Arjona, AM and Kalyvas, S (2011) Recruitment into armed groups in Colombia: a survey of demobilized fighters. In Guichaoua, Y (ed). Understanding Collective Political Violence (Conflict, Inequality and Ethnicity). London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Balcells, L and Justino, P (2014) Bridging micro and macro approaches on civil wars and political violence: issues, challenges, and the way forward. Journal of Conflict Resolution 58, 1343–1359.
Berman, E, Callen, M, Felter, JH and Shapiro, JN (2011) Do working men rebel? Insurgency and unemployment in Afghanistan, Iraq, and the Philippines. Journal of Conflict Resolution 55, 496–528.
Blattman, C (2009) From violence to voting: war and political participation in Uganda. American Political Science Review 103, 231–247.
Blattman, C and Miguel, E (2010) Civil war. Journal of Economic Literature 48, 3–57.
Bueno De Mesquita, E (2005) The quality of terror. American Journal of Political Science 49, 515–530.
Campante, F and Chor, D (2014) The people want the fall of the regime: schooling, political protest, and the economy. Journal of Comparative Economics 42, 495–517.
Cederman, L-E, Gleditsch, KS and Bugaug, H (2013) Inequality, Grievances, and Civil War. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Collier, P and Hoeffler, A (2004) Greed and grievance in civil wars. Oxford Economic Papers 56, 563–594.
DeNardo, J (1985) Power in Numbers: The Political Strategy of Protest and Rebellion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Fearon, JD and Laitin, DD (2003) Ethnicity, insurgency, and civil war. The American Political Science Review 97, 75–90.
Gambetta, D and Hertog, S (2007) .
Grossman, HL (1991) A general equilibrium model of insurrections. American Economic Review 81, 912–921.
Gubler, JR and Selway, JS (2012) Horizontal inequalities, crosscutting cleavages, and civil war. Journal of Conflict Resolution 56, 206–232.
Gurr, TR (1970) Why Men Rebel. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Gurr, TR (2000) Peoples versus States: Minorities at Risk in the New Century. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.
Horowitz, DL (1985) Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Humphreys, M and Weinstein, JM (2008) Who fights? The determinants of participation in civil war. American Journal of Political Science 53, 436–455.
Jackson, T (2000) Equal Access to Education: A Peace Imperative for Burundi. London: International Alert.
Kalyvas, S and Kocher, MA (2007) How “free” is free riding in civil wars?: Violence, insurgency, and the collective action problem. World Politics 59, 177–216.
Krueger, AB (2007) What Makes a Terrorist: Economics and Roots of Terrorism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kuhn, P and Weidmann, N (2015) Unequal we fight: between- and within-group inequality and ethnic civil war. Political Science Research and Methods 3, 543–568.
Lee, A (2011) Who becomes a terrorist? Poverty, education, and the origins of political violence. World Politics 63, 203–245.
Lemarchand, R (1994) Burundi: Ethnic Conflict and Genocide. Washington DC: Cambridge University Press.
Medina, LF (2007) A Unified Theory of Collective Action and Social Change. United States: University of Michigan Press.
Olson, JM and Roese, NJ (2002) Relative deprivation and counterfactual thinking. In Walker, I and Smith, HJ (eds), Relative Deprivation: Specification, Development, and Integration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Østby, G, Nordas, R and Rød, JK (2009) Regional inequalities and civil conflict in sub-saharan Africa. International Studies Quarterly 53, 301–324.
Petersen, R (2002) Understanding Ethnic Conflict: Fear, Hatred, and Resentment in Twentieth-Century Eastern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rosenbaum, PR (1984) The consequences of adjustment for a concomitant variable that has been affected by the treatment. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A 147, 656–666.
Rule, JB (1988) Theories of Civil Violence. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Samii, C (2013) Perils or promise of ethnic integration? Evidence from a hard case in Burundi. American Political Science Review 107, 558–573.
Samii, C, Mvukiyehe, E and Taylor, GH (2009) Wartime and Post-Conflict Experiences in Burundi. Final Datafile, New York University and Columbia University.
Stewart, F (2008) Horizontal Inequalities and Conflict: Understanding Group Violence in Multiethnic Societies. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Thyne, C (2006) Abc's, 123's, and the golden rule: the pacifying effect of education on civil war, 1980–1999. International Studies Quarterly 50, 733–754.
Weinstein, JM (2006) Inside Rebellion: The Politics of Insurgent Violence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wood, EJ (2003) Insurgent Collective Action and Civil War in El Salvador. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.