Published online by Cambridge University Press: 26 July 2019
A key question regarding business model innovation/development for circular economy is “how to make it happen in practice”? By systematically reviewing 92 approaches from circular economy and sustainability literature and practice, this research identifies requirements and proposes a holistic and systemic process for business model innovation for circular economy. This conceptual process model was consolidated based on the integration of the unique elements of sixteen existing process models. It comprises three-stages (sense, seize, transform) based on a dynamic capabilities view, and envisions 33 activities, 21 deliverables, 88 techniques/tools and 13 enablers or catalyzers for change. Besides enabling the view of processes and procedures with behavior and learning skills required to inspire circular economy thinking in business model innovation, it highlights the importance of 'formalized' decision-making procedures and includes activities to integrate sustainability thinking and to support the identification of required changes in product innovation/development.