Skip to main content
×
×
Home

[No title]

  • Swaran P. Singh (a1)
Extract

Depression is the commonest psychiatric disorder in the industrialised world. Many patients are now diagnosed and treated with effective antidepressants by primary care physicians. A large proportion of depressed individuals fail to reach their premorbid level of functioning following a course of treatment; estimates vary from 10% to 30% (Nierenberg & Amsterdam, 1990). These individuals require a major input from the services and suffer prolonged distress, with many adverse personal, social and economic consequences.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      [No title]
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      [No title]
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      [No title]
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
Hide All
Alarcon, A. D. (1985) Rapid cycling affective disorders: a clinical review. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 26, 522540.
Avery, D. & Lubrano, A. (1979) Depression treated with imipramine and electroconvulsive therapy: the De Carolis study reconsidered. American Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 559562.
Barraclough, B. M. & Pallis, D. J. (1975) Depression followed by suicide: a comparison of depressed suicides with living depressives. Psychological Medicine, 5, 5561.
Book, H. E. (1987) Some psychodynamics of noncompliance. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 32, 115117.
Bridges, P. (1991) Psychosurgery for resistant depression: progress and problems. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 6(Suppl. 1), 7380.
Cassano, G. B., Maggini, C. & Akiskal, H. S. (1983) Short-term, subchronic, and chronic sequelae of affective disorders. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 6, 5568.
Cowdry, R. W., Wehr, T. V. & Zis, A. P. (1982) Thyroid abnormalities associated with rapid cyclic bipolar illness. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 414420.
Dessauer, M., Goetze, U. & Tolls, R. (1985) Periodic sleep deprivation in drug refractory depression. Neuropsychobiology, 13, 111116.
Dinan, T. G. & Mobayed, M. (1992) Treatment resistance of depression after head injury: a preliminary study of amitriptyline response. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 85, 292294.
Dunner, D. L. & Fieve, R. D. (1974) Clinical factors in lithium prophylaxis failure. Archives of General Psychiatry, 30, 229233.
Guscott, R. & Grof, P. (1991) The clinical meaning of refractory depression: a review for the clinician. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 695704.
Hirschfeld, R. M. A., Klerman, G. L., Andreasen, N. C. et al (1986) Psycho-social predictors of chronicity in depressed patients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 648654.
Joffe, R. T. & Singer, W. (1992) Antidepressants and thyroid hormone levels. Acta Medica Austriaca, 10(Suppl. 1), 9697.
Keller, M. B. & Shapiro, R. W. (1982) “Double depression”: superimposition of acute depressive episodes on chronic depressive disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 138, 438442.
Keller, M. B. & Shapiro, R. W. Klerman, G. L., Lavori, P. W., et al (1984) Long term episodes of major depression: Clinical and public health significance. Journal of the American Medical Association, 252, 788792.
Keller, M. B. & Shapiro, R. W. Lavori, P. W., Rice, P., et al (1986) The persistent risk of chronicity in recurrent episodes of non-bipolar major depressive disorders: A prospective follow-up. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 2428.
Klein, D. F. & Davis, J. (1968) Diagnosis and Drug Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders, 1st edn. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
Klein, D. F. & Davis, J. Taylor, E. B., Harding, K., et al (1988) Double depression and episodic major depression: demographic, clinical, familial, personality and socioenvironmental characteristics and short-term outcome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 12261231.
Kraepelin, E. (1913) Lectures on Clinical Psychiatry. London: Ballière Tindall & Cox.
Kupfer, D. J., Frank, E., Perel, J. M., et al (1992) Five year outcome for maintenance therapies in recurrent depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 769771.
Lee, A. S. & Murray, R. M. (1988) The long term outcome of Maudsley depressives. British Journal of Psychiatry, 183, 741751.
Levitt, A. J., Joffe, R. T. & Kennedy, S. H. (1991) Bright light augmentation in antidepressant nonresponders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 52, 336337.
MacEwan, W. G. & Remick, R. A. (1988) Treatment-resistant depression: a clinical perspective. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 33, 788792.
Mintz, J., Mintz, L. I., Arruda, M. J., et al (1992) Treatment of depression and the functional capacity to work. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 761768.
Murphy, E. & Macdonald, A. (1992) Affective disorders in old age. In Handbook of Affective Disorders, 2nd edn (ed. E. S. Paykel). London: Churchill Livingstone.
Nelson, M. R. & Dunner, D. L. (1993) Treatment resistance in unipolar depression and other disorders: Diagnostic concerns and treatment possibilities. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 16, 541566.
Nierenberg, A. A. (1992) A systematic approach to treatment-resistant depression. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 10, 514.
Nierenberg, A. A. & Amsterdam, J. D. (1990) Treatment-resistant depression: Definition and treatment approaches. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 51(Suppl. 6), 3947.
Post, R. M., Uhde, T. W., Roy-Byrne, P. P., et al (1986) Antidepressant effects of carbamazepine. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 2934.
Quitkin, F. M., Rabun, G. J., Ross, D., et al (1984) Duration of antidepressant treatment Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 239245.
Scott, J. & Eccleston, D. (1991) Prediction, treatment and prognosis of chronic major depression. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 6(Suppl. 1), 4149.
Stewart, J. W., McGrath, P. J., Rabkin, J. G., et al (1993) Atypical depression: A valid clinical entity. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 16, 479495.
Stoudmire, A., Frank, R., Hedemark, N., et al (1986) The economic burden of depression. General Hospital Psychiatry, 8, 387394.
Styron, W. (1991) Darkness Visible. London: Johnathan Cape.
Warneke, L. (1990) Psychostimulants in psychiatry. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 310.
Whybrow, P. C., Akiskal, H. S. & McKinney, W. T. (1984) Mood Disorders: Towards a New Psychobiology. New York: Plenum.
World Health Organization (1992) The Tenth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD–10). Geneva: WHO.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

BJPsych Bulletin
  • ISSN: 0955-6036
  • EISSN: 1472-1473
  • URL: /core/journals/bjpsych-bulletin
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 1 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 8 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 2nd January 2018 - 22nd July 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

[No title]

  • Swaran P. Singh (a1)
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *