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The population biology of the free-living phase of Haemonchus contortus

  • G. Smith (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 April 2009

A deterministic model for the demography of the free-living stages of Haemonchus contortus is described. The model consists of three compartments: the pre-infective stages, comprising the eggs and first- and second-stage larvae combined; third-stage larvae in the faeces; and third-stage larvae on the pasture. The mortality j) of each of these stages was a function of temperature (K, where K = (degrees Celsius + 30)/100) of the form, μj = aj exp [xj K] + bj exp [– βj K]. The minimum time to second moult (γ) and the moulting rate thereafter (σ) were also functions of temperature (In [1/γ] = c1 + c2[1/K], and σ = d1 exp [d2 K] respectively). The rate at which L3 larvae migrated out of the faeces was treated as a constant (0.165/larva/day).

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K. I. Altaif & A. Y. Yakoob (1987). Development and survival of Haemonchus contortus larvae on pasture in Iraq. Tropical Animal Health and Production 19, 8892.

J. F. Berberian & J. D. Mizelle (1957). Developmental studies on Haemonchus contortus, Rudolphi (1803). The American Midland Naturalist 57, 421–39.

B. Boag & R. J. Thomas (1985). The effect of temperature on the survival of infective larvae of nematodes. Journal of Parasitology 71, 383–4.

M. E. Gibson (1981). The effect of constant and changing temperatures on the development rate of the eggs and larvae of Ostertagia ostertagi. Journal of Thermal Biology 6, 389–94.

M. Jehan & V. Gupta (1974). The effects of temperature on the survival and development of the free-living stages of twisted wire worm Haemonchus contortus Rudolphi, 1803 of sheep and other ruminants. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde 43, 197208.

E. D. Okon & U. K. Enyenihi (1977). Development and survival of Haemonchus contortus on pastures in Ibadan. Tropical Animal Health and Production 9, 710.

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  • ISSN: 0031-1820
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