Congo, over 3 months in 1994 and 2 months in 1995. The park contains a high diversity and species-specific abundance of primates, and has the highest number of diurnal primates (10 species) in the forest block of Central Africa. Eight species of monkey: greater whitenosed monkey Cercopithecus nictitans, moustached monkey Cercopithecus cephus, crowned guenon Cercopithecus pogonias, De Brazza's monkey Cercopithecus neglectus, talapoin Miopithecus talapoin, white-cheeked mangabey Cercocebus albigena, agile mangabey Cercocebus galeritus and guereza Colobus guereza, as well as gorilla Gorilla g. gorilla and chimpanzee Pan t. troglodytes were sighted in the survey. Monkey species richness was highest in dense inundated forest and thicket, with all eight species occurring in these habitats, whereas only four species were found in terra firma forest (consisting of the park's two main habitats, open-canopy Marantaceae forest and closed-canopy primary forest). Three of the four species (C. nictitans, C. cephus and C. albigena) present in terra firma forest were most abundant in closed-canopy primary forest (1.4,1.0 and 0.6 groups per km, respectively) while the fourth (C. pogonias) was most abundant in open-canopy Marantaceae forest. Gorilla nests were most abundant in open-canopy Marantaceae forest (12.1 nests per km), while chimpanzee nests were mostly found in closed-canopy primary forest and Marantaceae forest (14 and 12 nests per km, respectively). Odzala has the highest recorded densities of western lowland gorilla (mean = 5.4 individuals per sq km) and chimpanzee (mean = 2.2 individuals per sq km) in Central Africa. The high densities of gorillas and chimpanzees may be a result of the high productivity of the forest and low poaching pressure. Conservation measures to ensure the maintenance of conditions in the area, such as educational programmes, are suggested.

Hide All
Blake S. (1995) Swamp gorillas in northern Congo. African Journal of Ecology, 33, 285290.
Buckland S.T., Anderson D.R., Burnham K.P. & Laake J.L. (1993) Distance Sampling. Estimating Abundance of Biological Populations. Chapman & Hall, London.
Butynski T.M. (1990) Comparative ecology of blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis) in high- and low-density subpopulations. Ecological Monographs, 60, 126.
Carpaneto G.M. (1993) Pare National d' Odzala—Ethnologic Faune et Ecotourisme. Rapport ECOFAC, Bruxelles.
Carroll R. (1988) Relative density, range extension and conservation potential of the lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in the Dzanga-Sangha region of southwestern Central African Republic. Mammalia, 53, 309323.
Dowsett-Lemaire F. (1995) Contribution a I'etude de la vegetation du Pare National d'Odzala (Congo). Projet Ecofac-Composante Congo AGRECO-CTFT, Bruxelles.
Fay J.M. (1997) The ecology, social organization, populations, habitat and history of the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla,). PhD thesis, Washington University.
Fay J.M. & Agnagna M. (1992) Census of gorillas in northern Republic of Congo. American Journal of Primatology, 27, 275284.
Fay J., Agnagna M., Moore J. & Oko R. (1990) Gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) in the Likouala swamp forests of North Central Congo: preliminary data on populations and ecology. International Journal of Primatology, 10, 477486.
Garcia J.E. & Mba J. (1997) Distribution, status and conservation of primates in Monte Alen National Park, Equatorial Guinea. Oryx, 31, 6776.
Gautier-Hion A. (1971) L'ecologie du talapoin au Gabon. Revue Ecologie (Terre et Vie), 25, 427490.
Gautier-Hion A. & Gautier J.P. (1978) Le singe de Brazza:une stratégie originale. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychology, 46, 84104.
Harcourt A.H. (1996) Is the gorilla a threatened species? How should we judge? Biological Conservation, 75, 165176.
Harrison M.J.S. & Hladik A. (1986) Une primate granivore: le colobe noir dans la forêt du Gabon; potentialité d'évolution du comportement alimentaire. Revue Ecologie (Terreet Vie), 41, 281298.
Hashimoto C. (1995) Population census of the chimpanzees in the Kalinzu forest, Uganda: comparison between methods with nest counts. Primates, 36, 477488.
Hecketsweiler P., Doumenge C. & Mokoko Ikonga J. (1991) Le Pare National d' Odzala, Congo. IUCN, Programme de Conservation des Forêts. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Kuroda S. (1990) Ecological interspecies relations between sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees in Ndoki Reserve, Northern Congo. In Abstracts, XIII Congress of the International Printatologkal Society. Nagoya and Kyoto, Japan.
Lejoly J. (1996) Biodiversité végétate dans le Pare National d'Odzala (Congo). Rapport ECOFAC-Congo, AGRECO/CTFT, Bruxelles.
Letouzey R. (1968) Etude Phytogeographique du Cameroun. Encyclopédic Biologique no 69. Editions Paul Lechevalier, Paris.
Magliocca F., Querouil S. & Gautier-Hion A. (in press) Population structure and group composition of western lowland gorillas in north-western Republic of Congo. American journal of Primatology.
Maisels F.G. (1995) Etude sur la structure de la communauté des petits primates diurnes, Parc National d'Odzala, Republique du Congo. Rapport préliminaire. Projet Ecofac-Composante Congo. AGRECO-CTFT, Bruxelles.
Mitani M. (1990) A note on the present situation of the primate fauna found from south-eastern Cameroon to northern Congo. Primates, 31(4), 625634.
Mitani M. (1992) Preliminary results of the studies on western lowland gorillas and other sympatric diurnal primates in the Ndoki Forest in Northern Congo. In Topics in Primatology, vol. 2 (eds Itoigawa N., Sugiyama Y., Sackett G. and Thompson R. K. R.), pp. 215224. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.
Nishihara T. (1990) A preliminary report on the feeding habits of western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in the Ndoki Forest of northern Congo. In Abstracts, XIII Congress of the International Primatological Society. Nagoya and Kyoto, Japan.
Nishihara T. (1991) Activities in and around swampy areas of western lowland gorillas. Primate Research, 7(2), 158.
Nishihara T. (1995) Feeding ecology of western lowland gorillas in the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park, Congo. Primates, 36(2), 151168.
Oates J.F., Whitesides G.H., Davies A.G., Waterman P.G., Green S.M., Dasilva G.L. & Mole S. (1990) Determinants of variation in tropical forest primate biomass: new evidence from West Africa. Ecology, 71, 328343.
Oko R. (1990) The present situation of conservation for the wild gorilla in Congo. In Abstracts, XIII Congress of the International Primatological Society. Nagoya and Kyoto, Japan.
Olejniczak C. (1996) Update on the Mbeli Bai gorillas study, Nouabale-Ndoki National Park, Northern Congo. Gorilla Conservation News, 10, 58.
Regusters H. (1983) Casual primate observation in the Congo Basin. Antroquest, 25, 34.
Remis M.J. (1993) Nesting behavior of lowland gorillas in the Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, Central African Republic: implications for population estimates and understanding of group dynamics. Tropics, 2(4), 245255.
Rogers M.E. & Williamson E.A. (1987) Density of herbaceous plants eaten by gorillas in Gabon. Biotropica, 19(3), 278281.
Rollet B. (1964) Introduction à l'Inventaire Forestière du Nord-Congo, vol. II. Annexes et Illustrations. Rapport 1782, FAO, Rome.
Struhsaker T.T. (1981) Census methods for estimating densities. In Techniques for the Study of Primate Population Ecology (ed. Subcommittee on Conservation of Natural Populations), pp. 3680. National Academy Press, Washington.
Tutin C.E.G. & Fernandez M. (1984) Nationwide census of gorilla (Gorilla g. gorilla) and chimpanzee (Pan t. troglodytes) populations in Gabon. American Journal of Primatology, 6, 313336.
Tutin C.E.G., Parnell R.J., White L.J.T. & Fernandez M. (1995) Nest building by lowland gorillas in the Lopé Reserve, Gabon: environmental influences and implications for censusing. International Journal of Primatology, 16, 5376.
Tutin C.E.G., Ham R.M., White L.J.T. & Harrison M.J.S. (1997) The primate community of the Lopé Reserve, Gabon: diets, responses to fruit scarcity, and effect on biomass. American Journal of Primatology, 42, 124.
Vanleeuwe H., Cajani S. & Gautier-Hion A. (1998) Large mammals at forest clearings in the Odzala National Park, Congo. Revue Ecologie (Terre et Vie), 53, 185194.
White R.J.T. (1994) Biomass of rain forest mammals in the Lope Reserve, Gabon. Journal of Animal Ecology, 63, 499512.
Whitesides G.H., Oates J.F., Green S.M. & Kluberdanz R.P. (1988) Estimating primate densities from transects in an East African rain forest: a comparison of techniques. Journal of Animal Ecology, 57, 345367.
Wilkie D.S., Sidle J.G. & Boundzaga G.C. (1992) Mechanized logging, market hunting, and a bank loan in Congo. Conservation Biology, 6, 570580.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0030-6053
  • EISSN: 1365-3008
  • URL: /core/journals/oryx
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 4 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 86 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.