Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-78bd46657c-dj9st Total loading time: 0.382 Render date: 2021-05-08T02:51:52.369Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Doggerland: a Speculative Survey

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 February 2014

B.J. Coles
Affiliation:
Department of Archaeology, School of Geography and Archaeology, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QH

Abstract

Archaeologists tend to refer to the land that once existed between Britain and the continent as a landbridge. It was, however, a landscape as habitable as neighbouring regions, and here called Doggerland to emphasise its availability for settlement by prehistoric peoples. Evidence from the Geological Surveys undertaken by countries bordering the North Sea Basin, together with allied research, is drawn together to provide an overview of the possibilities. A range of interacting geological processes implies that the present-day relief of the North Sea bed does not provide a sound guide to the relief of the former landscape, nor to the chronology and character of its submergence. A series of maps accompanies the text to provide a speculative reconstruction of the topography, river systems, coastline, vegetation, fauna, and human occupation of Doggerland from the Devensian/Weichselian maximum to the beginnings of the Neolithic.

Résumé

Les archéologues ont l'habitude de désigner comme langue de terre le terrain qui existait autrefois entre la Grande Bretagne et le continent. Pourtant, il s'agit d'un paysage aussi habitable que les régions voisines, ici il s'appelle Doggerland pour souligner sa disponibilité pour l'habitation par les populations préhistoriques. Des documents provenant des relevés géologiques entretenus par les pays entourant le bassin de la mer du Nord, liés aux recherches relatives, sont réunis pour fournir une vue d'ensemble sur les possibilités. Une gamme de procédés géologiques indique que le relief actuel du fond de la mer du Nord ne donne pas d'identications valables sur le relief du paysage d'autrefois, non plus à la chronologie et le caractère de sa submersion. Une série de cartes accompagne le texte pour fournir une reconstruction spéculative de la topographie, des systèmes fluviaux, de la côte, de la végétation, de la faune et de l'occupation humaine du Doggerland depuis le maximum Devensien/Wiechselien jusqu'au commencement du Néolithique.

Zusammenfassung

Archäologen neigen dazu dieses Land, das einmal zwischen Großbritannien und dem festen Kontinent existierte, Landbrücke zu nennen. Es war jedoch eine Landschaft, die genauso bewohnbar war wie ihre benachbarten Regionen und hier als Doggerland bezeichnet wird, um ihre Bewohnbarkeit durch prähistorische Völker zu unterstreichen.

Beweismaterial von geologischen Vermessungen und gemeinsame Forschungen, die von den an das Nordseebecken, grenzenden Ländern, unternommen worden sind, sind hier verzeichnet, um eine Übersicht jeglicher Bewohnmöglichkeiten zu liefern. Eine Reihe zusammenwirkender, geologischer Verfahren lassen annehmen, dass das heutige Relief des Nordseebettes keinen einwandfreien Leitfaden für die Existenz des Reliefs der ehemaligen Landschaft, weder für die Chronologie, noch für das Bestandwesen seines Untertauchens, bietet. Eine Serie von Landkarten begleitet diesen Text, um eine spekulative Rekonstruktion der Topologie, Flusssysteme, Küstenlinien, Flora, Fauna und Menschenbehausung auf Doggerland vom Devensischen/Wiechselsischen Maximum bis zu den Anfängen des Neolithikums.

Résumen

Los arqueólogos tienden a referirse al terreno que una vez existió entre Gran Bretaña y el Continente como a un puente terrestre. Sin embargo, este territorio era un paisaje tan habitable como las regiones circundantes, y aquí se le ha llamado “Doggerlandia” para subrayar su disponibilidad para el asentamiento de poblaciones prehistóricas. Este artículo combina la evidencia recogida en los Reconocimientos Geológicos llevados a cabo por los países colindantes con el mar del Norte, junto con investigaciones afines, para aportar un resumen de las posibilidades. Una variedad de procesos geológicos interactivos sugiere que el relieve actual de la cuenca del mar del norte no proporciona una orientación fidedigna sobre el relieve del paisaje antiguo, ni sobre la cronología o naturaleza de su sumersión. El texto va acompañado de una serie de mapas que aportan una reconstrucción especulativa de la topografía, sistemas fluviales, costas, vegetación, fauna y ocupación humana desde el máximo de Devesian/Wiechselian hasta el comienzo del neolítico.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Prehistoric Society 1998

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Arts, N. 1989. Archaeology, environment and the social evolution of later Band Societies in a lowland area. In Bonsall, C. (ed.), The Mesolithic in Europe, 219312. Edinburgh: John Donald.Google Scholar
Baillie, M.G.L. 1995. A Slice through Time. Dendro-chronology and Precision Dating. London: Batsford.Google Scholar
Balson, P.S. & Jeffrey, D.H. 1991. The glacial sequence of the southern North Sea. In Ehlers, J., Gibbard, P.L. & Rose, J. (eds), Glacial Deposits in Great Britain and Ireland, 245–53. Rotterdam: Balkema.Google Scholar
Bang-Andersen, S. 1995. The Mesolithic of Western Norway: prevailing problems and possibilities. In Fischer, A. (ed.) 1995, 107–11.Google Scholar
Barton, N. 1991. Technological innovation and continuity at the end of the Pleistocene in Britain. In Barton, N., Roberts, A.J. & Roe, D.A. (eds), 1991, 234–45.Google Scholar
Barton, N., Roberts, A.J. & Roe, D.A. (eds). 1991. The Late Glacial in North-west Europe. London: Council for British Archaeology Research Report 77.Google Scholar
Barton, R.N.E. & Roberts, A.J. 1996. Reviewing the British Late Upper Palaeolithic: new evidence for chronological patterning in the Lateglacial record. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 15(3), 245–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Behre, K.-E., Menke, B. & Streif, H. 1979. The Quaternary geological development of the German part of the North Sea. In Oele, E., Schüttenhelm, R.T.E. & Wiggers, A.J. (eds), The Quaternary History of the North Sea, 233–48. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis.Google Scholar
Binford, L.R. 1978. Nunamuit Ethnoarchaeology. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Bjerck, H.B. 1995. The North Sea continent and the pioneer settlement of Norway. In Fischer, A. (ed.), 1995, 131–44.Google Scholar
Bokelmann, K. 1991. Some new thoughts on old data on humans and reindeer in-the Ahrensburgian Tunnel Valley in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. In Barton, N., Roberts, A.J. & Roe, D.A. (eds), 1991, 7281.Google Scholar
Bratlund, B. 1991. A study of hunting lesions containing flint fragments on reindeer bones at Stellmoor, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. In Barton, N., Roberts, A.J. & Roe, D.A. (eds), 1991, 193207.Google Scholar
Breest, K. & Veil, S. 1991. The Late Upper Palaeolithic site of Schweskau, Ldkr Lüchow-Dannenburg (Germany), and some comments on the relationship between the Magdelenian and Hamburgian. In Barton, N., Roberts, A.J. & Roe, D.A. (eds), 1991, 8299.Google Scholar
Bridgland, D.R. & D'Olier, B. 1995. The Pleistocene evolution of the Thames and Rhine drainage systems in the southern North Sea Basin. In Preece, R.C. (ed.), Island Britain: a Quaternary perspective, 2745. London: Geological Society Special Publication 96.Google Scholar
Cameron, T.D.J., Crosby, A., Balson, P.S., Jeffery, D.H., Lott, G.K., Bulat, J. & Harrison, D.J. 1992. The Geology of the Southern North Sea. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.Google Scholar
Charman, D.J., West, S. & Kelly, A. 1995. Environmental change and Tephra deposition: the Strath of Kildoran, northern Scotland. Journal of Archaeological Science 22, 799809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Christensen, C., Fischer, A. & Rorbeck Mathiassen, D. 1997. The great sea rise in the Storebaelt. In Pedersen, E., Fischer, A. & Aaby, B. (eds), 1997, 4554.Google Scholar
Clark, J.G.D. 1936. The Mesolithic Settlement of Northern Europe. Cambridge: University Press.Google Scholar
Clark, J.G.D. 1954. Excavations at Star Carr. Cambridge: University Press.Google Scholar
Clark, J.G.D. 1972. Star Carr: a case study in bioarchaeology. Reading, Massacussetts: Addison-Wesley Modular Publications, Module 10.Google Scholar
Clark, J.G.D. 1975. The Earlier Stone Age Settlement of Scandinavia. Cambridge: University Press.Google Scholar
Clark, J.G.D. & Godwin, H. 1956. A Maglemosian site at Brandesburton, Holderness, Yorkshsire. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 22, 622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cleyet-Merle, J-J. & Madelaine, S. 1995. Inland evidence of human sea coast exploitation in Palaeolithic France. In Fischer, A. (ed.), 1995, 303–8.Google Scholar
Clutton-Brock, J. & Noe-Nygaard, N. 1990. New osteological and C- Isotope evidence on Mesolithic dogs. Companions to hunters and fishers at Star Carr, Seamer Carr and Kongemose. Journal of Archaeological Science 17(6), 643–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coles, B. in press. Doggerland's loss and the Neolithic. In Coles, B.J. & Jørgensen, M. Schou (eds), Bogs, Bodies and Sacred Sites. WARP and National Museum of Denmark.Google Scholar
Cook, J. & Jacobi, R. 1994. A Reindeer antler or ‘Lyngby’ axe from Northamptonshire and its context in the British Late Glacial. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 60, 7584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coope, G.R. & Lemdahl, G. 1995. Regional differences in the lateglacial climate of northern Europe based on coleoptera analysis. Journal of Quaternary Science 10(4), 391–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cordy, J.M. 1991. Palaeoecology of the Late Glacial and early Postglacial of Belgium and neighbouring areas. In Barton, N., Roberts, A.J. & Roe, D.A. (eds), 1991, 40–7.Google Scholar
Currant, A.P. 1991. A Late Glacial Interstadial mammal fauna from Gough's Cave, Somerset, England. In Barton, N., Roberts, A.J. & Roe, D.A. (eds), 1991, 4850.Google Scholar
Dawson, A.G., Smith, D.E. & Long, D. 1990. Evidence for a Tsunami from a Mesolithic site in Inverness, Scotland. Journal of Archaeological Science 17, 509–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Day, S.P. & Mellars, P.A. 1994. Absolute dating of Mesolithic human activity at Star Carr, Yorkshire: new palaeoecological studies and identification of the 9600 BP radiocarbon ‘plateau’. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 60, 417–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Day, P. 1995. Devensian Late-glacial and early Flandrian environmental history of the Vale of Pickering, Yorkshire, England. Journal of Quaternary Science 11(1), 924.3.0.CO;2-5>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Devoy, R.J.N. 1987. Sea-level changes during the Holocene: the North Atlantic and Arctic oceans. In Devoy, R.J.N. (ed.), Sea Surface Studies, 294347. London: Croom Helm.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Devoy, R.J.N. 1995. Deglaciation, Earth crustal behaviour and sea level changes in the determination of insularity: a perspective from Ireland. In Preece, R.C. (ed.), Island Britain: a Quaternary perspective, 181208. London: Geological Society Special Publication 96.Google Scholar
Ehlers, J. & Wingfield, R. 1991. The extension of the Late Weichselian/Late Devensian ice sheets in the North Sea Basin. Journal of Quaternary Science 6(4), 313–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ehlers, J., Gibbard, P. & Rose, J. 1991. Glacial deposits of Britain and Europe: general overview. In Ehlers, J., Gibbard, P. & Rose, J. (eds), Glacial Deposits in Britain and Ireland, 493501. Rotterdam: Balkema.Google Scholar
Eisma, D., Jansen, J.H.F. & Weering, Tj.C.E. van. 1979. Sea-floor morphology and recent sediment movement in the North Sea. In Oele, E., Schüttenhelm, R.T.E. & Wiggers, A.J. (eds), The Quaternary History of the North Sea, 217–31. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis.Google Scholar
Eisma, D., Mook, W.G. & Laban, C. 1981. An early Holocene tidal flat in the Southern Bight. In Nio, S.-D., Schüttenhelm, R.T.E. & van Weering, Tj.C.E. (eds), Holocene Marine sedimentation in the North Sea Basin, 211–19. Oxford: International Association of Sedimentologists Special Publication 5, Blackwell Scientific.Google Scholar
Evans, J. 1897. Ancient Stone Implements of Great Britain. (2nd ed.). London: Longman.Google Scholar
Fischer, A. 1991. Pioneers in deglaciated landscapes: the expansion and adaptation of Late Palaeolithic societies in southern Scandinavia. In Barton, N., Roberts, A.J. & Roe, D.A. (eds), 1991, 100–21.Google Scholar
Fischer, A. (ed.). 1995. Man and Sea in the Mesolithic. Oxford: Oxbow Monograph 53.Google Scholar
Fischer, A. & Tauber, H. 1986. New C-14 datings of Late Palaeolithic cultures from northwestern Europe. Journal of Danish Archaeology 5, 714.Google Scholar
Funnell, B.N. 1995. Global sea-level and the (pen-)insularity of late Cenozoic Britain. In Preece, R.C. (ed.), Island Britain: a Quaternary perspective, 89110. London: Geological Society Special Publication 96.Google Scholar
Gibbard, P.L. 1988. The history of the great northwest European rivers during the past three million years. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B318, 559602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gibbard, P.L. 1995. The formation of the Strait of Dover. In Preece, R.C. (ed.). Island Britain: a Quaternary perspective, 1526. London: Geological Society Special Publication 96.Google Scholar
Gob, A. 1991. The early Postglacial occupation of the southern part of the North Sea Basin. In Barton, N., Roberts, A.J. & Roe, D.A. (eds), 1991, 227–33.Google Scholar
Godwin, H. & Godwin, M.E. 1933. British Maglemose harpoon sites. Antiquity 7, 3648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gramsch, B. 1992. Friesack Mesolithic wetlands. In Coles, B. (ed.), The Wetland Revolution in Prehistory, 6572. Exeter: Prehistoric Society & WARP, WARP Occasional Paper 6.Google Scholar
Gramsch, B. & Kloss, K. 1989. Excavations near Friesack: an early Mesolithic marshland site in the northern plain of Central Europe. In Bonsall, C. (ed.), The Mesolithic in Europe, 313–24. Edinburgh: John Donald.Google Scholar
Grigson, C. 1989. Bird-foraging patterns in the Mesolithic. In Bonsall, C. (ed.), The Mesolithic in Europe, 6072. Edinburgh: John Donald.Google Scholar
Grosswald, M.G. 1980. Late Weichselian ice sheet of Northern Eurasia. Quaternary Research 13, 132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, D. & Coles, J. 1994. Fenland Survey. An essay in landscape and persistence. London: English Heritage Archaeological Report 1.Google Scholar
Housley, R.A. 1991. AMS dates from the Late Glacial and early Postglacial in north-west Europe: a review. In Barton, N., Roberts, A.J. & Roe, D.A. (eds), 1991, 2539.Google Scholar
Housley, R.A., Gamble, C.S., Street, M. & Pettitt, P. 1997. Radiocarbon evidence for the Lateglacial human recolonisation of northern Europe. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 63, 2554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huntley, B. 1990. European vegetation history: palaeovegetation maps from pollen data – 13000 years BP to present. Journal of Quaternary Science 5(2), 103–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huntley, B. 1993. Rapid early-Holocene migration and high abundance of hazel (Corylus avellana L.): alternative hypothesis. In Chambers, F.M. (ed.), Climate Change and Human Impact on the Landscape, 208–15. London: Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
Innes, J., Tooley, M., Daniels, R. & Tann, G. 1991. Excavation of the intertidal ‘submerged forests’ at Hartlepool Bay, Cleveland, north-east England. News WARP 10, 1417.Google Scholar
Jacobi, R.M., 1976. Britain inside and outside Mesolithic Europe. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 42, 6784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jacobi, R. 1991. The Creswellian, Creswell and Cheddar. In Barton, N., Roberts, A.J. & Roe, D.A. (eds), 1991, 128–40.Google Scholar
Jansen, J.H.F., Weering, Tj.C.E. van & Eisma, D. 1979. Late Quaternary sedimentation in the North Sea. In Oele, E., Schüttenhelm, R.T.E. & Wiggers, A.J. (eds), The Quaternary History of the North Sea, 175–87. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis.Google Scholar
Jelgersma, S. 1979. Sea-level changes in the North Sea basin. In Oele, E., Schüttenhelm, R.T.E. & Wiggers, A.J. (eds), The Quaternary History of the North Sea, 233–48. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis.Google Scholar
Jelgersma, S. & Tooley, M.J. 1992. Impacts of a future sea-level rise in European coastal lowlands. In Tooley, M.J. & Jelgersma, S. (eds), Impacts of Sea-Level Rise on European Coastal Lowlands, 135. Oxford: Institute of British Geographers Special Publication Series 27, Blackwell Scientific.Google Scholar
Johnson, H., Richards, P.C., Long, D. & Graham, C.C. 1993. The Geology of the Northern North Sea. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.Google Scholar
Johnston, P. 1995. The role of hydro-isostasy for Holocene sea-level changes in the British Isles. Marine Geology 124, 6170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jonsson, L. 1995. Vertebrate fauna during the Mesolithic on the Swedish west coast. In Fischer, A. (ed.), 1995, 147–60.Google Scholar
Kenyon, N.H., Belderson, R.H., Stride, A.H. & Johnson, M.A. 1981. Offshore tidal sand-banks as indicators of net sand transport and as potential deposits. In Nio, S.-D., Schüttenhelm, R.T.E. & van Weering, Tj.C.E. (eds), Holocene Marine sedimentation in the North Sea Basin, 211–19. Oxford: International Association of Sedimentologists Special Publication 5, Blackwell Scientific.Google Scholar
Kolfschoten, Tn. van & Laban, C. 1995. Pleistocene terrestrial mammal faunas from the North Sea. Mededelingen Rijks geologische Dienst 52, 135–52.Google Scholar
Kolstrup, E. 1991. Palaeoenvironmental developments during the Late Glacial of the Weichselian. In Barton, N., Roberts, A.J. & Roe, D.A. (eds), 1991, 16.Google Scholar
Lambeck, K. 1993. Glacial rebound of the British Isles – 1. Preliminary model results. Geophysical Journal International 115, 941–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Larsson, L. 1990. The Mesolithic of southern Scandinavia. Journal of World Prehistory 4(3), 257309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Larsson, L. 1995. Man and sea in southern Scandinavia during the Late Mesolithic. The role of cemeteries in the view of society. In Fischer, A. (ed.), 1995, 95104.Google Scholar
Lister, A.M. 1991. Late Glacial mammoths in Britain. In Barton, N., Roberts, A.J. & Roe, D.A. (eds), 1991, 51–9.Google Scholar
Long, D., Laban, C., Streif, H., Cameron, T.D.J. & Schüttenhelm, R.T.E. 1988. The sedimentary record of climate variation in the southern North Sea. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London B318, 523–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Long, D., Wickham-Jones, C.R. & Ruckley, N.A. 1986. A flint artefact from the northern North Sea. In Roe, D.A. (ed.), Studies in the Upper Palaeolithic of Britain and Northwest Europe, 5562. Oxford: British Archaeological Report S296.Google Scholar
Louwe Kooijmans, L.P. 1971. Mesolithic bone and antler implements from the North Sea and from the Netherlands. Berichten van de Rijksdienst Voor Het Oudheidkundz Bodemonderzoek 20–21, 2773.Google Scholar
Louwe Kooijmans, L.P. 1985. Sporen in Het Land. De Nederlandse Delta in de Prehistorie. Amsterdam: Meulenhoff.Google Scholar
Lubbock, J. (Lord Avebury). 1913. Prehistoric Times (7th ed). London: Williams & Norgate.Google Scholar
Ludwig, G., Müller, H. & Streif, H. 1981. New dates on Holocene sea-level changes in the German Bight. In Nio, S.-D., Schüttenhelm, R.T.E. & van Weering, Tj.C.E. (eds), Holocene Marine Sedimentation in the North Sea Basin, 211–19. Oxford: International Association of Sedimentologists Special Publication 5. Blackwell Scientific.Google Scholar
Mayewski, P.A., Buckland, P.C., Edwards, K.J., Meeker, L.D. & O'Brien, S. 1996. Climate change events as seen in the Greenland ice core. In Pollard, T. & Morrison, A. (eds), The Early Prehistory of Scotland, 7484. Edinburgh: University Press.Google Scholar
Meijer, T. & Preece, R.C. 1995. Malacological evidence relating to the insularity of the British Isles during the Quaternary. In Preece, R.C. (ed.), Island Britain: a Quaternary perspective, 89110. London: Geological Society Special Publication 96.Google Scholar
Mordant, C. & Mordant, D. 1992. Noyen-sur-Seine: a mesolithic waterside settlement. In Coles, B.J. (ed.), The Wetland Revolution in Prehistory, 5564. Exeter: Prehistoric Society & WARP, WARP Occasional Paper 6.Google Scholar
Morrison, A. 1980. Early Man in Britain and Ireland. London: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
Nordqvist, B. 1995. The Mesolithic settlements of the west coast of Sweden – with special emphasis on chronology and topography of coastal settlements. In Fischer, A. (ed.), 1995, 185–96.Google Scholar
Pedersen, E., Fischer, A. & Aaby, A. (eds). 1997. The Danish Storebaelt Since the Ice Age. Copenhagen: A/S Storebaelt Fixed Link.Google Scholar
Petersen, K.S. & Rasmussen, K.L. 1995. Late Weichselian and Holocene changes in the marine environment – with examples from North West Denmark. In Fischer, A. (ed.), 1995, 35–8.Google Scholar
Ramsey, C. 1995. OxCal Program v2.18. Oxford: Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit.Google Scholar
Reid, C. 1913. Submerged Forests. Cambridge: University Press.Google Scholar
Rowley-Conwy, P., Zvelibil, M. & Blankholm, H.P. (eds). 1987. Mesolithic Northwest Europe: recent trends. Sheffield: Department of Archaeology & Prehistory, University of Sheffield,.Google Scholar
Schmitt, L. 1995. The West Swedish Hensbacka: a maritime adaptation and a seasonal expression of the North-Central European Ahrensburgian. In Fischer, A. (ed.), 1995, 161–70.Google Scholar
Sejrup, H.P., Aarseth, I., Ellingsen, K.L., Reither, E., Jansen, E., Løvlie, R., Bent, A., Brigham-Grette, J., Larsen, E. & Stoker, M. 1987. Quaternary stratigraphy of the Fladen area, central North Sea: a multidisciplinary study. Journal of Quaternary Science 2, 3558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shennan, I. 1989. Holocene crustal movements and sea-level changes in Great Britain, Journal of Quaternary Science 4(1), 7789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shennan, I. 1992. Impacts of sea-level rise in the Wash, United Kingdom. In Tooley, M.J. & Jelgersma, S. (eds), Impacts of Sea-Level Rise on European Coastal Lowlands, 135. Oxford: Institute of British Geographers Special Publication Series 27, Blackwell.Google Scholar
Skaarup, J. 1995. Hunting the hunters and fishers of the Mesolithic – twenty years of research on the sea floor south of Funen, Denmark. In Fischer, A. (ed.), 1995, 397401.Google Scholar
Smith, C. 1992. Late Stone Age Hunters of the British Isles. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, D.E., Cullingford, R.A. & Haggart, D.A. 1985. A major coastal flood during the Holocene in Eastern Scotland. Eiszeitalter u. Gegenwalt 35, 109–18.Google Scholar
Speth, J.D. 1991. Nutritional constraints and Late Glacial adaptive transformations: the importance of non-protein energy sources. In Barton, N., Roberts, A.J. & Roe, D.A. (eds), 1991, 169–78.Google Scholar
Spikens, P. 1996. Rivers, boundaries and change. A hypothesis of changing settlement patterns in the Mesolithic of northern England. In Pollard, T. & Morrison, A. (eds), The Early Prehistory of Scotland, 87107. Edinburgh: University Press.Google Scholar
Street, M. 1991. Bedburg-Königshoven: a Pre-Boreal Mesolithic site in the Lower Rhineland (Germany). In Barton, N., Roberts, A.J. & Roe, D.A. (eds), 1991, 256–70.Google Scholar
Stuart, A.J. 1995. Insularity and Quaternary vertebrate faunas in Britain and Ireland. In Preece, R.C. (ed.), Island Britain: a Quaternary perspective, 111–25. London: Geological Society Special Publications 96Google Scholar
Sutcliffe, A.J. 1985. On the track of Ice Age mammals. London: British Museum Natural History.Google Scholar
Tipping, R. 1991. Climatic change in Scotland during the Devensian Late Glacial: the palynological record. In Barton, N., Roberts, A.J. & Roe, D.A. (eds), 1991, 721.Google Scholar
Tipping, R. 1996. Microscopic charcoal records, inferred human activity and climate change in the Mesolithic of northernmost Scotland. In Pollard, T. & Morrison, A. (eds), The Early Prehistory of Scotland, 3961. Edinburgh: University Press.Google Scholar
Van der Meer, J.J. & Laban, C. 1990. Micromorphology of some North Sea till samples, a pilot study. Journal of Quaternary Science 5(2), 95101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Verhart, L.B.M. 1995. Fishing for the Mesolithic. The North Sea: a submerged Mesolithic landscape. In Fischer, A. (ed.), 1991, 291302.Google Scholar
Walker, M.J.C. & Harkness, D.D. 1990. Radiocarbon dating the Devensian Lateglacial in Britain: new evidence from Llanilid, South Wales. Journal of Quaternary Science 5(2), 135–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waller, M. 1994. The Fenland Project, Number 9: Flandrian Environmental Change in Fenland. East Anglian Archaeology 70. Cambridge: Cambridgeshire Archaeological Committee.Google Scholar
Whittle, A. 1996. Europe in the Neolithic. The Creation of New Worlds. Cambridge: University Press.Google Scholar
Wilson, D. 1851. The Archaeology and Prehistoric Annals of Scotland. Edinburgh: Sutherland and Knox.Google Scholar
Wymer, J. 1991. Mesolithic Britain. Princes Risborough: Shire Archaeology.Google Scholar
Wymer, J.J. & Robins, P.A. 1994. A long blade flint industry beneath Boreal peat at Titchwell, Norfolk. Norfolk Archaeology 42, 1337.Google Scholar
Zvelebil, M. 1994. Plant use in the Mesolithic and its role in the transition to farming. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 60, 3574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Doggerland: a Speculative Survey
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Doggerland: a Speculative Survey
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Doggerland: a Speculative Survey
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *