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The Temple of Hadrian at Cyzicus and Roman attitudes to exceptional construction

  • Janet DeLaine
Corresponding author
Dr Janet DeLaine, Department of Archaeology, University of Reading, P.O. Box 227, Reading, RG6 6AB,Great Britain,
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1 Orations 27. For an English translation and notes see P. Aelius, Aristides, The Complete Works. Volume II. Orations XVII–LIII (translated by Behr, C.A.) (Leiden, 1981), 98106, 379–82. The relevant passages are reproduced in the Appendix, no. 1.

2 Wroth, W., Catalogue of the Greek Coins of Mysia (London, 1892), 47, no. 218 and pl. 12.14. Only the substructures and isolated fragments of ornament survive today; see A. Schulz and E. Winter, ‘Historisch-archäologische Untersuchungen zum Hadrianstempel von Kyzikos’, in Schwertheim, E. (ed.), Mysische Studien (Asia Minor Studien 1) (Bonn, 1990), 3382.

3 Behr, Aristides, Orations XVII–LIII (above, n. 1), 379 n. 1.

4 Cass. Dio 70.4.1; Anth. Pal. 9.656; Malalas 11.279.8.

5 For the different monuments included at various time in the list of the ‘Seven Wonders’ (originally the ‘Seven Sights’) and the late date of the modern canon, see P. A. Clayton and Price, M. J., The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World (London, 1988), esp. pp. 1–12 and 158–65.

6 Praise: Strab. 17.791; Diod. Sic. 33.28b.2; Pliny, , HN 36.18; Joseph. 5/4.10.5, 5.4.3; as one of the wonders: A Treatise on the Seven Wonders of the World Fashioned by the Hand of Men, attributed to Bede of Jarrow. The fifth-century Anth. Pal. 9.656, however, already coupled it with the standard wonders of the pyramids and the Colossus of Rhodes.

7 For these exceptionally large temples, see Coulton, J.J., Greek Architects at Work. Problems of Structure and Design (London, 1977), 7486 on colossal Greek temples, and Hurwit, J.M., The Art and Culture of Early Greece, 1100–480 BC (Ithaca/London, 1985), 179–86 on the influence of Egypt.

8 Pyramids: Hdt. 2.124–7; Samos: Hdt. 3.60.

9 See Brown, B.R., ‘Novelty, ingenuity, self-aggrandizement, ostentation, extravagance, gigantism and kitsch in the art of Alexander the Great and his successors’, in Barasch, M., Sandier, L. Freeman and Egan, P. (eds), Art the Ape of Nature: Studies in Honour of H.W. Janson (New York, 1981), 113.

10 A point clearly made by Cornell, T.J., The Beginnings of Rome. Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000–264 BC) (London/New York, 1995), 96.

11 Mart, . Spect. 1.26. See Weinreich, O., Studien zu Martial. Literarhistorische und Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen (Stuttgart, 1928), 920, for this and the recurrence of the Seven Wonders in Martial and later Latin epigrams.

12 Cf. Ekschmitt, W., Die Sieben Weltwunder. Ihre Erbauung, Zerstörung und Wiederentdeckung (Mainz, 1984), 9.

13 For a critical edition of Cyriac of Ancona's account of the Temple and his sketches of the remains, see Bodnar, E.W. and Mitchell, C. (eds), Cyriacus of Ancona's Journeys in the Propontis and the Northern Aegean 1444–1445 (Philadelphia, 1976), 2731 and figs 1–6; and on the remains and reconstruction of the original plan see Schulz and Winter, ‘Untersuchungen zum Hadrians-tempel’ (above, n. 2).

14 The height of the columns is reconstructed from their c. 2.1 m lower diameter, assuming the standard proportion of lower diametenheight for Roman Corinthian columns of 1:10, although something less than this is also possible. See Wilson-Jones, M., Principles of Roman Architecture (New Haven/London, 2000), 143–53 and table 1.

15 For the temple and its dimensions, see Schulz, B. and Winnefeld, H., Baalbek: die Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen und Untersuchungen in den Jahren 1898–1905 I (Berlin/Leipzig, 1921), 5064.

16 See Adam, J.-P., ‘À propos du Trilithon de Baalbek’, Syria 54 (1977), 3163, esp. p. 52. Will, E., ‘Du trilithon de Baalbek et d'autres appareils colossaux’, in Mélanges ojferts à K. Michalowski (Warsaw, 1965), 725–9, saw this as a specifically eastern tradition rather than a Roman one, but the giant monolithic columns of Rome suggest that the two are not mutually exclusive.

17 Aristides, , Orations 27.20, cf. Diod. Sic. 2.10.

18 Diod. Sic. 17.95.1 (see Appendix no. 2); cf. Curtius 9.3.19; Plut. Vit. Alex. 62. 4; Arr. Anab. 5. 29.1.

19 Excerpta Valesiana 96: ‘While living he had a tomb built for him from squared stone, a work of wondrous size (mirae magnitudinis opus); and he sought out a mighty stone (saxum ingentem) to put on top’. On the building see R. Heidenreich and H. Johannes, Das Grabmal Theodorichs zu Ravenna (Wiesbaden, 1971), and for the problem of the monolithic cupola Korres, M., ‘Wie kann der Kuppelstein auf den Mauerring? Die einzigartige Bauweise des Grabmals Theodorichs des Grossen zu Ravenna und das Bewegen schwerer Lasten’, Mitteilungen den Deutsches Archaologisches Institut, Romische Abteilung 107 (1994), 219–58, and Santillo, R., ‘Il 'saxum ingentem' a Ravenna a copertura del Mausoleo di Teodorico’, Opuscula Romana 20 (1996), 105–33. Krautheimer, R., Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture (Harmondsworth, 1965), 192, rather missed the point when he explained this as ‘a residue of the Germanic tradition’.

20 Strab. 3.5.6.

21 Trophy of Pompey: Castellvi, G., Nolla, J. M. and Rodá, I., ‘La indentificación de los trofeos de Pompeyo en el Pirineo’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 8 (1995), 518; Trophy of Augustus: Formigé, J., Le Tropheé des Alpes (La Turbie) (Supplement to Gallia 2) (Paris, 1949).

22 R. Féraud, ‘La vida de Sant Honorat, 49.1–16, 45–56’, in Formigé, Trophée (above, n. 21), 83–6.

23 Ammerman, A. and Terrenato, N., ‘Nuove osservazioni sul Colle Capitolino’, Bullettino della Commissione Archeologica Comunale in Roma 91 (1996), 3540.

24 Livy 6.4.12; Pliny, , HN 36.104.

25 Diod. Sic. 4.78.

26 DeLaine, J., The Baths of Caracalla. A Study in the Design, Construction and Economics of Large-scale Building Projects in Imperial Rome (Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplement 25) (Portsmouth (RI), 1997), 192.

27 See Claridge, A., ‘Hadrian's Column of Trajan’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 6 (1993), 522, esp. pp. 9–10.

28 Pliny, , HN 36.24.123.

29 See, for example, Strab. 5.3.8; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3. 67. 5; Pliny, , HN 36.24.101, 36.24.121–5; Frontin, . Aq. 16; Stat, . Silv. 4.3.

30 On Frontinus see DeLaine, J.De aquis suis'? The ‘commentarius' of Frontinus’, in Les littératures technique dans l'antiquité romaine (Entretiens sur l'antiquité classique 42) (Vandoeuvres-Geneva, 1996), 117–45, esp. pp. 123–5. The same has been argued for canal building and drainage schemes: see Leveau, P., ‘Mentalité économique et grands traveaux hydraulique: le drainage du lac Fucin aux origines d'un modèle’, Annales: Économies, Sociétes, Civilisations 48 (1993), 316, and Purcell, N., ‘Rome and the management of water: environment, culture and power’, in Shipley, G. and Salmon, J. (eds), Human Landscapes in Classical Anliquity(London, 1996), 180212, esp. pp. 189–205.

31 Stat, . Silv. 4.3.

32 Kleiner, F.S., ‘The trophy on the bridge and the Roma n triumph over nature’, Antiquité Classique 60 (1991), 182–92.

33 Dio Cass. 68.13.1, and implicit in Pliny, , Ep. 8.4.12. Trajan's Column: scene XCVIII 258, see Lepper, F. and Frere, S., Trajan's Column. A New Edition of the Cichorius Plates (Gloucester, 1988), esp. pp. 42–3 for the numbering system.

34 Quintus Curtius Rufus 5.1.35; cf., from a rather different perspective, Sen, . Dial. 11.1.1, where the Seven Wonders stand for the longest-lived monuments possibly made by man.

35 Lavagne, H., Operosa Antra. Recherches sur la grotte à Rome de Sylla à Hadrien (Bibliotheque des Écoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome 272) (Rome, 1988), 579–88.

36 For tents see Ricotti, E. Salza Prina, ‘Le tende conviviali e la tenda di Tolomeo Filadelfo’, in Curtis, M.I. (ed.), Studia Pompeiana & Classica in Honor of Wilhelmina F. Jashemski II (New Rochelle (NY), 1989), 199239; and, on their possible influence on Roman vaulted architecture, Hemsoll, D., ‘The octagonal dining room of Nero's Golden House’, Architectural History 32 (1989), 117.

37 For the meaning of the Pantheon see: MacDonald, W.L., The Pantheon: Design, Meaning and Progeny (Cambridge (Mass.), 1976), 7692; Godfrey, P. and Hemsoli, D., ‘The Pantheon: temple or rotunda?’, in Henig, M. and King, A. (eds), Pagan Gods and Shrines of the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1986), 195209; Wilson-Jones, Principles of Roman Architecture (above, n. 14), 182–4.

38 Pliny, , HN 36.24.113–15.

39 Pliny, , HN 36.24.116–20.

40 Pliny, , HN 36.21.95–7.

41 The account contains man y echoes of Pliny the Elder's chapters on obelisks (HN 36.14.64–72).

42 D.M. Bailey, ‘Honorific columns, cranes, and the Tuna epitaph’, in Bailey, D.M. (ed.), Archaeological Research in Roman Egypt. Proceedings of the 17th Classical Colloquium of the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities, British Museum (Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplement 19) (Ann Arbor, 1996), 155–68, esp. p. 157.

43 For the obelisk base, see Bruns, G., Der Obelisk und seine Basis auf dem Hippodrom zu Konstantinopel (Istanbuler Forschungen 7) (Istanbul, 1935); and, most recently, Kiilerich, B., The Obelisk Base in Constantinople: Court Art and Imperial Ideology (Acta ad Archaeologia et Artium Historiam Pertinentia, Series altera 8° 11) (Rome, 1998), esp. pp. 26–7 and 6972.

44 CIG 8612. See Appendix no. 3 for a translation.

45 Lancaster, L., ‘Building Trajan's Column’, American Journal of Archaeology 103 (1999), 419–30.

46 Coarelli, F., ‘La riscoperta del sepolcro degli Haterii: una base con dedica a Silvano’, in Studies in Classical Art and Archaeology: a Tribute to P.H. von Blanckenhagen (New York, 1979), 255–69.

47 Rodriguez-Almeida, E., ‘Marziale in marmo’, Mélanges de l'École Française de Rome. Antiquite 106 (1) (1994), 197217, esp. pp. 215–17, dating it to the late first to second centuries AD. Coarelli, F., ‘Gli anfiteatri a Roma prima del Colosseo’, in Regina, A. La (ed.), Sangue e arena (Milan, 2001), 43–7, esp. p. 47, gave a date not later than Augustus and identified the building with Caesar's amphitheatre of 46 BC, but without sufficient argument.

48 Marchis, V., ‘Machina est medium. La tecnica tra uom o e natura nel mond o antico’, in Uglione, R. (ed.), L'uomo antico e la natura. Atti del convegno nazionale di studi, Torino 28–29–30 aprile 1997 (Turin, 1998), 199231, esp. pp. 208–9, and cf. Ruggini, L. Cracco, ‘Progresso tecnico e mandoper a in età imperiale romana’, in Tecnologia economia e società nel mondo romano. Atti del convegno di Como, 27/28/29 settembre 1979 (Como, 1980), 4566, esp. pp. 49–50.

49 CIL X 3821 = ILS 3662. The relief was found among the ruins of the theatre together with fragments of columns an d statues: see Bracco, V., Campania (Itinerari archeologici) (Rome, 1981), 242–3, and for the best illustration, Frederiksen, M., Campania (London, 1984), pl. 9.

50 Daedalus — Diod. Sic. 4.30, 1.97; Telchines — Strab. 14.2.7, and cf. 10.3.7.

51 S.H.A. Ant. Cara. 9.4–5. For an explanation of what might have been involved, see DeLaine, J., ‘The cella soliaris of the Baths of Caracalla: a reappraisal’, Papers of the British School at Rome 62 (1987), 147–56.

52 Tac., Ann. 15.42.

53 As do, for example, MacDonald, W.M., The Architecture of the Roman Empire I: an Introduction (New Haven, 1982), 126; Anderson, J.C. Jr, Roman Architecture and Society (Baltimore/London, 1997), 52–5.

54 See Marchis, ‘Machina est medium’ (above, n. 48). I do not agree with Anderson, Roman Architecture and Society (above, n. 53), 53, that ‘nothing much need be made of the omission of the word architectus… [as] Tacitus probably felt n o need to use the obvious label …’, since Tacitus is well-known for his manipulation of the colour of a passage by his careful choice of words (cf. Löfstedt, E., ‘On the style of Tacitus’, Journal of Roman Studies 38 (1948), 18; Mendell, C.W., Tacitus, the Man and his Work (London/New Haven, 1957), 94; Mellor, R., Tacitus (London, 1993), 113–36).

55 Vitr. De Arch, 2.praef.1–4; Plut. Vit. Alex. 72A, and Mor. De Alex. fort. 335 c–e; Strab. 14.1.23 (with Cheirocrates for Dinocrates); Plut., Vit. Alex. 72.2, with Stasicrates for Dinocrates, but the anecdote about Mount Athos confirms the identification.

56 Rabirius — Mart., Ep. 7.56, and note the implied comparison with Pheidias's Zeus; Apollodorus — Cass. Dio 68.13, 69.4; Procop., Aed. 4.6.1213. On the difficulties associated with trying to reconstruct Apollodorus's life, see Wilson-Jones, Principles of Roman Architecture (above, n. 14), 21–4 with previous bibliography.

57 Amm. Marc. 16.10.15.

58 Procop., Aed. 1.1.27, 39, 50.

59 Procop., Aed. 1.1.6678.

60 Pyramid of Cheops: HN 36.17.78; aqueducts: HN 36.24.122.

61 Purcell, N., ‘Maps, lists, money, order and power’, Journal of Roman Studies 80 (1990), 178–82, esp. p. 180.

62 Hdt. 2.49–64.

63 See Dodds, E.R., The Ancient Concept of Progress (Oxford, 1973), 125 for a good summary.

64 Vitr., De Arch. 2.1.17, and see Appendix no. 4 for translation.

65 For discussion see Vitruvius, , De Architectura (edited by Gros, P.; translation and commentary by Corso, A. and Romano, E.) (Turin, 1997), 171–3.

66 For example, Cic., Off. 1.151. See Burford, A., Craftsmen in Greek and Roman Society (London, 1972), 2930 for a wider discussion.

67 Vitr., De Arch. 2.1.6.

68 Cf. Zanker, P., The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988), 101–56.

69 Verg., Aen. 1.421–38, see Appendix no. 5 for translation.

70 Discussed by J.P. Ada m and P. Varene, ‘Une peinture romaine représantant une scène de chantier’, Revue Archéologique (1980), 213–38, esp. pp. 216–17. For the Esquiline freize, see now Capelli, R., ‘Il fregio dipinto dell'Esquilino e la propaganda augustea del mito delle origini’, in La Regina, A. (ed.), Museo Nazionale Romano. Palazzo Massimo alle terme (Milan, 1998), 51–8.

71 For the frieze, see G. Carettoni, ‘Il fregio figurato della Basilica Emilia’, Rivista dell'Istituto Nazionale di Architettura e di Storia dell'Arte (1961), 5–78, esp. pp. 16–21; Kranzle, P., Die Zeitliche und Ikonographische Stellung des Frieze der Basilika Aemilia (Hamburg, 1991); Arya, D.A., ‘Il ratto delle Sabine e la guerra romano-sabina. Il fregio della Basilica Paulli (Aemilia)’, in Carandini, A. and Cappelli, R. (eds), Roma. Romolo, Remo e la fondazione della città (Milan, 2000), 303–19, esp. pp. 312–14.

72 Cf. Petrone, G., ‘Locus amoenus/locus horridus: due modi di pensare la natura’, in Uglione, R. (ed.), L'uomo antico e la natura. Atti del convegno nazionale di studi, Torino 28–29–30 aprile 1997 (Turin, 1998), 177–95, esp. p. 179.

73 Gros, P., L'architecture romaine du debut du IIIe siècle av. J.-C. à la fin du Haut-Empire. I. Les monuments publics (Paris, 1996), 26–54, esp. pp. 3542.

74 Polyb. 6.31.10.

75 For example, the extended building and clearance scenes X1/29–XX/46, with the first Dacian prisoner brought in at 43, and cf. XXXIX/99–XL/102, LII/129–31, LX/145–LXI/148, LXVIII/173–LXIX/175, CXXVII/344–CXXX/349. See Lepper and Frere, Trajan's Column (above, n. 33).

76 Coulston, J.C.N., ‘The architecture and construction scenes on Trajan's Column’, in Henig, M. (ed.), Architecture and Architectural Sculpture in the Roman Empire (Oxford University Committee for Archaeology Monograph 29) (Oxford, 1990), 39–50, esp. p. 44, although Coulston put this down simply to ‘artistic convention’.

77 Cf. Mazzolani, L. Storoni, The Idea of the City in Roman Thought. From Wall City to Spiritual Commonwealth (translated by O'Donnell, S.) (London, 1970), 175–6.

78 See Aristides, , Orations 26.80–3, for frontier walls that ‘gleam with more brilliance than bronze’ and are ‘worth seeing’ (Behr, above n. 1, 90–1), and cf. on Hadrian's Wall, Bidwell, P., ‘The exterior decoration of Roman buildings in Britain’, in Johnson, P. and Haynes, I. (eds), Architecture in Roman Britain (Council for British Archaeology Research Report 94) (York, 1996), 19–29, esp. p. 22.

79 See Veyne, P., Bread and Circuses. Historical Sociology and Political Pluralism (abridged English translation Pearce, B.) (London, 1990), 13–18, 361–6.

80 For example Cic., Verr. 2.4.108 on the Temple of Ceres; Livy 6.4.12 on the splendours of Rome; Pliny, , HN 36.95 on the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus; Tac., Hist. 3.72 and 4.53 on the Capitoline Temple.

81 Vitr., De Arch. 6.8.9, and cf., for example, Cic., Q Rosc. 24.5, Verr. 2.2.112; Livy 1.54.1, 1.57.1, 42.3.2; Asc. Scaur. 16; Frontin., Aq. 13.2; Tac., Ann. 11.1, Hist. 3.34.

82 Plut., Vit. Per. 12.3–6.

83 Amelung, W., ‘Plutarch, Perikles 12–14’, Historia 34 (1985), 4763; Stadter, P.A., A Commentary on Plutarch's Pericles (Chapel Hill/London, 1989), 144, 153–4.

84 Cf. Brunt, P., ‘Free labour and public works at Rome’, Journal of Roman Studies 70 (1980), 81100, and DeLaine, Baths of Caracalla (above, n. 26), 197–201, for the Severan period.

85 See for example the comments by Joseph., BJ. 7.58–9 on the speed with which the Temple of Peace was completed, and Pliny, Pan. 51 on the speed with which new porticoes and shrines were rising.

86 Novara, : CIL V 6513 and DeLaine, J., ‘Benefactions and urban renewal: bath buildings in Roman Italy’, in DeLaine, J. and Johnson, D. (eds), Roman Baths and Bathing. I. Bathing and Society (Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplement 37) (Portsmouth (RI), 1999), 65–72, esp. pp. 72–3 for a discussion of its significance.

87 These ideas were inspired by an unpublished paper given by Andrew Burnett at the Second Roman Archaeology Conference at Nottingham in April 1997, and see Price, M.J. and Trell, B.L., Coins and their Cities. Architecture on the Ancient Coins of Greece, Rome and Palestine (London, 1977), 53–8 for the history of the practice. Coins of Trajan's Column were minted before completion of the structure: see Claridge, ‘Hadrian's Column of Trajan’ (above, n. 27), 13–15, and Hill, P.V., The Monuments of Ancient Rome as Coin Types (London, 1989), 57–8.

88 Arist. Eth. Nic. 4. 2.

89 Aqueducts: Frontin., Aq. 13.2 (on the Aqua Claudia and Anio Novus), Hal., Dion.Ant. Rom. 3.67.5; Capitolium: Tac., Hist. 3.72, 4.53; Baths of Caracalla: S.H.A., Sev. 21.11.

90 Cic. Mur. 76 (odit populus Romanus privatam luxuriant, publicam magnificentiam diligit), quoted by Quint., Inst. 9.3.82, and cf. Veil. Pat. 1.11.5, 2.1.2. For use in a negative sense see Tac., Hist. 2.5 (‘His magnificentia and wealth and the way in which all else superseded the way of life of a private citizen elevated Mucianus …’); Ann. 3.55 (‘Formerly noble families of wealth or outstanding distinction met their downfall through a passion for magnificentia’); Ann. 14.52 (‘… even in the pleasantness and magnificentia of his gardens he [Seneca] almost surpassed the princeps’); Ann. 15.48 (‘… he [Piso] indulged in levity, magnificentia and at times in luxus’).

91 Pliny, , HN 36.113–20.

92 Pliny, , HN 36.24.114–15, cf. 36.2.5–6.

93 Beagon, M., Roman Nature. The Thought of Pliny the Elder (Oxford, 1992), 41–2, and cf. Marchetti, S. Citroni, ‘luvare mortalem. L'ideale programmatico della Naturalis Historia di Plinio nei rapporti con il moralismo stoico-diatribico’, Atene e Roma 27 (1982), 124–48, esp. p. 125.

94 Pliny, , HN 36.1.12 and 36.24.123–5. Both the quarrying and the engineering projects involve levelling and cutting away or through mountains.

95 See E. Romano, ‘Dal de officiis a Vitruvio, da Vitruvio a Orazio: il dibattito sul lusso edilizio’, in Le Projet de Vitruve. Objet, destinataires et reception du de architectura (Collection de l'École française de Rome 192) (Rome, 1994), 63–73, esp. pp. 63–6.

96 Hor., Carm. 2.18.1722, 3.1.33–7 and cf. Pearcy, T., ‘Horace's architectural imagery’, Latomus 36 (1977), 772–81; Sen. Ep. 90. 7–9; Pliny, , HN 4.10. In general see Fedeli, P., ‘L'uomo e la natura nel mondo romano’, in Uglione, R. (ed.), L'uomo antico e la natura. Atti del convegno nazionale di studi, Torino 28–29–30 Aprile 1997 (Turin, 1998), 105–25, esp. pp. 113–16.

97 For detailed discussions, see Dodds, The Ancient Concept of Progress (above, n. 63), Edelstein, L., The Idea of Progress in Classical Antiquity (Baltimore, 1967), and Blundell, S., The Origins of Civilisation in Greek and Roman Thought (Beckenham, 1986).

98 Vitr., De Arch. 2.1.

99 Lucr. 5.1412–15. See Blundell, The Origins of Civilisation in Greek and Roman Thought(above, n. 97), 176–98.

100 Cic., Nat. D. 2.99.147–52.

101 Sen. Ep. 90 (see Appendix no. 6) and Q Nat 3.27–30; cf. Chrys., DioOr. 6.25 where Prometheus is rightly punished for introducing man to the arts of civilization.

102 On decor in Vitruvius, see L. Callebat, ‘Rhétorique et architecture dans le ‘de architectura”, in Le Projet de Vitruve. Objet, destinataires et réception du de architectura (Collection de l'École française de Rome 192) (Rome, 1994), 3146 and, in relation to design, Wilson-Jones, Principles of Roman Architecture (above, n. 14), 43–4, 83–4, 136–8.

103 Vitruvius: Geertman, H., ‘Teoria e attualita della progettistica architettonica di Vitruvio’, in Le Projet de Vitruve. Objet, destinataires et réception du de architectura (Collection de l'École française de Rome 192) (Rome, 1994), 7–30, esp. pp. 21–6; Gros, P., ‘L'auctoritas chez Vitruve. Contribution a l'étude de la sémantique des ordres dans le de architecture’, in Munus non ingratum: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Vitruvius' De architectura and Hellenistic and Republican Architecture (Bolletin Antike Beschavung Supplement 2) (Leiden, 1989), 126–33. Pliny: Citroni Marchetti, ‘luvare mortalem (above, n. 93), 125–6.

104 Cf. Quint., Inst. 10.2.27, 9.4.44; Cic., De Or. 3.178.

105 Translation after Behr, C.A., Aristides, P. Aelius, The Complete Works. Volume II. Orations XVII–LIII (Leiden, 1981), 98106.

106 Adapted from Diodorus of Sicily, Loeb edition translated by C.H. Oldfather (Cambridge/London, 1946–63).

107 Iversen, E., Obelisks in Exile. II. The Obelisks of Istanbul and England (Copenhagen, 1972), 1213 for the translation used here.

108 Adapted from Vitruvius, Ten Books on Architecture, translated by Rowland, I.D. (Cambridge, 1999), 34–5.

109 Adapted from Virgil, , The Aeneid, translated by Knight, W.F. Jackson (London, second edition, 1958), 40–1.

110 Adapted from Seneca, , Epistles 6692, Loeb edition translated by Gummere, R.M. (Cambridge/London, 1920).

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