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First Responders after Disasters: A Review of Stress Reactions, At-Risk, Vulnerability, and Resilience Factors

  • David A. Alexander (a1) and Susan Klein (a2)


Disasters are widely reported, commonplace events that characteristically leave an enormous legacy of human suffering through death, injury, extensive infrastructural damage, and disorganization to systems and communities.The economic costs may be almost incalculable. Professional and civilian first responders play a vital role in mitigating these effects. However, to maximize their potential with the minimum health and welfare costs to first responders, is important to have a good understanding of the demands of such work on them, how they cope, and what enables them to fulfi ll their roles.This review will explore these themes by highlighting important findings and areas of uncertainty.


Corresponding author

Aberdeen Centre for Trauma Research Faculty of Health and Social Care The Robert Gordon University Garthdee Road Aberdeen AB10 7QG Scotland, UK E-mail:


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First Responders after Disasters: A Review of Stress Reactions, At-Risk, Vulnerability, and Resilience Factors

  • David A. Alexander (a1) and Susan Klein (a2)


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