1. For the distinction between soft and hard totalizations in political criticism, see Jameson, Frederic, The Political Unconscious: Narrative as a Socially Symbolic Act (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1981), esp. 91–93.
2. This portrait is reproduced as a frontispiece to Adams, Russell B. Jr, King C. Gillette: The Man and His Wonderful Shaving Device (Boston: Little, Brown, 1978).
3. Whitman, Walt, Democratic Vistas (1876), in Prose Works 1892, ed. Stovall, Floyd (New York: New York University Press, 1963): 364, 418.
4. Gillette, King C., The Human Drift (1894; rept. Delmar, N.Y.: Scholars' Facsimiles and Reprints, 1976), 3. Subsequent references to this text use the abbreviation HD followed by the page number.
5. The major sources of biographical material on Gillette are Kenneth M. Roemer, introduction to The Human Drift, by Gillette; Adams, King C. Gillette; and Spang, J. P., Look Sharp! Feel Sharp! Be Sharp! Gillette Safety Razor Company, Fifty Years, 1901–1951 (New York: Newcomen Society in North America, 1951). Also of use is Mansfield, Howard, “The Razor King,” American Heritage of Invention and Technology 7, no. 4 (Spring 1992): 40–46.
6. Adams, , King C. Gillette, 18–19.;
7. See, for example, Lears, T. J. Jackson, Fables of Abundance: A Cultural History of Advertising in America (New York: Basic, 1994); Trachtenberg, Alan, The Incorporation of America: Culture and Society in the Gilded Age (New York: Hill and Wang, 1982); Horwitz, Howard, By the Law of Nature: Form and Value in Nineteenth-Century America (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991); Banta, Martha, Taylored Lives: Narrative Productions in the Age of Taylor, Veblen and Ford (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993); and Livingston, James, Pragmatism and the Political Economy of Cultural Revolution, 1850–1940 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994). The work of Howard P. Segal similarly challenges binary oppositions between technology and nature by examining the inspirational effect of industrial technologies; see Technological Utopianism in American Culture (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985) and Future Imperfect: The Mixed Blessings of Technology in America (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1994).
8. Both Adams and Roemer point out this similarity, with Roemer discussing the parallels in detail (see Roemer, , introduction to The Human Drift, xiii–xvi).
9. Spang, , Look Sharp! 12.
10. Roemer, , introduction to The Human Drift, xiv–xv, original emphasis.
11. Horwitz, Howard, “The Standard Oil Trust as Emersonian Hero,” Raritan 6, no. 4 (1987): 97–119. He elaborates the “isomorphic” affinities between transcendental idealism and “protectionist” economic ideas of the period in By the Law of Nature. See also Trachtenberg, Incorporation of America.
12. Spang, , Look Sharp! 13
13. Adams, , King C. Gillette, 34.
15. Drawing on the insights of Max Weber, many critics have examined the influences of Protestant beliefs on commercial developments; see Weber, , The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, trans. Parsons, Talcott (1904–1905; rept. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1958). Campbell, Colin presents what he sees as the “other” Protestant ethic in The Romantic Ethic and the Spirit of Modern Consumerism (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1987). A provocative overview of the commercial implications of Emerson's philosophy can be found in Horwitz, , By the Law of Nature, ch. 2, “Transcendentalism and Protectionism.” I have argued that Emerson drew inspiration from his commercial surroundings; see “‘Working After His Thought’: The Signification of Industry in Emerson's The Conduct of Life,” American Transcendental Quarterly 7, no. 1 (1993): 45–63.
16. Whitman, , Democratic Vistas, 421.
17. Emerson, , The Conduct of Life, vol. 6 of The Complete Works of Ralph Waldo Emerson, ed. Emerson, Edward W. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1903–1904), 93.
18. Adams, , King C. Gillette, 86–87.
19. Mansfield, Howard, Cosmopolis: Yesterday's Cities of the Future (New Brunswick, N.J.: Center for Urban Policy Research, 1990).
20. Lears discusses factories as a “new icon of abundance” in Fables of Abundance, and Strasser, Susan also gives examples of technological modernity in 19th-century ads in Satisfaction Guaranteed: The Making of the American Mass Market (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1995), esp. 109–15. On the development of American advertising in general, see Pope, Daniel, The Making of Modern Advertising (New York: Basic, 1983).
21. A reproduction of the letterhead appears in Adams, King C. Gillette.
22. Lears, , Fables of Abundance, esp. ch. 2, “The Modernization of Magic,” 40–74.
23. A colorful account of Procter and Gamble's early advertising, including many reproduced ads, appears in Goodrum, Charles and Dalrymple, Helen, Advertising in America: The First 200 Years (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1990), 49–54.
24. Lears examines in detail the transitions from patent medicine carnivalesque to more professionalized tactics; see Fables of Abundance, esp. part II, “The Containment of Carnival: Advertising and American Social Values from the Patent Medicine Era to the Consolidation of Corporate Power.”
25. Bellamy, Edward's Looking Backward (1888) and Equality (1898) are important examples. Peck, Bradford's The World a Department Store (1900) reduces such calculations of saved costs to a sort of popular slogan.
26. Adams, , King C. Gillette, 55–56.
28. These ads are reproduced in Adams, King C. Gillette (n.p.), and in Goodrum, and Dalrymple, , Advertising in America, 114–15.
29. Reproduced in Goodrum, and Dalrymple, , Advertising in America, 114.
31. Lears, 's essay “From Salvation to Self-Realization: Advertising and the Social Roots of Consumer Culture, 1880–1930,” in The Culture of Consumption: Critical Essays in American History, 1880–1980, ed. Fox, Richard Wightman and Lears, T. J. Jackson (New York: Pantheon, 1983) was an early attempt to examine advertising's secularization of spiritual ideas and the “pattern of unintentional collaboration” (xv) between moralist reformers and advertisers. A sociological and semiological examination of advertising's social signification can be found in Leiss, William, Kline, Stephen, and Jhally, Sut, Social Communication in Advertising: Persons, Products and Images of Well-Being (Toronto: Methuenrm, 1986).
32. Adams, , King C. Gillette, 56.
34. Adams gives examples of the coercive “social consciousness” genre of advertising used by Gillette, in the 1930s (King C. Gillette, 169–70).
36. Lipow, Arthur, Authoritarian Socialism in America: Edward Bellamy and the Nationalist Movement (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982).
37. Lipow discusses his political assumptions explicitly and honestly; see his preface, ix–xii