Biolo G, Tipton KD, Klein S & Wolfe RR (1997) An abundant supply of amino acids enhances the metabolic effect of exercise on muscle protein. American Journal of Physiology 273, E122–E129.
Bishop NC, Blannin AK, Walsh NP & Gleeson M (2001) Carbohydrate beverage ingestion and neutrophil degranulation responses following cycling to fatigue at 75 % VO2max. International Journal of Sports Medicine 22, 226–231.
Boobis LH (1987) Metabolic aspects of fatigue during sprinting. In Exercise Benefits, Limits and Adaptations, pp. 116–143 [Macleod D, Maughan RJ, Nimmo MA, Reilly T and Williams C, editors]. London: Spon.
Budgett R (1999) Fatigue and underperformance in athletes: the overtraining syndrome. In Benefits and Hazards of Exercise, pp. 172–183 [MacAuley D, editor]. London: BMJ Publishing.
Burke LM, Collier GR, Davis PG, Fricker PA, Sanigorski AJ & Hargreaves M (1996) Muscle glycogen storage after prolonged exercise: effect of the frequency of carbohydrate feedings. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64, 115–119.
Burke LM & Read RSD (1993) Dietary supplements in sport. Sports Medicine 15, 43–65.
Clark K (1994) Nutritional guidance for soccer players for training and competition. Journal of Sports Science 12, Special issue, S43–S50.
Clarkson PM (1997) Eccentric exercise and muscle damage. International Journal of Sports Medicine 18, S314–S317.
Clarkson PM (1998) Nutritional supplements for weight gain. Sports Science Exchange 11, 1–10.
Costill DL, Sherman WM, Fink WJ, Maresh C, Witten M & Miller JM (1981) The role of dietary carbohydrates in muscle glycogen synthesis after strenuous running. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 34, 1831–1836.
Coyle EF (1991) Timing and method of increased carbohydrate intake to cope with heavy training, competition and recovery. Journal of Sports Science 9, Special issue, 29–52.
Davis JM (2000) Nutrition, neurotransmitters and central nervous system fatigue. In Nutrition in Sport, pp. 171–183 [Maughan RJ, editor]. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
Department of Health (1991). Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. Report on Health and Social Subjects no. 41. London: H.M. Stationery Office.
Graham TE, Rush JWE & Van Soeren MH (1994) Caffeine and exercise: metabolism and performance. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology 19, 111–138.
Green HJ, Jones S, Ball-Burnett ME, Smith D, Livesey J & Farrance BW (1991) Early muscular and metabolic adaptations to prolonged exercise training in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology 70, 2032–2038.
Greenhaff PL (2000) Creatine. In Nutrition in Sport, pp. 367–378 [Maughan RJ, editor]. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
Harris RC, Soderlund K & Hultman E (1992) Elevation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by creatine supplementation. Clinical Science 83, 367–374.
Hawley JA (1998) Fat burning during exercise: can ergogenics change the balance? The Physician and Sportsmedicine 26, 59–63.
Hawley JA & Burke LM (1997) Effect of meal frequency and timing on physical performance. British Journal of Nutrition 77, S91–S103.
Helge JW, Richter EA & Kiens B (1996) Interaction of training and diet on metabolism and endurance during exercise in man. Journal of Physiology 492, 293–306.
Henriksson J & Hickner RC (1998) Adaptations in skeletal muscle in response to endurance training. In Textbook of Sports Medicine, 2nd ed., pp. 45–69 [Harries M, Williams C, Stanish WD and Micheli LJ, editors]. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hultman E (1981) Liver glycogen in man: effect of different diets and muscular exercise. In Muscle Metabolism during Exercise, pp. 143–152 [Pernod B and Saltin B, editors]. New York: Plenum.
Ivy JL (2000) Optimization of glycogen stores. In Nutrition in Sport, pp. 97–111 [Maughan R, editor]. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
Ivy JL, Katz AL, Cutler CL & Coyle EF (1988) Muscle glycogen synthesis after exercise: effects of time of carbohydrate ingestion. Journal of Applied Physiology 64, 1480–1485.
Jeukendrup AE, Craig NP & Hawley JA (2000) The bioenergetics of world class cycling. Journal of Medicine and Science in Sport 3, 414–433.
Kiens B & Helge JW (1998) Effect of high-fat diets on exercise performance. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 57, 73–75.
Lambert EV, Goedecke JH, Van Zyl C, Murphy K, Hawley JA, Dennis SC & Noakes TD (2001) High-fat versus habitual diet prior to carbohydrate loading: effects on exercise metabolism and cycling performance. International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 11, 209–225.
Lang F, Busch GL & Volkl K (1998) The diversity of volume regulatory mechanisms. Cell Physiology and Biochemistry 8, 1–45.
Lemon PWR (1991) Effect of exercise on protein requirements. Journal of Sports Science 9, Special issue, 53–70.
Low SY, Rennie MJ & Taylor PM (1997 a) Modulation of glycogen synthesis in rate skeletal muscle by changes in cell volume. Journal of Physiology 495, 299–303.
Low SY, Rennie MJ & Taylor PM (1997 b) Signalling elements involved in amino acid transport responses to altered muscle cell volume. FASEB Journal 11, 1111–1117.
McNaughton L (1990) Sodium citrate and anaerobic performance: implications of dosage. European Journal of Applied Physiology 61, 392–397.
McNaughton LR (2000) Bicarbonate and citrate. In Nutrition in Sport, pp. 393–404 [Maughan RJ, editor]. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
Maughan RJ (1999) Nutritional ergogenic aids and exercise performance. Nutrition Research Reviews 12, 255–280.
Maughan RJ (editor) (2000 a). Nutrition in Sport. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
Maughan RJ (editor) (2000 b) Water and electrolyte loss and replacement in exercise. In Nutrition in Sport, pp. 226–240. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
Maughan RJ & Piehl Aulin K (1997) Energy needs for physical activity. In World Review of Nutrition, vol. 82, pp. 18–32 [Simopoulos AP and Pavlou KN, editors]. Basel: Karger.
Milosevic A (1997) Sports drinks hazard to teeth. British Journal of Sports Medicine 21, 28–30.
Nevill ME, Boobis LH, Brooks S & Williams C (1989) Effect of training on muscle metabolism during treadmill sprinting. Journal of Applied Physiology 67, 2376–2382.
Newsholme EA & Castell LM (2000) Amino acids, fatigue and immunodepression in exercise. In Nutrition in Sport, pp. 153–170 [Maughan RJ, editor]. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
Nieman DC (1996) Prolonged aerobic exercise, immune response, and risk of infection. In Exercise and Immune Function, pp. 143–162 [Hoffman-Goetz L, editor]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Nieman DC & Pedersen BK (1999) Exercise and immune function. Sports Medicine 27, 73–80.
Packer L (1997) Oxidants, antioxidant nutrients and the athlete. Journal of Sports Science 15, 353–363.
Pedersen BK, Bruunsgaard H, Jensen M, Toft AD, Hansen H & Ostrowski K (1999) Exercise and the immune system – influence of nutrition and ageing. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 2, 234–252.
Pedersen BK, Helge JW, Richter EA, Rohde T & Kiens B (2000) Training and natural immunity: effects of diets rich in fat or carbohydrate. European Journal of Applied Physiology 82, 98–102.
Piehl K (1974) Time-course for refilling of glycogen stores in human muscle fibers following exercise-induced glycogen depletion. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 90, 297–302.
Rennie MJ, Low SY, Taylor PM, Khogali SE, Yao PC & Ahmed A (1998) Amino acid transport during muscle contraction and its relevance to exercise. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 441, 299–305.
Rockwell MS, Nickols-Richardson SM & Thye FW (2001) Nutrition knowledge, opinions and practices of coaches and athletic trainers at a division 1 university. International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 11, 174–185.
Romijn JA, Coyle EF, Sidossis LS, Gastaldelli A, Horowitz JF, Endert E & Wolfe RR (1993) Regulation of endogenous fat and carbohydrate metabolism in relation to exercise intensity and duration. American Journal of Physiology 265, E380–E391.
Romijn JA, Coyle EF, Sidossis LS, Rosenblatt J & Wolfe RR (2000) Substrate metabolism during different exercise intensities in endurance-trained women. Journal of Applied Physiology 88, 1707–1714.
Ronsen O, Sundgot-Borgen J & Maehlum S (1999) Supplement use and nutritional habits in Norwegian elite athletes. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 9, 28–35.
Sawka MN, Latzka WA & Montain SJ (2000) Effects of dehydration and rehydration on performance. In Nutrition in Sport, pp. 216–225 [Maughan RJ, editor]. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
Sobal J & Marquart LF (1994) Vitamin/mineral supplement use among athletes: a review of the literature. International Journal of Sport Nutrition 4, 320–324.
Spriet LL (1997) Ergogenic aids: recent advances and retreats. In Optimizing Sports Performance, pp. 185–238 [Lamb DR and Murray R, editors]. Carmel, IN: Cooper Publishing.
Spriet LL & Howlett RA (2000) Caffeine. In Nutrition in Sport, pp. 379–392 [Maughan RJ, editor]. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
Tipton KD & Wolfe RR (2001) Exercise, protein metabolism and muscle growth. International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 11, 109–132.
Van Hall G, Saris WHM, Van de Schoor PAI & Wagenmakers AJM (2000 a) The effect of free glutamine and peptide ingestion on the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis in man. International Journal of Sports Medicine 21, 25–30.
Van Hall G, Shirreffs SM & Calbet JA (2000 b) Muscle glycogen resynthesis during recovery from cycle exercise: no effect of additional protein ingestion. Journal of Applied Physiology 88, 1631–1636.
Waldegger S & Lang F (1997) Cell volume and gene expression. Journal of Membrane Biology 162, 95–100.
Walsh NP, Blannin AK, Robson PJ & Gleeson M (1998) Glutamine, exercise and immune function. Sports Medicine 26, 177–191.
Wemple RD, Lamb DR & McKeever KH (1997) Caffeine vs caffeine-free sports drinks: effects on urine production at rest and during prolonged exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine 18, 40–46.
Williams C (1998) Diet and sports performance. In Oxford Textbook of Sports Medicine, 2nd ed., pp. 77–97 [Harries M, Williams C, Stanish WD and Micheli LJ, editors]. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Williams MH, Kreider RB & Branch JD (1999) Creatine. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Wilson WM & Maughan RJ (1992) A role for serotonin in the genesis of fatigue in man: administration of a 5-hydroxytryptamine reuptake inhibitor (Paroxetine) reduces the capacity to perform prolonged exercise. Experimental Physiology 77, 921–924.
Zawadzki KM, Yaspelkis BB & Ivy JL (1992) Carbohydrate-protein complex increases the rate of muscle glycogen storage after exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 72, 1854–1859.