Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Probiotics and allergy

  • Elizabeth Furrie (a1)
Abstract

Allergy is caused by an immune reaction that is out of all proportion to the antigenic stimuli. Classical allergy is a type I hypersensitivity reaction mediated by the interaction of mast cells (and eosinophils) coated with allergen-specific IgE and a cross-linking allergen. The physiological outcome is inflammation commonly displayed by urticaria, rhinitis, vomiting and diarrhoea, depending on the route of allergen entry. In extreme reactions anaphylactic shock can result that may lead to death. Chronic allergic responses most commonly present themselves as asthma and eczema. All these symptoms are the consequence of an imbalanced immune system making an unsuitable response to an environmental or food antigen. On bacterial colonisation of the colon after birth the appropriate microbiological stimuli is essential to redress the balance of the skewed T-helper 2 immune response present in the newborn. This normal interaction between baby and microbes is thought to be compromised in the Western world, with a reduction in bifidobacteria and an increase in clostridial species, particularly in bottle-fed infants. The use of probiotic therapy to prevent allergic disease has been demonstrated in two studies using a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in neonates. A long-term reduction in allergy has been shown in the test group, with lactobacillus reducing the incidence of atopic eczema. Management of allergy through probiotics has also been demonstrated in infants, using lactobacilli to control atopic eczema and cow's milk allergy. Unfortunately, these positive results have not been repeated in studies with older children and young adults.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Probiotics and allergy
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Probiotics and allergy
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Probiotics and allergy
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Corresponding author: fax +44 1382 645333, email elizabeth.furrie@tuht.scot.nhs.uk
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

DC Baumgart & AU Dignass (2002) Intestinal barrier function. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 5, 685694

B Bjorksten , P Naaber , E Sepp & M Mikelsaar (1999) The intestinal microflora in allergic Estonian and Swedish 2-year old children. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 29, 342346

B Bjorksten , E Sepp , K Julge , T Voor & M Mikelsaar (2001) Allergy development and the intestinal microflora during the first year of life. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 108, 516520

MF Bottcher , EK Nordin , A Sandin , T Midtvedt & B Bjorksten (2000) Microflora-associated characteristics in faeces from allergic and non-allergic infants. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 30, 15901596

J Buning , M Schmitz , B Repenning , D Ludwig , MA Schmidt , S Strobel , K-Ph Zimmer (2005) Interferon γ mediates antigen trafficking to MHC class II positive late endosomes of enterocytes. European Journal of Immunology 35, 831842

G Chaouat , N Ledee-Bataille , S Dubanchet , S Zourbas , O Sandra & J Martal (2004) Reproductive immunology 2003: reassessing the Th1/Th2 paradigm. Immunology Letters 92, 207214

HR Christensen , H Frokiaer & JJ Pestka (2002) Lactobacilli differentially modulate expression of cytokines and maturation surface markers in murine dendritic cells. Journal of Immunology 168, 171178

E Furrie , RE Smith , MW Turner , S Strobel & AM Mowat (2002) Induction of local innate immune responses and modulation of antigen uptake as mechanisms underlying the mucosal adjuvant properties of immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMS). Vaccine 20, 22542262

AL Hart , K Lammers , P Britishigidi , B Vitali , F Rizzello , P Gionchetti , M Campieri , MA Kamm , SC Knight & AJ Stagg (2004) Modulation of human dendritic cell phenotype and function by probiotic bacteria. Gut 53, 16021609

T Helin , S Hahtela & T Haahtela (2002) No effect of oral treatment with an intestinal bacterial strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ACTT 53103), on birch pollen allergy: a placebo controlled double blind study. Allergy 57, 243246

MJ Hopkins & GT Macfarlane (2002) Changes in predominant bacterial populations in human faeces with age and with Clostridium difficile infection. Journal of Medical Microbiology 51, 448454

MJ Hopkins , R Sharp & GT Macfarlane (2002) Variation in human intestinal microbiota with age. Digestive and Liver Disease 34, Suppl. 2. S12S18.

N Ibnou-Zekri , S Blum , EJ Schiffrin , Weid T von der (2003) Divergent patterns of colonization and immune response elicited from two intestinal Lactobacillus strains that display similar properties in vitro. Infection and Immunity 71, 428436

M Kalliomaki , P Kirjavainen , E Eerola , P Kero , S Salminen & E Isolauri (2001a) Distinct patterns of neonatal gut microflora in infants whom atopy was and was not developing. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 107, 129134

M Kalliomaki , S Salminen , H Arvilommi , P Kero , P Koskinen & E Isolauri (2001b) Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease: a randomised placebo controlled trial. Lancet 357, 10761079

M Kalliomaki , S Salminen , T Poussa , H Arvilommi & E Isolauri (2003) Probiotics and prevention of atopic disease: 4-year follow-up of a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 361, 18691871

PV Kirjavainen , E Apostolou , T Arvola , SJ Salminen , GR Gibson & E Isolauri (2001) Charaterizing the composition of intestinal microflora as a prospective treatment target in infant allergic disease. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 32, 17

K Kotowicz & RE Callard (1993) Human immunoglobulin class and IgG subclass regulation: dual action of interleukin-4. European Journal of Immunology 23, 22502256

M Lampinen , M Carlson , LD Hakansson & P Venge (2004) Cytokine-regulated accumulation of eosinophils in inflammatory disease. Allergy 59, 793805

JD McCurdy , TJ Olynych , LH Maher & JS Marshall (2003) Distinct Toll-like receptor 2 activators selectively induce different classes of mediator production from human mast cells. Journal of Immunology 170, 16251629

S Macfarlane , E Furrie , JH Cummings & GT Macfarlane (2004) Chemotaxonomic analysis of bacterial populations colonizing the rectal mucosa in patients with ulcerative colitis. Clinical Infectious Diseases 38, 16901699

H Majamaa & E Isolaurie (1997) Probiotics: a novel approach in the management of food allergy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 99, 179185

AM Mowat , LA Parker , H Beacock-Sharp , OR Millington & F Chirdo (2004) Oral tolerance: overview and historical perspectives. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1029, 18

L Pelto , E Isolaurie , EM Lilius , J Nuutila & S Salminen (1998) Probiotic bacteria down regulate the milk induced inflammatory response in milk hypertensive subjects but have an immunostimulatory effect in healthy subjects. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 28, 14741479

T Pessi , Y Sutas , M Hurme & E Isolauri (2000) Interleukin 10 generation in atopic children following oral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 30, 18041808

E Pohjavuori , M Viljanen , R Korpela , M Kuitunen , M Tiittanen , O Vaarala & E Savilahti (2004) Lactobacillus G. effect in increasing IFNγ production in infants with cow's milk allergy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 114, 131136

HL Qin , TY Shen , ZG Gao , XB Fan , XM Hang , YQ Jiang & HZ Zhang (2005) Effect of lactobacillus on the gut microflora and barrier function of the rats with abdominal infection. World Journal of Gastroenterology 11, 25912596

S Rautava , M Kalliomaki & E Isolauri (2002) Probiotics during pregnancy and breast-feeding might confer immunomodulatory protection against atopic disease in the infant. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 109, 119121

V Rosenfeldt , E Benfeldt , DS Neilsen , KF Michaelsen , DL Jeppesen , NH Valerius & A Paerregaard (2003) Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in children with atopic dermatitis. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 111, 389395

V Rosenfeldt , E Benfeldt , NH Valerius , A Paerregaard & KF Michaelsen (2004) Effect of probiotics on gastrointestinal symptoms and small intestinal permeability in children with atopic dermatitis. Journal of Pediatrics 145, 612616

E Sepp , K Julge , M Vasar , P Naaber , B Bjorksten & M Mikelsaar (1997) Intestinal microflora of Estonian and Swedish infants. Acta Paediatrica 86, 956961

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • ISSN: 0029-6651
  • EISSN: 1475-2719
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 165 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 204 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 28th March 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.