Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Finding peace in clinical settings: A narrative review of concept and practice

  • Philip Austin (a1) and Roderick MacLeod (a2)
Abstract

The purpose of this review was to investigate and review the concept of “peace” and the role it plays in the spiritual well-being and care of people with a chronic or terminal illness. Our objectives were, first, to examine the importance of peace in palliative care as a measure of acceptance and in chronic illness settings as a predictor of improved survival. Second, we explored the dimensions of peace and their relationships with spiritual well-being. We further examined how the constructs of peace are assessed both within valid spiritual well-being measures and as individual items related solely to peace. Finally, we examined therapies aimed at promoting peace and emotional well-being in palliative and chronic illness settings. Despite much being written about different constructs of peace and the positive effects of being at peace during times of illness, the effects of therapies on the feeling of peace are not well-studied.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Philip Austin, Department of Pain Management, Pallister House, Greenwich Hospital, 97-115 River Road, Greenwich 2065, New South Wales, Australia. E-Mail: paustin@hammond.com.au.
References
Hide All
Ando, M., Morita, T., Akechi, T., et al. (2009). The efficacy of mindfulness-based meditation therapy on anxiety, depression, and spirituality in Japanese patients with cancer. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 12(12), 10911094.
Ando, M., Morita, T. & Oshima, A. (2011). Reminiscence cognitive behavior therapy for spiritual well-being and self-esteem of cancer patients. Journal of Cancer Therapy, 2(2), 105109. Available from http://file.scirp.org/pdf/JCT20110200008_47461154.pdf.
Ariès, P. (1974). Western attitudes toward death: From the Middle Ages to the present. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
Ariès, P. (1976). Studien zur Geschichte des Todes im Abendland [in German]. Munich: Carl Hanser Verlag.
Astrow, A.B., Wexler, A., Texeira, K., et al. (2007). Is failure to meet spiritual needs associated with cancer patients' perceptions of quality of care and their satisfaction with care? Journal of Clinical Oncology, 25(36), 57535757. Available from http://ascopubs.org/doi/pdf/10.1200/JCO.2007.12.4362.
Best, M., Butow, P. & Olver, I. (2014). The doctor's role in helping dying patients with cancer achieve peace: A qualitative study. Palliative Medicine, 28(9), 11391145. Epub ahead of print Jun 9.
Boyd-Wilson, B., McClure, J. & Walkey, F. (2004). Serenity, much more than just feeling calm. Advances in Psychological Research, 29, 3555.
Bredle, M.J., Salsman, J.M., Debb, S.M., et al. (2011). Spiritual well-being as a component of health-related quality of life: The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT–Sp). Religions, 2(1), 7794. Available from http://www.mdpi.com/2077-1444/2/1/77/htm.
Büssing, A., Balzat, H.J. & Heusser, P. (2010). Spiritual needs of patients with chronic pain diseases and cancer: Validation of the spiritual needs questionnaire. European Journal of Medical Research, 15(6), 266273. Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3351996/.
Büssing, A., Janko, A., Baumann, K., et al. (2013 a). Spiritual needs among patients with chronic pain diseases and cancer living in a secular society. Pain Medicine, 14(9), 13621373. Epub ahead of print Jul 19. Available from http://painmedicine.oxfordjournals.org/content/painmedicine/14/9/1362.full.pdf.
Büssing, A., Zhai, X.F., Peng, W.B., et al. (2013 b). Psychosocial and spiritual needs of patients with chronic diseases: Validation of the Chinese version of the Spiritual Needs Questionnaire. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 11(2), 106115. Available from http://www.jcimjournal.com/articles/publishArticles/pdf/jintegrmed2013020.pdf
Canada, A.L., Murphy, P.E., et al. (2008). A 3-factor model for the FACIT–Sp. Psycho-Oncology, 17(9), 908916. Available from http://www.spiritualityandhealth.duke.edu/images/pdfs/canadahandout.pdf.
Chang, B.-H., Boehmer, U., Zhao, Y.U.E., et al. (2007). The combined effect of relaxation response and acupuncture on quality of life in patients with HIV: A pilot study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 13(8), 807815. Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2917624/.
Chochinov, H.M. (2006). Dying, dignity, and new horizons in palliative end-of-life care. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 56(2), 84103; quiz 104–105. Available from http://virtualhospice.ca/Assets/Dying,%20Dignity,%20and%20New%20Horizons%20in%20Palliative%20End-of-Life%20Care_20140819105955.pdf.
Collins, E.S., Witt, J., Bausewein, C., et al. (2015). A systematic review of the use of the palliative care outcome scale and the support team assessment schedule in palliative care. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 50(6), 842853.e819. Epub ahead of print Aug 31.
Cordova, M.J., Giese-Davis, J., Golant, M., et al. (2007). Breast cancer as trauma: Posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 14(4), 308319.
Costantini, M., Rabitti, E., Beccaro, M., et al. (2016). Validity, reliability and responsiveness to change of the Italian palliative care outcome scale: A multicenter study of advanced cancer patients. BMC Palliative Care, 15(1), 1523. Available from http://bmcpalliatcare.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12904-016-0095-6.
Decker, T.W., Cline-Elsen, J. & Gallagher, M. (1992). Relaxation therapy as an adjunct in radiation oncology. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 48(3), 388393.
Einolf, C.J. (2013). Daily spiritual experiences and prosocial behavior. Social Indicators Research, 110(1), 7187.
Elias, N. (2001). Loneliness of the dying. Trans. Jephcott, E.. New York: Continuum. Available from https://monoskop.org/images/f/fc/Elias_Norbert_Loneliness_of_the_Dying_2001.pdf.
Forzoni, S., Perez, M., Martignetti, A., et al. (2010). Art therapy with cancer patients during chemotherapy sessions: An analysis of the patients' perception of helpfulness. Palliative & Support Care, 8(1), 4148. Epub ahead of print Feb 18.
Gabriel, B., Bromberg, E., Vandenbovenkamp, J., et al. (2001). Art therapy with adult bone marrow transplant patients in isolation: A pilot study. Psycho-Oncology, 10(2), 114123.
Garland, S.N., Carlson, L.E., Cook, S., et al. (2007). A non-randomized comparison of mindfulness-based stress reduction and healing arts programs for facilitating post-traumatic growth and spirituality in cancer outpatients. Supportive Care in Cancer, 15(8), 949961. Epub ahead of print Jul 5.
Hanser, S.B. & Mandel, S.E. (2005). The effects of music therapy in cardiac healthcare. Cardiology Review, 13(1), 1823.
Hanser, S.B., Bauer-Wu, S., Kubicek, L., et al. (2006). Effects of a music therapy intervention on quality of life and distress in women with metastatic breast cancer. Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology, 4(3), 116124.
Heyland, D.K., Cook, D.J., Rocker, G.M., et al. (2010). Defining priorities for improving end-of-life care in Canada. CMAJ, 182(16), E747E752. Epub ahead of print Oct 4. Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2972350/.
Holland, J.C., Morrow, G.R., Schmale, A., et al. (1991). A randomized clinical trial of alprazolam versus progressive muscle relaxation in cancer patients with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 9(6), 10041011.
Ironson, G., Solomon, G.F., Balbin, E.G., et al. (2002). The Ironson–Woods Spirituality/Religiousness Index is associated with long survival, health behaviors, less distress, and low cortisol in people with HIV/AIDS. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 24(1), 3448.
Jafari, N., Farajzadegan, Z., Zamani, A., et al. (2013). Spiritual therapy to improve the spiritual well-being of Iranian women with breast cancer: A randomized controlled trial. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013, 2013:353262. Epub ahead of print Aug 18. Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3759260/.
Kimmel, P.L., Emont, S.L., Newmann, J.M., et al. (2003). ESRD patient quality of life: Symptoms, spiritual beliefs, psychosocial factors, and ethnicity. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 42(4), 713721.
Kreitzer, M.J., Gross, C., Waleekhachonloet, O.-A., et al. (2009). The Brief Serenity Scale: A psychometric analysis of a measure of spirituality and well-being. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 27(1), 716. Epub ahead of print Jan 28. Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2818779/.
Kristjanson, L.J. & Aoun, S. (2004). Palliative care for families: Remembering the hidden patients. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49(6), 359365.
Kwekkeboom, K.L., Abbott-Anderson, K. & Wanta, B. (2010). Feasibility of a patient-controlled cognitive behavioral intervention for pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbance in cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 37(3), E151E159. Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2864954/.
Lamanque, P. & Daneault, S. (2006). Does meditation improve the quality of life for patients living with cancer? [in French]. Canadian Family Physician, 52(4), 474475. Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1481669/.
Lee, Y.-C., Lin, Y.-C., Huang, C.-L., et al. (2013). The construct and measurement of peace of mind. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(2), 571590.
Leon-Pizarro, C., Gich, I., Barthe, E., et al. (2007). A randomized trial of the effect of training in relaxation and guided imagery techniques in improving psychological and quality-of-life indices for gynecologic and breast brachytherapy patients. Psycho-Oncology, 16(11), 971979.
Liu, X., Xu, W., Wang, Y., et al. (2015). Can inner peace be improved by mindfulness training: A randomized controlled trial. Stress and Health, 31(3), 245254. Available from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/smi.2551/pdf.
MacLeod, R., Crandall, J., Wilson, D., et al. (2016). Death anxiety among New Zealanders: The predictive role of gender and marital status. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 19(4), 339349.
Magill, L. (2006). Role of music therapy in integrative oncology. Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology, 4(2), 7981.
Mayden, K.D. (2012). Mind–body therapies: Evidence and implications in advanced oncology practice. Journal of the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology, 3(6), 357373. Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4093363/.
McCabe, R., Murray, R., Austin, P., et al. (2017). Spiritual and existential factors predict pain relief in a pain management program with a meaning-based component. Journal of Pain Management, 10(2), In press.
Monod, S.M., Rochat, E., Büla, C.J., et al. (2010). The Spiritual Distress Assessment Tool: An instrument to assess spiritual distress in hospitalised elderly persons. BMC Geriatrics, 10, 88. Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3017043/pdf/1471-2318-10-88.pdf.
Monod, S., Brennan, M., Rochat, E., et al. (2011). Instruments measuring spirituality in clinical research: A systematic review. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 26(11), 13451357. Epub ahead of print Jul 2. Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3208480/.
Moore, A.M., Gamblin, T.C., Geller, D.A., et al. (2011). A prospective study of posttraumatic growth as assessed by self-report and family caregiver in the context of advanced cancer. Psycho-Oncology, 20(5), 479487. Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3290514/pdf/nihms356294.pdf,
Murphy, P.E., Canada, A.L., Fitchett, G., et al. (2010). An examination of the 3-factor model and structural invariance across racial/ethnic groups for the FACIT–Sp: A report from the American Cancer Society's Study of Cancer Survivors–II (SCS–II). Psycho-Oncology, 19(3), 264272.
Nidich, S.I., Fields, J.Z., Rainforth, M.V., et al. (2009). A randomized controlled trial of the effects of transcendental meditation on quality of life in older breast cancer patients. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 8(3), 228234. Available from http://ict.sagepub.com/content/8/3/228.long.
O'Callaghan, C. (2006). Clinical issues: Music therapy in an adult cancer inpatient treatment setting. Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology, 4(2), 5761.
Park, C.L., George, L., Aldwin, C.M., et al. (2016). Spiritual peace predicts 5-year mortality in congestive heart failure patients. Health Psychology, 35(3), 203210. Epub ahead of print Sep 28, 2015. Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4760860/.
Pearce, M.J., Koenig, H.G., Robins, , et al. (2015). Religiously integrated cognitive behavioral therapy: A new method of treatment for major depression in patients with chronic medical illness. Psychotherapy (Chicago, Ill.), 52(1), 5666. Epub ahead of print Nov 3, 2014. Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4457450/.
Peterman, A.H., Fitchett, G., Brady, M.J., et al. (2002). Measuring spiritual well-being in people with cancer: The functional assessment of chronic illness therapy. Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT–Sp). Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 24(1), 4958.
Peterman, A.H., Reeve, C.L., Winford, E.C., et al. (2014). Measuring meaning and peace with the FACIT–Spiritual Well-Being Scale: Distinction without a difference? Psychological Assessment, 26(1), 127137. Epub ahead of print Nov 4, 2013. Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4081471/.
Predeger, E. (1996). Womanspirit: A journey into healing through art in breast cancer. ANS: Advances in Nursing Science, 18(3), 4858.
Puchalski, C.M., Vitillo, R., Hull, S.K., (2014). Improving the spiritual dimension of whole person care: Reaching national and international consensus. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 17(6), 642656. Epub ahead of print May 19. Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4038982/.
Puig, A., Lee, S.M., Goodwin, L., et al. (2006). The efficacy of creative arts therapies to enhance emotional expression, spirituality, and psychological well-being of newly diagnosed stage I and stage II breast cancer patients: A preliminary study. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 33(3), 218228.
Ray, A., Block, S.D., Friedlander, R.J., et al. (2006). Peaceful awareness in patients with advanced cancer. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 9(6), 13591368.
Roberts, K.T. & Aspy, C.B. (1993). Development of the Serenity Scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 1(2), 145164.
Roberts, K. & Cunningham, G. (1990). Serenity: Concept analysis and measurement. Educational Gerontology, 16(6), 577589.
Ruland, C.M. & Moore, S.M. (1998). Theory construction based on standards of care: A proposed theory of the peaceful end of life. Nursing Outlook, 46(4), 169175.
Sabo, C.E. & Michael, S.R. (1996). The influence of personal message with music on anxiety and side effects associated with chemotherapy. Cancer Nursing, 19(4), 283289.
Salsman, J.M., Pustejovsky, J.E., Jim, H.S.L., et al. (2015). A meta-analytic approach to examining the correlation between religion/spirituality and mental health in cancer. Cancer, 121(21), 37693778. Epub ahead of print Aug 10. Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4618157/.
Sandy, L. & Perkins, R. (2008). The nature of peace and its implications for peace education. In Topics in international law and human rights, pp. 16. Oslo: Faculty of Law, University of Oslo. Available from http://www.uio.no/studier/emner/jus/jus/ENGSEMJ/v08/undervisningsmateriale/IL%20&%20HR/Topic%202%20-%20Reading.pdf.
Selman, L., Speck, P., Gysels, M., et al. (2013). “Peace” and “life worthwhile” as measures of spiritual well-being in African palliative care: A mixed-methods study. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 11, 94. Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3687576/.
Sherwood, P., Given, B.A., Given, C.W., et al. (2005). A cognitive behavioral intervention for symptom management in patients with advanced cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 32(6), 11901198. Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1805479/.
Singer, P.A., Martin, D.K. & Kelner, M. (1999). Quality end-of-life care: Patients' perspectives. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 281(2), 163168.
Spinale, J., Cohen, S.D., Khetpal, P., et al. (2008). Spirituality, social support, and survival in hemodialysis patients. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 3(6), 16201627. Epub ahead of print Oct 15. Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2572290/.
Steinhauser, K.E., Clipp, E.C., McNeilly, M., et al. (2000). In search of a good death: Observations of patients, families, and providers. Annals of Internal Medicine, 132(10), 825832. Available from http://annals.org/aim/article/713475/search-good-death-observations-patients-families-providers.
Steinhauser, K.E., Clipp, E.C., Bosworth, H.B., et al. (2004). Measuring quality of life at the end of life: Validation of the QUAL–E. Palliative & Supportive Care, 2(1), 314.
Steinhauser, K.E., Voils, C.I., Clipp, E.C., et al. (2006). “Are you at peace?”: One item to probe spiritual concerns at the end of life. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(1), 101105. Available from http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/409431.
Steinhauser, K.E., Voils, C.I., Bosworth, H.B., et al. (2014). Validation of a measure of family experience of patients with serious illness: The QUAL–E (Fam). Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 48(6), 11681181. Available from http://www.jpsmjournal.com/article/S0885-3924(14)00254-1/pdf.
Stewart, A.L., Teno, J., Patrick, D.L., et al. (1998). The concept of quality of life of dying persons in the context of health care. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 17(2), 93108.
Stuckey, H.L. & Nobel, J. (2010). The connection between art, healing, and public health: A review of current literature. American Journal of Public Health, 100(2), 254263. Epub ahead of print Dec 17, 2009. Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2804629/.
Tan, S.B., Ng, C.G., Subramaniam, P., et al. (2012). Inner peace in palliative care patients: A qualitative study using grounded theory. BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care, 2(Suppl. 1), A37.
Underwood, L.G. & Teresi, J.A. (2002). The daily spiritual experience scale: Development, theoretical description, reliability, exploratory factor analysis, and preliminary construct validity using health-related data. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 24(1), 2233. Available from http://www.dsescale.org/underwoodteresi.pdf.
Whitford, H.S. & Olver, I.N. (2012). The multidimensionality of spiritual well-being: Peace, meaning, and faith and their association with quality of life and coping in oncology. Psycho-Oncology, 21(6), 602610.
Wilkinson, A., Slatyer, S., McCullough, K., et al. (2014). Exploring the quality of life at the end of life (QUAL–E) instrument with Australian palliative care hospital patients: Hurdles and directions. Journal of Palliative Care, 30(1), 1623.
Wlodarczyk, N. (2007). The effect of music therapy on the spirituality of persons in an in-patient hospice unit as measured by self-report. Journal of Music Therapy, 44(2), 113122. Available from http://diginole.lib.fsu.edu/islandora/object/fsu:169061/datastream/PDF/view.
Zucker, H., Ahn, R., Sinclair, S.J., et al. (2014). Development of a scale to measure individuals' ratings of peace. Conflict and Health, 8, 17. Available from https://conflictandhealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1752-1505-8-17.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Palliative & Supportive Care
  • ISSN: 1478-9515
  • EISSN: 1478-9523
  • URL: /core/journals/palliative-and-supportive-care
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed