1. For recent studies of classic and nonclassic passing narratives, see Wald Gayle's Crossing the Line: Racial Passing in 20th Century American Literature and Culture (Durham: Duke University Press, 2000); Kawash Samira's Dislocating the Color Line: Identity, Hybridity, and Singularity in African-American Literature (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997); Harper Philip Brian's chapter on passing in Are We Not Men? (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996); and Fabi Maria Giulia's Passing and the Rise of the African-American Novel (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2001). Two collections are helpful: Ginsberg Elaine's Passing and the Fictions of Identity (Durham: Duke University Press, 1996) and Sanchez Maria and Schlossberg Linda's Passing: Identity and Interpretation in Sexuality, Race, and Religion (New York: New York University Press, 2001). The most recent books to treat passing are Kennedy Randall's Interracial Intimacies (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003) and Taltry Stephen's Mulatto America (New York: HarperCollins, 2003).
2. Awkward Michael, Negotiating Difference: Race, Gender, and the Politics of Positionality (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995), 19. Lött Eric's “White Like Me: Racial Cross Dressing and the Construction of American Whiteness” (in Cultures of U.S. Imperialism, ed. Kaplan Amy and Pease Donald E. [Durham: Duke University Press, 1993], 474–95) deals with this theme, but Lott equates skin dye and passing with blackface, which I do not. For similar treatments, see Lott 's Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995); Roediger David's The Wages of Whiteness (New York: Verso, 1991); and Rogin Michael's Blackface, White Noise: Jewish Immigrants in the Hollywood Melting Pot (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996).
3. Awkward , Negotiating Difference, 80–81.
4. Chesnutt Charles, “Mars Jeems's Nightmare,” in The Conjure Woman (1899; rept. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1969).
5. For more on Chesnutt's radical reworking of the plantation-genre tradition, see Nowatzki Robert's “‘Passing’ in a White Genre: Charles W. Chesnutt's Negotiations of the Plantation Tradition in The Conjure Woman,” American Literary Realism 27, no. 1 (Winter 1995): 20–36; Duncan Charles's “The White and the Black: Charles W. Chesnutt's Narrator-Protagonists and the Limits of Authorship,” Journal of Narrative Technique 28, no. 2 (Winter 1995): 111–33; Molineaux Sandra's “Expanding the Collective Memory: Charles W. Chesnutt's The Conjure Woman Tales,” in Memory, Narrative, Identity, ed. Singh Amrijit, Skerrett Joseph, and Hogan Robert (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1994), 164–76; Terry Eugene's “The Shadow of Slavery in Charles Chesnutt's The Conjure Woman,” Ethnic Groups 4, no. 1–2 (1982): 104–25; Babb Valerie's “Subversion and Repatriation in The Conjure Woman,” Southern Quarterly 25, no. 2 (Winter 1987): 66–75; and Fienberg Lome's “Charles W. Chesnutt and Uncle Julius: Black Storytellers at the Crossroads,” Studies in American Fiction 15, no. 2 (Autumn 1987): 161–73. For a book-length study of Chesnutt's progressivism, see Andrews William L., The Literary Career of Charles W. Chesnutt (Baton Rouge: Louisiana Sate University Press, 1980); Andrews also argues that Chesnutt employs the plantation tradition for subversive purposes. Sundquist Eric, in To Wake the Nations: Race in the Making of American Literature (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993), discusses Chesnutt in the context of the Uncle Remus stories, and Brodhead Richard places Chesnutt's tales in a broader literary context in Cultures of Letters: Scenes of Reading and Writing in Nineteenth-Century America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993).
6. Petrie Paul, “Charles W Chesnutt, The Conjure Woman, and the Racial Limits of Literary Meditation,” Studies in American Fiction 27, no. 2 (Autumn 1999): 183–85.
7. Sundquist, To Wake the Nations.
8. Gubar Susan, Race Changes: White Skin, Black Face in American Culture (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 25.
9. Slotkin Richard, Regeneration Through Violence (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1973), 110–12.
10. Cited in Sundquist , To Wake the Nations, 357.
11. Chesnutt Charles, The House Behind the Cedars (1900; rept. New York: Penguin, 1993).
12. Harper Philip Brian, Are We Not Men? Masculine Anxiety and the Problem of African-American Identity (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), 126.
13. Douglas Ann, Terrible Honesty: Mongrel Manhattan in the 1920s (New York: Noonday, 1995), 77.
14. Larsen Nella, Passing (1929; rept. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1986), 206; Johnson James Weldon, The Autobiography of an Ex-Coloured Man (1927; rept. New York: Vintage, 1989), 172–73; and Schuyler George, Black No More (1931; rept. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1989), 59.
15. Douglas , Terrible Honesty, 295.
16. Time, 03 28, 1960, 90.
17. Wald Gayle, Crossing the Line: Racial Passing in 20th Century American Literature and Culture (Durham: Duke University Press, 2000), 180. For other readings, see Baldwin Kate's “Black Like Who? Cross-testing the ‘Real’ Lines of John Howard Griffin's Black Like Me,” Cultural Critique 40 (Fall 1998): 103–43; and Lott 's “White Like Me,” 474–95.
18. Kawash , Dislocating the Color Line, 9.
19. Saturday Review, 12 9, 1961, 53–54.
20. The New Yorker called it “tardy and misguided,” attacking the screenplay writers for “scarcely troubl[ing] to disguise from us that it's a tract” (May 23, 1964, 151–52); and Newsweek declared, “Horton's agonizing discovery of all the clichés of the past 300 years makes Black Like Me obscenely embarrassing. For a while, one almost expects him to burst into ‘Mammy’ a la Jolson. Alas! No such relief” (May 25, 1964, 110–11).
21. Halberstam Judith, Skin Shows (Durham: Duke University Press, 1995), 7.
22. The first film was Crossfire (1947), directed by Edward Dmytryk and starring Robert Mitchum.
23. Kate Baldwin sees this as central to Black Like Me; in Gentleman's Agreement, Phil closes his article by stating, “Equality and freedom remain still the only choice for wholeness and soundness in a man or in a nation.”
24. Cohen Elliot E., “Mr. Zanuck's Gentleman's Agreement: Reflections on Hollywood's Second Film About Anti-Semitism” Commentary 5 (01 48): 51–56.
25. Frank Waldo, Memoirs of Waldo Frank, ed. Trachtenberg Alan (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1973), 103.
29. Commonweal, 10 27, 1961, 128–29.
30. Daniel Bradford and Griffin John Howard, “Why They Can't Wait: An Interview with a White Negro,” Progressive, 07 1964, 15–19.
31. Michaels Walter Benn, “Autobiography of an Ex-White Man: Why Race Is Not a Social Construction,” Transition 73, vol. 7, no. 1 (1998): 122–43.
32. See Schuyler George's oft-cited reaction to the Harlem Renaissance, in “The Negro Art Hokum,” Nation 122 (06 16, 1926): 622. For a thorough reading of the simultaneous essentialism and antiessentialism at work in Black No More, see Morgan Stacy's “The Strange and Wonderful Workings of Science: Race Science and Essentialism in George Schuyler's Black No More,” College Language Association Journal 42, no. 3 (03 1999): 331–52.
33. Morgan , “Strange and Wonderful,” 191.
34. Maupin Armistead, Tales of the City (New York: Harper and Row, 1978).
35. Solomon Joshua, “Skin Deep,” Washington Post, 10 30, 1994.
36. Cited in Margaret Walters's review in Listener 3000 (February 26, 1987), 30. See also Floyd Nigel's review in the Monthly Film Bulletin (637 [02 1987]: 60–61), which criticizes the film's use of racial stereotypes, and Schickel Richard's review in Time (11 24, 1986, 98), which mentions Gentleman's Agreement.
37. Gunning Tom, “An Aesthetic of Astonishment: Early Film and the Incredulous Spectator,” in Film Theory and Criticism, ed. Braudy Leo and Cohen Marshall (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 818–32.
38. Back Les and Ware Vron, Out of Whiteness (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001), 93.