Oliver, Jonathan D. Lynn, Geoffrey E. Burkhardt, Nicole Y. Price, Lisa D. Nelson, Curtis M. Kurtti, Timothy J. and Munderloh, Ulrike G. 2016. Infection of ImmatureIxodes scapularis(Acari: Ixodidae) by Membrane Feeding. Journal of Medical Entomology, Vol. 53, Issue. 2, p. 409.
Paul, Richard E. L. Cote, Martine Le Naour, Evelyne and Bonnet, Sarah I. 2016. Environmental factors influencing tick densities over seven years in a French suburban forest. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 9, Issue. 1,
Puraite, Irma Rosef, Olav Radzijevskaja, Jana Lipatova, Indre and Paulauskas, Algimantas 2016. The first detection of species of Babesia Starcovici, 1893 in moose, Alces alces (Linnaeus), in Norway. Folia Parasitologica, Vol. 63,
Bonnet, Sarah Choumet, Valérie Masseglia, Sébastien Cote, Martine Ferquel, Elisabeth Lilin, Thomas Marsot, Maud Chapuis, Jean-Louis and Vourc’h, Gwenaël 2015. Infection of Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus barberi) with Borrelia sp. reveals a low reservoir competence under experimental conditions. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, Vol. 6, Issue. 3, p. 393.
Léger, Elsa Liu, Xiangye Masseglia, Sébastien Noël, Valérie Vourc’h, Gwenaël Bonnet, Sarah and McCoy, Karen D. 2015. Reliability of molecular host-identification methods for ticks: an experimental in vitro study with Ixodes ricinus. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 8, Issue. 1,
Mierzejewska, Ewa J. Pawełczyk, Agnieszka Radkowski, Marek Welc-Falęciak, Renata and Bajer, Anna 2015. Pathogens vectored by the tick, Dermacentor reticulatus, in endemic regions and zones of expansion in Poland. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 8, Issue. 1,
Bajer, Anna Alsarraf, Mohammed Bednarska, Małgorzata Mohallal, Eman ME Mierzejewska, Ewa J Behnke-Borowczyk, Jolanta Zalat, Sammy Gilbert, Francis and Welc-Falęciak, Renata 2014. Babesia behnkei sp. nov., a novel Babesia species infecting isolated populations of Wagner’s gerbil, Dipodillus dasyurus, from the Sinai Mountains, Egypt. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 7, Issue. 1,
Bajer, Anna Mierzejewska, Ewa J. Rodo, Anna and Welc-Falęciak, Renata 2014. The risk of vector-borne infections in sled dogs associated with existing and new endemic areas in Poland. Part 2: Occurrence and control of babesiosis in a sled dog kennel during a 13-year-long period. Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 202, Issue. 3-4, p. 234.
Bajer, Anna Mierzejewska, Ewa J. Rodo, Anna Bednarska, Malgorzata Kowalec, Maciej and Welc-Falęciak, Renata 2014. The risk of vector-borne infections in sled dogs associated with existing and new endemic areas in Poland. Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 202, Issue. 3-4, p. 276.
Bajer, Anna Welc-Falęciak, Renata Bednarska, Małgorzata Alsarraf, Mohammed Behnke-Borowczyk, Jolanta Siński, Edward and Behnke, Jerzy M. 2014. Long-Term Spatiotemporal Stability and Dynamic Changes in the Haemoparasite Community of Bank Voles (Myodes glareolus) in NE Poland. Microbial Ecology, Vol. 68, Issue. 2, p. 196.
Lew-Tabor, Ala E. Bruyeres, Anthea G. Zhang, Bing and Rodriguez Valle, Manuel 2014. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick in vitro feeding methods for functional (dsRNA) and vaccine candidate (antibody) screening. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, Vol. 5, Issue. 5, p. 500.
Liu, Xiang Ye Cote, Martine Paul, Richard E.L. and Bonnet, Sarah I. 2014. Impact of feeding system and infection status of the blood meal on Ixodes ricinus feeding. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, Vol. 5, Issue. 3, p. 323.
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Becker, Claire A.M. Malandrin, Laurence Larcher, Thibaut Chauvin, Alain Bischoff, Emmanuel and Bonnet, Sarah I. 2013. Validation of BdCCp2 as a marker for Babesia divergens sexual stages in ticks. Experimental Parasitology, Vol. 133, Issue. 1, p. 51.
Obsomer, Valerie Wirtgen, Marc Linden, Annick Claerebout, Edwin Heyman, Paul Heylen, Dieter Madder, Maxime Maris, Jo Lebrun, Maude Tack, Wesley Lempereur, Laetitia Hance, Thierry and Van Impe, Georges 2013. Spatial disaggregation of tick occurrence and ecology at a local scale as a preliminary step for spatial surveillance of tick-borne diseases: general framework and health implications in Belgium. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 6, Issue. 1, p. 190.
Overzier, Evelyn Pfister, Kurt Thiel, Claudia Herb, Ingrid Mahling, Monia and Silaghi, Cornelia 2013. Diversity ofBabesiaandRickettsiaSpecies in QuestingIxodes ricinus: A Longitudinal Study in Urban, Pasture, and Natural Habitats. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 13, Issue. 8, p. 559.
Yabsley, Michael J. and Shock, Barbara C. 2013. Natural history of Zoonotic Babesia: Role of wildlife reservoirs. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, Vol. 2, p. 18.
Agoulon, Albert Malandrin, Laurence Lepigeon, Florent Vénisse, Maxime Bonnet, Sarah Becker, Claire A.M. Hoch, Thierry Bastian, Suzanne Plantard, Olivier and Beaudeau, François 2012. A Vegetation Index qualifying pasture edges is related to Ixodes ricinus density and to Babesia divergens seroprevalence in dairy cattle herds. Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 185, Issue. 2-4, p. 101.
Øines, Øivind Radzijevskaja, Jana Paulauskas, Algimantas and Rosef, Olav 2012. Prevalence and diversity of Babesia spp. in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Norway. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 5, Issue. 1, p. 156.
Silaghi, Cornelia Woll, Dietlinde Hamel, Dietmar Pfister, Kurt Mahling, Monia and Pfeffer, Martin 2012. Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing ticks, ticks parasitizing rodents and the parasitized rodents – Analyzing the host-pathogen-vector interface in a metropolitan area. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 5, Issue. 1, p. 191.
Although Babesia divergens is the the principal confirmed zoonotic Babesia sp. in Europe, there are gaps in our knowledge of its biology and transmission by the tick Ixodes ricinus. In order to reproduce the part of the parasite cycle that occurs in the vector, an in vitro animal skin feeding technique on blood containing in vitro cultivated B. divergens was developed. Parasite DNA was detected in all samples of salivary glands of nymphs and adults that had fed on parasitized blood as larvae and nymphs, respectively, indicating acquisition as well as a transtadial persistence of B. divergens. PCR performed on eggs and larvae produced by females that had fed on parasitized blood demonstrated the existence of a transovarial transmission of the parasite. Gorging B. divergens infected larvae on non-infected gerbils showed persistance of the parasite over moulting into the resulting nymphs. These results indicate that the parasitic stages infective for the vector (i.e. the sexual stages) can be produced in vitro. To our knowledge, this is the first report of artificial feeding of I. ricinus via membrane as well as in vitro transmission of B. divergens to its vector. The opportunities offered by the use of such a transmission model of a pathogen by I. ricinus are discussed.
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