Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Zinc: the missing link in combating micronutrient malnutrition in developing countries

  • Rosalind S. Gibson (a1)
Abstract

The first cases of human Zn deficiency were described in the 1960s in the Middle East. Nevertheless, it was not until 2002 that Zn deficiency was included as a major risk factor in the global burden of disease, and only in 2004 did WHO/UNICEF include Zn supplements in the treatment of acute diarrhoea. Despite this recognition Zn is still not included in the UN micronutrient priority list, an omission that will continue to hinder efforts to reduce child and maternal mortality, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases and achieve the UN Millennium Development Goals for improved nutrition in developing countries. Reasons for this omission include a lack of awareness of the importance of Zn in human nutrition, paucity of Zn and phytate food composition values and difficulties in identifying Zn deficiency. Major factors associated with the aetiology of Zn deficiency include dietary inadequacies, disease states inducing excessive losses or impairing utilization and physiological states increasing Zn requirements. To categorize countries according to likely risk of Zn deficiency the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group has developed indirect indicators based on the adequacy of Zn in the national food supplies and/or prevalence of childhood growth stunting. For countries identified as at risk confirmation is required through direct measurements of dietary Zn intake and/or serum Zn in a representative sample. Finally, in at risk countries either national or targeted Zn interventions such as supplementation, fortification, dietary diversification or modification, or biofortification should be implemented, where appropriate, by incorporating them into pre-existing micronutrient intervention programmes.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Zinc: the missing link in combating micronutrient malnutrition in developing countries
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Zinc: the missing link in combating micronutrient malnutrition in developing countries
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Zinc: the missing link in combating micronutrient malnutrition in developing countries
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Corresponding author: Professor R. S. Gibson, fax +64 3 479 7958, email Rosalind.Gibson@stonebow.otago.ac.nz
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

PJ Aggett & JT Harries (1979) Current status of zinc in health and disease states. Archives of Disease in Childhood 54 909917.

A Baqui , RE Black , SEI Arifeen , MN Yunus , J Chakraborty , S Ahmed & JP Vaughan (2002) Effect of zinc supplementation started during diarrhoea on morbidity and mortality in Bangladeshi children: community randomised trial. British Medical Journal 325 10591066.

ZA Bhutta , RE Black , KH Brown , JM Gardner , S Gore , A Hidayat (1999) Prevention of diarrhea and pneumonia by zinc supplementation in children in developing countries: pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials. Zinc Investigators' Collaborative Group. Journal of Pediatrics 135 689697.

GS Bindra , RS Gibson , LU Thompson (1986) [Phytate]:[calcium]/[zinc] ratios in Asian immigrant lacto-ovo vegetarian diets and their relationship to zinc nutriture. Nutrition Research 6 475483.

H Brinch-Pedersen , LD Sorensen , PB Holm (2002) Engineering crop plants: getting a handle on phosphate. Trends in Plant Science 7 118125.

WA Brooks , M Yunus , M Santosham , MA Wahed , K Nahar , S Yeasmin & RE Black (2004) Zinc for severe pneumonia in very young children: double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 363 16831688.

C Castillo-Duran , A Rodriguez , G Venegas , P Alvarez , G Icaza (1995) Zinc supplementation and growth of infants born small for gestational age. Journal of Pediatrics 127 206211.

C Castillo-Duran , P Vial , R Uauy (1988) Trace mineral balance during acute diarrhea in infants. Journal of Pediatrics 113 452457.

M Ezzati , AD Loez , A Rodgers , S Vander Hoorn & CJL Murray (2002) Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease. Lancet 360 13471360.

EL Ferguson , RS Gibson , C Opare-Obisaw , S Ounpuu & C Lamba (1995) Dietary strategies for improving the zinc nutriture of rural Southern Malawian and Ghanaian children. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 34 3347.

JK Friel , WL Andrews , JD Matthew , DR Long , AM Cornel , M Cox , E McKim & GO Zerbe (1993) Zinc supplementation in very-low-birthweight infants. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 17 97104.

E Frossard , M Bucher , F Mächler , A Mozafar , R Hurrell (2000) Potential for increasing the content and bioavailability of Fe, Zn and Ca in plants for human nutrition. Journal of the Science in Food and Agriculture 80 861879.

V Ganji & CV Kies (1994) Zinc bioavailability and tea consumption. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 46 267276.

RL Goldenberg , Y Neggers , RL Cooper , KE Johnston , MB DuBard & JC Hauth (1995) The effect of zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcome. Journal of the American Medical Association 274 463468.

KM Hambidge , C Hambidge , M Jacobs & JD Baum (1972) Low levels of zinc in hair, anorexia, poor growth and hypogeusia in children. Pediatric Research 6 868874.

RS Hirsch & MR Sussman (1999) Improving nutrient capture from soil by the genetic manipulation of crop plants. Trends in Biotechnology 17 356361.

PS Hooda , CJK Henry , TA Seyoum , LDM Armstrong & MB Fowler (2004) The potential impact of soil ingestion on human mineral nutrition. Science of the Total Environment 333 7587.

C Hotz & RS Gibson (2001) Assessment of home-based processing methods to reduce phytate content and phytate/zinc molar ratios of white maize (Zea mays). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49 692698.

S Kohn , D Kohn , D Schiller (2000) Effect of zinc supplementation on epidermal Langerhans'cells of elderly patients with decubital ulcers. Journal of Dermatology 27 25582563.

B Lönnerdal (2004) Interactions between micronutrients: synergies and antagonism. In Micronutrient Deficiencies during the Weaning Period and the First Years of Life. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series Pediatric Program, vol. 54, pp. 6781 [JM Pettifor and S Zlotkin , editors]. Vevey, Switzerland: S. Karger AG.

D Lopez de Romaña , K Brown , J-X Guinard (2002) Sensory trials to assess the acceptability of zinc fortificants added to iron-fortified wheat products. Journal of Food Science 67 461465.

IS Menzies , MJ Zuckerman , WS Nukajam , SG Somasundaram , B Murphy , AP Jenkins , RS Crane & GG Gregory (1999) Geography of intestinal permeability and absorption. Gut 44 483489.

M Merialdi , LE Caulfield , N Zavaleta , A Figueroa & JA DiPietro (1998) Adding Zn to prenatal iron and folates tablets improves fetal neurobehavioral development. American Journal of Obsterics and Gynecology 180 483490.

M Merialdi , LE Caulfield , N Zavaleta , A Figueroa , F Dominici & JA DiPietro (2004) Randomized controlled trial of prenatal zinc supplementation and the development of fetal heart rate. American Journal of Obsterics and Gynecology 190 11061112.

O Muller , H Becher , AB van Zweeden , Y Ye , DA Diallo , AT Konate , A Gbangou , B Kouyate & M Garenne (2001) Effect of zinc supplementation on malaria and other causes of morbidity in west African children: randomised double blind placebo-controlled trial. British Medical Journal 322 1567

P Nestel , A Briend , B de Benoist , E Decker , E Ferguson , O Fontaine , A Micardi , R Nalubola (2003) Complementary food supplements to achieve micronutrient adequacy for infants and young children. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 36 316328.

SJM Osendarp , JMA van Raaij , GL Darmstadt , AH Baqui , JG Hautvast , GJ Fuchs (2001) Zinc supplementation during pregnancy and effects on growth and morbidity in low birthweight infants: a randomized placebo controlled trial. Lancet 357 10801095.

M Pabon , B Lönnerdal (1992) Effect of citrate on zinc bioavailability from milk, milk fractions and infant formulas. Nutrition Research 13 103111.

L Perlas & RS Gibson (2002) Use of soaking to enhance the bioavailability of iron and zinc from rice-based complementary foods used in the Philippines. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 82 11151124.

B Sandström (2001) Micronutrient interactions: effect on absorption and bioavailability. British Journal of Nutrition 85 S181S185.

S Sazawal , RE Black , VP Menon , P Dinghra , LE Caulfield , U Dhingra , A Bagati (2001) Zinc supplementation in infants born small for gestational age reduces mortality: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics 108 12801286.

GC Sturniolo , C Montino , L Rossetto , A Martin , R D'Inca , A D'Odorico , R Naccarato (1991) Inhibition of gastric acid secretion reduces zinc absorption in man. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 10 372375.

L Sunanda , S Sumathi , V Venkatasubbaiah (1995) Relationship between soil zinc, dietary zinc and zinc nutritional status of humans. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 48 201207.

L Temple , RS Gibson & C Hotz (2002) Use of soaking and enrichment for improving the content and bioavailability of calcium, iron and zinc in complementary foods and diets of rural Malawian weanlings. Journal of Food Science 67 19261932.

CS Torrejon , C Castillo-Suran , ED Hertrampf & M Ruz (2004) Zinc and iron nutrition in Chilean children fed fortified milk provided by the Complementary National Food Program. Nutrition 20 177180.

S Villalpando , A Garcia-Guerra , CI Ramirez-Sliva , F Mejoa-Rodriguez , G Matute , T Shamah-Levy & JA Rivera (2003) Iron, zinc and iodine status in Mexican children under 12 years and women 12–49 y of age. A probablistic national survey. Salud Publica de Mexico 45 S520S529.

RM Welch & RD Graham (2004) Breeding for micronutrients in staple food crops from a human nutrition perspective. Journal of Experimental Botany 55 353364.

A Yilmaz , H Ekiz , B Torun , I Göltekin , S Karanlyk , SA Bagcy & I Cakmak (1997) Effect of different zinc application methods on grain yield, and zinc concentrations in wheat grown on zinc-deficient calcareous soils in Central Anatolia. Journal of Plant Nutrition 20 461471.

SH Zlotkin & MG Cherian (1988) Hepatic metallothionein as a source of zinc and cysteine during the first year of life. Pediatric Research 24 326329.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • ISSN: 0029-6651
  • EISSN: 1475-2719
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: