Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Democracy for All: Conceptualizing and Measuring Egalitarian Democracy

  • Rachel Sigman and Staffan I. Lindberg
Abstract

Although equality figures prominently in many foundational theories of democracy, liberal and electoral conceptions of democracy have dominated empirical political science research on topics like political regimes, democratization and democratic survival. This paper develops the concept of egalitarian democracy as a regime that provides de facto protection of rights and freedoms equally across the population, distributes resources in a way that enables meaningful political participation for all citizens and fosters an environment in which all individuals and social groups can influence political and governing processes. Using new indicators from the Varieties of Democracy project, the paper develops and presents measures of these important concepts, demonstrates their relationship to existing measures, and illustrates their utility for advancing the study of democracy in ways that more fully embrace the richness of democratic theory.

Copyright
Footnotes
Hide All
*

Rachel Sigman is an Assistant Professor in the Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943 (rlsigman@nps.edu). Staffan I. Lindberg is the Professor of Political Science and Director of the V-Dem Institute, Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Box 711, SE405 30 Gothenburg (xlista@gu.se). The authors thank Jan Teorell for guidance and Yiting Wang for technical assistance. Helpful comments were provided by Amy Alexander and other participants in the May 2016 V-Dem Conference, and two anonymous reviewers. The authors also thank V-Dem team members for their earlier work on both the conceptualization and construction of the egalitarian indices. The authors are solely responsible for any mistakes. This research project was supported by Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, Grant M13-0559:1, PI: Staffan I. Lindberg, V-Dem Institute, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; by Swedish Research Council, PI: Staffan I. Lindberg, V-Dem Institute, University of Gothenburg, Sweden and Jan Teorell, Department of Political Science, Lund University, Sweden; and by Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation to Wallenberg Academy Fellow Staffan I. Lindberg, V-Dem Institute, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; as well as by internal grants from the Vice-Chancellor’s office, the Dean of the College of Social Sciences, and the Department of Political Science at University of Gothenburg. To view supplementary material for this article, please visit https://doi.org/10.1017/psrm.2018.6

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Acemoglu, Daron, and Robinson, James A.. 2006. Economic Origins of Democracy and Dictatorship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Adcock, Robert, and Collier, David. 2001. ‘Measurement validity: A shared standard for qualitative and quantitative research’. The American Political Science Review 95(3):529546.
Ake, Claude. 2000. The Feasibility of Democracy in Africa. Dakar: African Books Collective.
Anderson, Christopher, and Barimendi, Pablo. 2008. ‘Income Inequality and Democratic Representation’. In David Anderson and Pablo Barimendi (eds), Democracy, Inequality, and Representation in Comparative Perspective, Chapter 1, 3–24.
Ansell, Ben, and Samuels, David. 2015. Inequality and Democratic Survival. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Beetham, David. 1999. Democracy and Human Rights. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Berman, Sheri. 2006. The Primacy of Politics: Social Democracy and the Making of Europe’s Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bernstein, Eduard. 1961. Evolutionary Socialism. New York, NY: Schocken Books.
Boix, Carles. 2003. Democracy and Redistribution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bollen, Kenneth A, and Jackman, Robert W.. 1989. ‘Democracy, Stability, and Dichotomies’. American Sociological Review 54(4):612621.
Brennan, Jason. 2016. Against Democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Cohen, Elizabeth F. 2009. Semi-Citizenship in Democratic Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Collier, David, and Adcock, Robert. 1999. ‘Democracy and Dichotomies: A Pragmatic Approach to Choices About Concepts’. Annual Review of Political Science 2:537565.
Collier, David, and Levitsky, Steven. 1997. ‘Democracy with Adjectives: Conceptual Innovation in Comparative Research’. World Politics 49(3):430451.
Coppedge, Michael, Gerring, John, Lindberg, Staffan I., Pemstein, Daniel, Skaaning, Svend-Erik, Teorell, Jan, Andersson, Frida, Marquardt, Kyle L., Mechkova, Valeriya, Miri, Farhad, Pemstein, Daniel, Stepanova, Natalia, Tzelgov, Eitan, and Wang, Yi ting. 2016a. ‘Varieties of Democracy: Methodology (Version 6)’. V-Dem Institute, Gothenburg. Available at https://www.v-dem.net/files/42/Methodology%20v6.pdf, accessed 30 November 2016.
Coppedge, Michael, Gerring, John, Lindberg, Staffan I., Skaaning, Svend-Erik, Teorell, Jan, Altman, David, Andersson, Frida, Bernhard, Michael, Fish, M. Steven, Glynn, Adam, Hicken, Allen, Knutsen, Carl Henrik, Marquardt, Kyle L., McMann, Kelly, Mechkova, Valeriya, Miri, Farhad, Paxton, Pamela, Pernes, Josefine, Pemstein, Daniel, Staton, Jeffrey, Stepanova, Natalia, Tzelgov, Eitan, Wang, Yi ting, and Zimmerman, Brigitte. 2016b. ‘V-dem [Country-Year/Country-Date] Dataset v6’. Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) Project, Gothenburg. Available at https://www.v-dem.net/en/data/data-version-6-2/, accessed 30 November 2016.
Coppedge, Michael, Gerring, John, Lindberg, Staffan I., Skaaning, Svend-Erik, Teorell, Jan, Altman, David, Bernhard, Michael, Fish, M. Steven, Glynn, Adam, Hicken, Allen, Knutsen, Carl Henrik, McMann, Kelly, Paxton, Pamela, Pemstein, Daniel, Staton, Jeffrey, Sigman, Rachel, Zimmerman, Brigitte, Andersson, Frida, and Valeriya Mechkova, A. Farhad Miri. 2016c. ‘V-dem Codebook v6’. Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) Project, Gothenburg. Available at https://www.v-dem.net/media/filer_public/d1/24/d124efd5-7ff5-4175-a1ed-f294984084d0/v-dem_codebook_v6.pdf, accessed 30 November 2016.
Coppedge, Michael, Lindberg, Staffan, Skaaning, Svend-Erik, and Teorell, Jan. 2016d. ‘Measuring High Level Democratic Principles Using the v-Dem Data’. International Political Science Review 37(5):580593.
Dahl, Robert. 1971. Polyarchy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Dahl, Robert Alan. 1989. Democracy and its Critics. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Dahl, Robert A. 1996. ‘Equality versus inequality’. PS: Political Science & Politics 29(4):639648.
Dahl, Robert Alan. 2006. On Political Equality. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Dewey, John. 2004 [1916]. Democracy and Education. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications.
Dworkin, Ronald. 1987. ‘What is Equality-Part 4: Political Equality’. University of San Francisco Law Review 22:130.
Foa, Roberto Stefan, and Mounk, Yascha. 2016. ‘The Danger of Democratic Deconsolidation: The Democratic Disconnect’. Journal of Democracy 27:517.
Gerring, John. 2011. Social Science Methodology: A Unified Framework. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lijphart, Arend. 1999. Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Democracies. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Lindberg, Staffan I., Coppedge, Michael, Gerring, John, and Teorell, Jan. 2014. ‘V-Dem: A New Way to Measure Democracy’. Journal of Democracy 25(3):159169.
Lindstadt, Rene, Proksch, Sven-Oliver, and Slapin, Jonathan B. 2015. ‘Assessing the Measurement of Policy Positions in Expert Surveys’. Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco, September 3–6, 2015.
Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1959. ‘Some Social Requisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy’. American Political Science Review 53(1):69105.
Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1981. Political Man (Expanded Edition). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins UniversityPress.
Locke, John. 2016 [1689]. Second Treatise of Government and A Letter Concerning Toleration. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mansbridge, Jane J. 1983. Beyond Adversary Democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Marshall, Monty G, and Jaggers, Keith. 2015. ‘Polity IV Project: Political Regime Characteristics and Transitions, 1800–2015, Center for Systemic Peace. Available at http://www.systemicpeace.org/inscr/p4manualv2016.pdf, accessed 30 November 2016.
Martin, Andrew D, Quinn, Kevin M., and Park, Jong Hee. 2016. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Package Version 1.3–7. Available at https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/MCMCpack/MCMCpack.pdf, accessed 30 November 2016.
Martinez i Coma, Ferran, and Ham, Carolien Van. 2015. ‘Can experts judge elections? Testing the Validity of Expert Judgments for Measuring Election Integrity’. European Journal of Political Research 54(2):305325.
McMann, Kelly M., Pemstein, Daniel, Seim, Brigitte, Teorell, Jan, and Lindberg, Staffan I.. 2016. ‘Strategies of Validation: Assessing the Varieties of Democracy Corruption Data’. V-Dem Working Paper 23, Gothenburg. Available at https://gupea.ub.gu.se/bitstream/2077/41776/4/gupea_2077_41776_4.pdf.
Miller, David, and Walzer, Michael. 1995. Pluralism, Justice, and Equality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Munck, Gerardo L., and Verkuilen, Jay. 2002. ‘Conceptualizing and Measuring Democracy Evaluating Alternative Indices’. Comparative Political Studies 35(1):534.
O’Donell, Guillermo A. 1994. ‘Delegative democracy’. Journal of Democracy 5(1):5569.
Pateman, Carole. 1988. The Sexual Contract. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Pemstein, Daniel, Marquardt, Kyle L., Tzelgov, Eitan, Wang, Yi ting, and Miri, Farhad. 2016. ‘The v-Dem Measurement Model: Latent Variable Analysis for Cross-National and Cross-Temporal Expert-Coded Data’. V-Dem Institute Working Paper Series, Gothenburg. Available at https://gupea.ub.gu.se/bitstream/2077/41776/4/gupea_2077_41776_4.pdf, accessed 30 November 2016.
Pitkin, Hanna Fenichel. 2004. ‘Representation and Democracy: Uneasy Alliance’. Scandinavian Political Studies 27(3):335342.
Rawls, John. 2005. Political Liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. 1920. The Social Contract: & Discourses. Number 660. London: JM Dent & Sons Limited.
Saward, Michael. 1998. The Terms of Democracy. New York: Polity Press.
Scott, James C. 1977. The Moral Economy of the Peasant: Rebellion and Subsistence in Southeast Asia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Seawright, Jason, and Collier, David. 2014. ‘Rival Strategies of Validation Tools for Evaluating Measures of Democracy’. Comparative Political Studies 47(1):111138.
Sen, Amartya. 2001. Development as Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sinclair, Thomas Alan. 1962. Aristotle the Politics. New York: Penguin Books.
Steenbergen, Marco R, and Marks, Gary. 2007. ‘Evaluating Expert Judgments’. European Journal of Political Research 46(3):347366.
Stokes, Susan C, Dunning, Thad, Nazareno, Marcelo, and Brusco, Valeria. 2013. Brokers, Voters, and Clientelism: The Puzzle of Distributive Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Teorell, Jan, Coppedge, Michael, Skaaning, Svend-Erik, and Lindberg, Staffan I.. 2016. ‘Measuring Electoral Democracy with V-Dem Data: Introducing a New Polyarchy Index’. V-Dem Working Paper 25, Gothenburg. Available at https://gupea.ub.gu.se/bitstream/2077/41776/4/gupea_2077_41776_4.pdf, accessed 30 November 2016.
Uslaner, Eric M., and Brown, Mitchell. 2005. ‘Inequality, Trust, and Civic Engagement’. American Politics Research 33(6):868894.
Varieties of Democracy Institute. 2016. Structure of V-Dem Indices, Components and Indicators, Version 6. Available at https://www.v-dem.net/files/42/Structure%20of%20Aggregations%20v6.pdf, accessed 30 November 2016.
Walzer, Michael. 1983. Spheres of Justice. New York: Basic Books.
Zakaria, Fareed. 1997. ‘The Rise of Illiberal Democracy’. Foreign Affairs 76(6):2243.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Political Science Research and Methods
  • ISSN: 2049-8470
  • EISSN: 2049-8489
  • URL: /core/journals/political-science-research-and-methods
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Sigman and Lindberg supplementary material
Dataset

 Unknown
PDF
Supplementary materials

Sigman and Lindberg supplementary material
Sigman and Lindberg supplementary material 1

 PDF (211 KB)
211 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 4
Total number of PDF views: 61 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 407 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 18th April 2018 - 21st May 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.