Abramowitz, Alan I. 1989. “Viability, Electability, and Candidate Choice in a Presidential Primary Election: A Test of Competing Models.” Journal of Politics 51(4): 977–92.10.2307/2131544
Adkins, Randall E. and Dowdle, Andrew J.. 2005. “Do Early Birds Get the Worm? Improving Timeliness of Presidential Nomination Forecasts.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 35(4): 646–60.10.1111/j.1741-5705.2005.00270.x
Aldrich, John. 2009. “The Invisible Primary and Its Effects on Democratic Change.” PS: Political Science and Politics 42(1): 33–39.
Anderson, C. W. 2012. “Between Creative and Quantified Audiences: Web Metrics and Changing Patterns of Newswork in Local US Newsrooms.” Journalism 12(5): 550–66.10.1177/1464884911402451
Ansolabehere, Stephen, Behr, Roy, and Iyengar, Shanto. 1991. “Mass Media and Elections: An Overview.” American Politics Quarterly 19(1): 109–39.10.1177/1532673X9101900107
Arterton, F. Christopher. 1984. Media Politics: The News Strategies of Presidential Campaigns. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
Baker, Edwin C. 2002. Media, Markets, and Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bartels, Larry M. 1988. Presidential Primaries and the Dynamics of Public Choice. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Belt, Todd L., Just, Marion R., and Crigler, Ann N.. 2012. “The 2008 Media Primary: Handicapping the Candidates in Newspapers, on TV, Cable, and the Internet.” International Journal of Press/Politics 17(3): 341–69.10.1177/1940161212444124
Bennett, W. Lance. 2016. News: The Politics of Illusion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.10.7208/chicago/9780226345055.001.0001
Benoit, William L., Stein, Kevin A., and Hansen, Glenn J.. 2005. “New York Times Coverage of Presidential Campaigns.” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 82(2): 356–76.
Borchers, Callum. 2016. “Yes, Donald Trump Has Been Good for the Media Business.” Washington Post, October 25.
Brandt, Patrick T. and Freeman, John R.. 2006. “Advances in Bayesian Time Series Modeling and the Study of Politics: Theory Testing, Forecasting, and Policy Analysis.” Political Analysis 14(1): 1–36.10.1093/pan/mpi035
Broh, C. Anthony. 1980. “Horse-Race Journalism: Reporting the Polls in the 1976 Presidential Election.” Public Opinion Quarterly 44(4): 514–29.
Chong, Dennis and Druckman, James N.. 2007. “Framing Theory” Annual Review of Political Science 10: 103–26.10.1146/annurev.polisci.10.072805.103054
Cohen, Marty, Karol, David, Noel, Hans, and Zaller, John. 2008. The Party Decides. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.10.7208/chicago/9780226112381.001.0001
Confessore, Nicholas and Yourish, Karen. 2016. “$2 Billion Worth of Free Media for Donald Trump.” New York Times, March 15.
Dowdle, Andrew J., Adkins, Randall E., and Steger, Wayne P.. 2009. “The Viability Primary: Modeling Candidate Support before the Primaries.” Political Research Quarterly 62(1): 77–91.10.1177/1065912908317032
Druckman, James N. and Lupia, Arthur. 2000. “Preference Formation.” Annual Review of Political Science 3: 1–24.10.1146/annurev.polisci.3.1.1
Farnsworth, Stephen J. and Lichter, Robert S.. 2010. The Nightly News Nightmare: Media Coverage of US Presidential Elections, 1988–2008. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Francia, Peter L. 2017. “Free Media and Twitter in the 2016 Presidential Election: The Unconventional Campaign of Donald Trump.” Social Science Computer Review 36(4): 440–55.10.1177/0894439317730302
Graber, Doris A. and Smith, James M.. 2005. “Political Communication Faces the 21st Century.” Journal of Communication 55(3): 479–507.10.1111/j.1460-2466.2005.tb02682.x
Hackett, Robert A. 1984. “Decline of a Paradigm? Bias and Objectivity in News Media Studies.” Critical Studies in Media Communication 1(3): 229–59.
Hadley, Arthur T. 1976. The Invisible Primary. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Hamilton, James. 2004. All the News That’s Fit to Sell: How the Market Transforms Information into News. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.10.1515/9781400841417
Han, Lori Cox. 2011. “Off to the (Horse) Races: Media Coverage of the “Not-So-Invisble” Invisible Primary of 2007.” In From Votes to Victory: Winning and Governing the White House in the Twenty-First Century, ed. Bose, Meena. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.
Haynes, Audrey. 2008. “Media and Presidential Nomination Campaigns: When Bad News Becomes Good News (or at Least a Little Better).” American Review of Politics 28: 343–59.10.15763/issn.2374-7781.2008.28.0.343-359
Irwin, Galen A. 2002. “According to the Polls: The Influence of Opinion Polls on Expectations.” Public Opinion Quarterly 66(1): 92–104.10.1086/338632
Iyengar, Shanto, Norpoth, Helmut, and Hahn, Kyu S.. 2004. “Consumer Demand for Election News: The Horserace Sells.” Journal of Politics 66(1): 157–75.10.1046/j.1468-2508.2004.00146.x
Kennedy, Courtney, Blumenthal, Mark, Clement, Scott, Clinton, Joshua D., Durand, Claire, Franklin, Charles, McGeeney, Kyley, Miringoff, Lee, Olson, Kristen, Rivers, Douglas, Saad, Lydia, Evans Witt, G., and Wlezien, Christopher. 2018. “An Evalution of the 2016 Election Polls in the United States.” Public Opinion Quarterly 82(1): 1–33.10.1093/poq/nfx047
Lazarsfeld, P. F. and Merton, R. K.. 1948. “Mass Communication, Popular Taste and Organized Social Action.” Media Studies: A Reader. 2nd ed. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill Co.
Lee, Angela M., Lewis, Seth C., and Powers, Matthew. 2014. “Audience Clicks and News Placement: A Study of Time-Lagged Influence in Online Journalism.” Communication Research 41(4): 505–30.10.1177/0093650212467031
Leeper, Thomas J. and Slothuus, Rune. 2014. “Political Parties, Motivated Reasoning, and Public Opinion Formation.” Political Psychology 35(1): 129–156.10.1111/pops.12164
McCombs, Maxwell. 2013. Setting the Agenda: The Mass Media and Public Opinion. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
McManus, John H. 1994. Market-Driven Journalism: Let the Citizen Beware? Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Muñoz-Torres, Juan Ramón. 2012. “Truth and Objectivity in Journalism: Anatomy of an Endless Misunderstanding.” Journalism Studies 13(4): 566–82.10.1080/1461670X.2012.662401
Norrander, Barbara. 2006. “The Attrition Game: Initial Resources, Initial Contests and the Exit of Candidates during the US Presidential Primary Season.” British Journal of Political Science 36(3): 487–507.10.1017/S0007123406000251
Patterson, Thomas E. 1980. The Mass Media Election: How Americans Choose Their President. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Patterson, Thomas E. 2005. “Of Polls, Mountains: US Journalists and Their Use of Election Surveys.” Public Opinion Quarterly 69(5): 716–24.
Patterson, Thomas E. 2013. Informing the News: The Need for Knowledge-Based Journalism. New York: Vintage Books.
Patterson, Thomas E. 2016. “Pre-Primary News Coverage of the 2016 Presidential Race: Trump’s Rise, Sanders’ Emergence, and Clinton’s Struggle.” Harvard Kennedy School, Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics and Public Policy. June 13.
Ripberger, Joseph T. 2011. “Capturing Curiosity: Using Internet Search Trends to Measure Public Attentiveness.” Policy Studies Journal 39(2): 239–59.10.1111/j.1541-0072.2011.00406.x
Robinson, Michael J. and Sheehan, Margaret A.. 1983. Over the Wire and on TV: CBS and UPI in Campaign’80. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Rothschild, David and Malhotra, Neil. 2014. “Are public Opinion Polls Self-Fulfilling Prophecies?” Research & Politics 1(2): 1–10.10.1177/2053168014547667
Shoemaker, Pamela J. and Vos, Tim P.. 2009. Gatekeeping Theory. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.10.4324/9780203931653
Sides, John and Vavreck, Lynn. 2013. The Gamble: Choice and Chance in the 2012 Presidential Election. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Sims, Christopher A. and Tao, Zha. 1999. “Error Bands for Impulse Responses.” Econometrica 67(5): 1113–56.10.1111/1468-0262.00071
Skewes, Elizabeth A. and Lee Plaisance., Patrick 2005. “Who’s News? A New Model for Media Coverage of Campaigns.” Journal of Mass Media Ethics 20(2-3): 139–58.10.1207/s15327728jmme2002&3_4
Soroka, Stuart N. 2003. “Media, Public Opinion, and Foreign Policy.” Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 8(1): 27–48.10.1177/1081180X02238783
Steger, Wayne. 2000. “Do Primary Voters Draw from a Stacked Deck? Presidential Nominations in an Era of Candidate-Centered Campaigns.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 30(4): 727–53.
Steger, Wayne. 2013. “Polls and Elections: Two Paradigms of Presidential Nominations.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 43(2): 377–87.10.1111/psq.12028
Tan, Yue and Weaver, David H.. 2007. “Agenda-Setting Effects among the Media, the Public, and Congress, 1946–2004.” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 84(4): 729–44.10.1177/107769900708400405
Tandoc, Edson C. Jr. 2014. “Journalism Is Twerking? How Web Analytics Is Changing the Process of Gatekeeping.” New Media & Society 16(4): 559–75.10.1177/1461444814530541
Van Aelst, Peter and Walgrave, Stefaan. 2011. “Minimal or Massive? The Political Agenda–setting Power of the Mass Media According to Different Methods.” International Journal of Press/Politics 16(3): 295–313.10.1177/1940161211406727
Welbers, Kasper, Van Atteveldt, Wouter, Kleinnijenhuis, Jan, Ruigrok, Nel, and Schaper, Joep. 2016. “News Selection Criteria in the Digital Age: Professional Norms Versus Online Audience Metrics.” Journalism 17(8): 1037–53.10.1177/1464884915595474
Zaller, John. 1992. The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion. New York: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511818691
Zhu, Jonathan J. H., Wang, Xiaohua, Qin, Jie, and Wu, Lingfei. 2012. “Assessing Public Opinion Trends based on User Search Queries: Validity, Reliability, and Practicality.” Presented at the Annual Conference of the World Association for Public Opinion Research, Hong Kong, June 14–16.