Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Liberal Internationalism 3.0: America and the Dilemmas of Liberal World Order

  • G. John Ikenberry (a1)
Abstract

Liberal international order—both its ideas and real-world political formations—is not embodied in a fixed set of principles or practices. Open markets, international institutions, cooperative security, democratic community, progressive change, collective problem solving, the rule of law—these are aspects of the liberal vision that have made appearances in various combinations and changing ways over the last century. I argue that it is possible to identify three versions or models of liberal international order—versions 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0. The first is associated with the ideas of Woodrow Wilson, the second is the Cold War liberal internationalism of the post-1945 decades, and the third version is a sort of post-hegemonic liberal internationalism that has only partially appeared and whose full shape and logic is still uncertain. I develop a set of dimensions that allow for identifying different logics of liberal international order and identify variables that will shape the movement from liberal internationalism 2.0 to 3.0.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Aaltola, Mika. 2005. The international airport: The hub-and-spoke pedagogy of the American empire. Global Network 5 (3): 261–78.
Adler, Emanuel, and Barnett, Michael, eds. 1998. Security Communities. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ambrosius, Lloyd E. 2002. Wilsonianism: Woodrow Wilson and His Legacy in American Foreign Relations. New York: Palgrave.
Bernstein, Steven, and Pauly, Louis W., eds. 2007. Global Liberalism and Political Order: Toward a New Grand Compromise. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Borgwardt, Elizabeth. 2005. A New Deal for the World: America's Vision for Human Rights. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Cirincione, Joseph, Wolfshal, Jon B., and Rajkmar, Miriam. 2005. Deadly Arsenals: Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Threats. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Claude, Inis L. 1962. Power and International Relations. New York: Random House.
Claude, Inis L. 1966. Collective legitimation as a political function of the United Nations. International Organization 20 (3): 367–79.
Daalder, Ivo, and Lindsay, James. 2003. America Unbound: The Bush Revolution in Foreign Policy. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution Press.
Daalder, Ivo, and Lindsay, James. 2007. Democracies of the world, unite: The debate continues. The American Interest 2 (4): 137–39.
Dallek, Robert. 1979. Franklin Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 1932–1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Deudney, Daniel, and Ikenberry, G. John. 1999. The nature and sources of liberal international order. Review of International Studies 25: 179–96.
Deutsch, Karl, Burrell, Sidney A., and Kann, Robert A.. 1957. Political Community and the North Atlantic Area. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Divine, Robert A. 1971. Second Chance: The Triumph of Internationalism in America during World War II. New York: Atheneum.
Doyle, Michael. 1983. Kant, liberal legacies, and foreign affairs. Philosophy and Public Affairs 12: 205–35, 323–53.
Doyle, Michael. 1997. Ways of War and Peace. New York: Norton.
Drezner, Daniel. 2007. The new New World Order. Foreign Affairs 86 (2): 93106.
Evans, Gareth. 2008. The Responsibility to Protect: Ending Mass Atrocity Crimes Once and for All. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institutions.
Evans, Gareth, and Shanoun, Mohamed, eds. 2001. The Responsibility to Protect: A Report on the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.
Fearon, James, and Laitin, David D.. 2004. Neotrusteeship and the problem of weak states. International Security 28 (4): 543.
Ferguson, Niall. 2004. Colossus: The Rise and Fall of the American Empire. New York: Penguin Books.
Gilpin, Robert. 1981. War and Change in World Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Goldstein, Judith, Kahler, Miles, Keohane, Robert O., and Slaughter, Anne-Marie, eds. 2001. Legalization and World Politics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Grant, Ruth, and Keohane, Robert O.. 2005. Accountability and abuses of power in world politics. American Political Science Review 99 (1): 115.
Haas, Ernst. 1964. Beyond the Nation-State: Functionalism and International Organization. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Haass, Richard. 2003. “The Changing Nature of Sovereignty.” United States Department of State, remarks given at Georgetown University, January 14.
Hobson, John M., and Sharman, J.C.. 2005. The enduring place of hierarchy in world politics: Tracing the social logic of hierarchy and political change. European Journal of International Relations 11 (1): 6398.
Hoffmann, Stanley. 1998. World Disorders: Troubled Peace in the Post-Cold War Era. New York: Rowman and Littlefield.
Hurrell, Andrew. 2007. On Global Order: Power, Values, and the Constitution of International Society. London: Oxford University Press.
Ikenberry, G. John. 1993. Creating yesterday's new world order. In Ideas and American Foreign Policy: Beliefs, Institutions, and Political Change, ed. Goldstein, Judith and Keohane, Robert. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Ikenberry, G. John. 2001. After Victory: Institutions, Strategic Restraint, and the Rebuilding of Order after Major War. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Ikenberry, G. John. 2006. America's security trap. Democracy: A Journal of Ideas 2: 8019.
Ikenberry, G. John. 2008. The rise of China and the future of the west. Foreign Affairs 87 (1): 2337.
Ikenberry, G. John. Forthcoming. The Restructuring of the International System after the Cold War. In Cambridge History of the Cold War, ed. Leffler, Melvyn, and Westad, Odd Arne. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ikenberry, G. John, Mastanduno, Michael, and Wohlforth, William. 2009. Unipolarity and International Relations Theory. World Politics Special Issue 61 (1).
Ikenberry, G. John, and Slaughter, Anne-Marie. 2006. Forging a World of Liberty Under Law, Final Report of the Princeton Project on National Security. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University.
Ikenberry, G. John, and Wright, Thomas. 2007. “Rising Powers and Global Institutions.” Century Foundation Working Paper. New York: Century Foundation.
Jervis, Robert. 2002. Theories of war in an era of leading-power peace. American Political Science Review 96 (1): 114.
Kagan, Robert. 2002. “Multilateralism American Style.” Washington Post, September 13.
Keohane, Robert. 1984. After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Keohane, Robert. 1990. International liberalism reconsidered. In Economic Limits to Modern Politics, ed. Dunn, John. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Keohane, Robert. 2002. The globalization of informal violence, Theories of world politics, and the liberalism of fear. In Understanding September 11, ed. Calhoun, Craig, Price, Paul, and Timmer, Ashley. New York: New Press.
Keohane, Robert. 2003. Political authority after intervention: Gradations in sovereignty. In Humanitarian Intervention: Ethical, Legal, and Political Dilemmas, ed. Holzgrefe, J. L. and Keohane. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Keohane, Robert, and Nye, Joseph. 1977. Power and Interdependence. Boston: Little, Brown.
Keohane, Robert, and Nye, Joseph. 2003. Redefining accountability for global governance. In Governance in a Global Economy: Political Authority in Transition, ed. Kahler, Miles and Lake, David. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Kessler, J. Christian. 1995. Verifying Nonproliferation Treaties: Obligations, Process, and Sovereignty. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press.
Keynes, John Maynard. 1920. The Economic Consequences of the Peace. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Khanna, Parag. 2008. The Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order. New York: Random House.
Kimball, Warren F. 1994. The Juggler: Franklin Delano Roosevelt as Wartime Statesman. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Knock, Thomas. 1992. To End All Wars: Woodrow Wilson and the Quest for a New World Order. New York: Oxford University Press.
Krasner, Stephen, ed. 1981 International Regimes. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Krasner, Stephen 1999. Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Krasner, Stephen 2005. Sharing sovereignty: New institutions for collapsed and failing states. International Security 29 (2): 85120.
Lake, David A. 2003. The new sovereignty in international relations. International Studies Review 5: 303–23.
Legro, Jeff. 2007. Rethinking the World: Great Power Strategies and International Order. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Leonard, Mark. 2008. What Does China Think? New York: Public Affairs Press.
Lloyd, P.J. 2001. The architecture of the WTO. European Journal of Political Economy 17: 327–53.
May, Ernest, ed. 1993. American Cold War Strategy: Interpreting NSC-68. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Moravcsik, Andrew. 1997. Taking preferences seriously: A liberal theory of international relations. International Organization 51 (4): 513–53.
Moravcsik, Andrew. 2000. The origins of human rights regimes: Democratic delegation in postwar Europe. International Organization 54 (1): 217–52.
Morse, Edward. 1976. Modernization and the Transformation of International Relations. New York: Free Press.
Murphy, Craig. 1994. International Organization and Industrial Change: Global Governance since 1850. New York: Oxford University Press.
Nincic, Miroslav. 2007. Renegade Regimes: Confronting Deviant Behavior in World Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.
Ninkovich, Frank. 1999. The Wilsonian Century: U.S. Foreign Policy since 1900. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Organski, A.F.K. 1958. World Politics. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Press-Barnathan, Galia. 2003. Organizing the World: The United States and Regional Cooperation in Asia and Europe. New York: Routledge.
Rosenau, James, ed. 1969. Linkage Politics: Essays on the Convergence of National and International Systems. New York: Free Press.
Rosenau, James. 1991. Turbulence in World Politics: A Theory of Change and Continuity. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Ruggie, John. 2004. American exceptionalism, exemptionalism, and global governance. In American Exceptionalism and Human Rights, ed. Ignatieff, Michael. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Russett, Bruce, and Oneal, John. 2001. Triangulating Peace: Democracy, Interdependence and International Organization. New York: Norton.
Shapiro, Ian. 2008. Containment: Rebuilding a Strategy against Global Terror. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Slaughter, Anne-Marie. 2001. Governing the global economy through government networks. In The Role of Law in International Politics, ed. Byers, Michael. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Slaughter, Anne-Marie. 2004. A New World Order. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Viner, Jacob. 1942. Objectives of post-war international economic reconstruction. In American Economic Objectives, ed. McKee, William and Wiesen, Louis J.. New Wilmington, PA: Economic and Business Foundation.
Zakaria, Fareed. 2008. The Post-American World. New York: Norton.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Perspectives on Politics
  • ISSN: 1537-5927
  • EISSN: 1541-0986
  • URL: /core/journals/perspectives-on-politics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed