Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 32
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Morrison, K.E. Rodgers, A.B. Morgan, C.P. and Bale, T.L. 2014. Epigenetic mechanisms in pubertal brain maturation. Neuroscience, Vol. 264, p. 17.


    Willner, Paul Scheel-Krüger, Jørgen and Belzung, Catherine 2013. The neurobiology of depression and antidepressant action. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, Vol. 37, Issue. 10, p. 2331.


    Willner, Paul and Belzung, Catherine 2015. Treatment-resistant depression: are animal models of depression fit for purpose?. Psychopharmacology, Vol. 232, Issue. 19, p. 3473.


    Schimmenti, Adriano and Bifulco, Antonia 2015. Linking lack of care in childhood to anxiety disorders in emerging adulthood: the role of attachment styles. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Vol. 20, Issue. 1, p. 41.


    Byrom, Nicola C. and Murphy, Robin A. 2013. It's Not Just What We Encode, but How We Encode It: Associations Between Neuroticism and Learning. Journal of Personality, Vol. 81, Issue. 4, p. 345.


    Treadway, M T and Leonard, C V 2016. Isolating biomarkers for symptomatic states: considering symptom–substrate chronometry. Molecular Psychiatry, Vol. 21, Issue. 9, p. 1180.


    Brenner, Adam M. 2016. Revisiting the Biopsychosocial Formulation: Neuroscience, Social Science, and the Patient’s Subjective Experience. Academic Psychiatry, Vol. 40, Issue. 5, p. 740.


    Spinhoven, Philip Elzinga, Bernet M. Van Hemert, Albert M. de Rooij, Mark and Penninx, Brenda W. 2016. Childhood maltreatment, maladaptive personality types and level and course of psychological distress: A six-year longitudinal study. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 191, p. 100.


    van Loo, Hanna M de Jonge, Peter Romeijn, Jan-Willem Kessler, Ronald C and Schoevers, Robert A 2012. Data-driven subtypes of major depressive disorder: a systematic review. BMC Medicine, Vol. 10, Issue. 1,


    Williamson, J Austin McCabe, Jennifer E. O'Hara, Michael W. Hart, Kimberly J. LaPlante, David P. and King, Suzanne 2013. Parenting stress in early motherhood: stress spillover and social support1. Comprehensive Psychology, Vol. 2, Issue. 1, p. Article 11.


    Kandler, Christian and Ostendorf, Fritz 2016. Additive and Synergetic Contributions of Neuroticism and Life Events to Depression and Anxiety in Women. European Journal of Personality, Vol. 30, Issue. 4, p. 390.


    Maciejewski, Dominique F. van Lier, Pol A. C. Neumann, Anna Van der Giessen, Daniëlle Branje, Susan J. T. Meeus, Wim H. J. and Koot, Hans M. 2014. The Development of Adolescent Generalized Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in the Context of Adolescent Mood Variability and Parent-Adolescent Negative Interactions. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Vol. 42, Issue. 4, p. 515.


    Garcia, Sarah E. Tully, Erin C. Tarantino, Nicholas South, Susan Iacono, William G. and McGue, Matt 2013. Changes in genetic and environmental influences on trait anxiety from middle adolescence to early adulthood. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 151, Issue. 1, p. 46.


    Shimizu, K. Nakaya, N. Saito-Nakaya, K. Akechi, T. Ogawa, A. Fujisawa, D. Sone, T. Yoshiuchi, K. Goto, K. Iwasaki, M. Tsugane, S. and Uchitomi, Y. 2015. Personality traits and coping styles explain anxiety in lung cancer patients to a greater extent than other factors. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol. 45, Issue. 5, p. 456.


    Mantere, Outi Soronen, Pia Uher, Rudolf Ketokivi, Mikko Jylhä, Pekka Melartin, Tarja Paunio, Tiina and Isometsä, Erkki 2012. NEUROTICISM MEDIATES THE EFFECT OF P2RX7 ON OUTCOMES OF MOOD DISORDERS. Depression and Anxiety, Vol. 29, Issue. 9, p. 816.


    VAN OS, JIM DELESPAUL, PHILIPPE WIGMAN, JOHANNA MYIN-GERMEYS, INEZ and WICHERS, MARIEKE 2013. Psychiatry beyond labels: introducing contextual precision diagnosis across stages of psychopathology. Psychological Medicine, Vol. 43, Issue. 07, p. 1563.


    van Veen, Tineke Goeman, Jelle J. Monajemi, Ramin Wardenaar, Klaas J. Hartman, Catharina A. Snieder, Harold Nolte, Ilja M. Penninx, Brenda W.J.H. and Zitman, Frans G. 2012. Different gene sets contribute to different symptom dimensions of depression and anxiety. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, Vol. 159B, Issue. 5, p. 519.


    van Veen, T. Wardenaar, K.J. Carlier, I.V.E. Spinhoven, P. Penninx, B.W.J.H. and Zitman, F.G. 2013. Are childhood and adult life adversities differentially associated with specific symptom dimensions of depression and anxiety? Testing the tripartite model. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 146, Issue. 2, p. 238.


    Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo Moraes, Claudia Leite Lopes, Claudia Souza and Lobato, Gustavo 2014. The role of intimate partner violence and other health-related social factors on postpartum common mental disorders: a survey-based structural equation modeling analysis. BMC Public Health, Vol. 14, Issue. 1,


    van Os, Jim Delespaul, Philippe Wigman, Johanna Myin-Germeys, Inez and Wichers, Marieke 2013. Beyond DSM and ICD: introducing “precision diagnosis” for psychiatry using momentary assessment technology. World Psychiatry, Vol. 12, Issue. 2, p. 113.


    ×

A longitudinal etiologic model for symptoms of anxiety and depression in women

  • K. S. Kendler (a1) (a2) and C. O. Gardner (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291711000225
  • Published online: 11 April 2011
Abstract
Background

Designed as state measures to monitor treatment response, symptoms of anxiety and depression (SxAnxDep) also have trait-like characteristics. No comprehensive etiologic model for SxAnxDep has illuminated the inter-relationship between their state- and trait-like characteristics, while including key predictor variables.

Method

In a prospective three-wave study of 2395 female twins from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders (VATSPSUD), we examined, using structural equation modeling, how genes, childhood and past-year environmental stressors, personality and episodes of major depression (MD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) influence SxAnxDep.

Results

The best-fit model, which explained 68–74% of the variance in SxAnxDep, revealed two etiologic pathways. Stable levels of SxAnxDep resulted largely from neuroticism, which in turn was influenced by genetic and early environment risk factors. Occasion-specific influences resulted from stressful events mediated through episodes of MD or GAD. These two pathways, which had approximately equal influences on levels of SxAnxDep, were substantially correlated because the genetic, early environmental and personality factors that impacted on stable symptom levels also predisposed to event exposure and disorder onset. No significant interaction was seen between the two pathways.

Conclusions

SxAnxDep in women in the general population arise from two inter-related causal pathways. The first, the ‘trait-like’ pathway, reflects genetic and early environmental risk factors, and is mediated largely through personality. The second pathway is mediated through episodes of MD and GAD, and is the result of both recent environmental adversities and trait-like factors that influence event exposure and the probability of disorder onset.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: K. S. Kendler, M.D., Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics of VCU, Box 980126, Richmond, VA 23298-0126, USA. (Email: kendler@vcu.edu)
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

PM Bentler (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin 107, 238246.

N Bolger , EA Schilling (1991). Personality and the problems of everyday life: the role of neuroticism in exposure and reactivity to daily stressors. Journal of Personality 59, 355386.

DI Boomsma , CE van Beijsterveldt , JJ Hudziak (2005). Genetic and environmental influences on Anxious/Depression during childhood: a study from the Netherlands Twin Register. Genes, Brain, and Behavior 4, 466481.

N Breslau , GC Davis (1985). DSM-III generalized anxiety disorder: an empirical investigation of more stringent criteria. Psychiatry Research 15, 231238.

WJ Burke , I Gergel , A Bose (2002). Fixed-dose trial of the single isomer SSRI escitalopram in depressed outpatients. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 63, 331336.

LA Clark , D Watson , S Mineka (1994). Temperament, personality, and the mood and anxiety disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 103, 103116.

A Coppen , M Metcalfe (1965). Effect of a depressive illness on M.P.I. scores. British Journal of Psychiatry 111, 236239.

P Duncan-Jones , DM Fergusson , J Ormel , LJ Horwood (1990). A model of stability and change in minor psychiatric symptoms: results from three longitudinal studies. Psychological Medicine. Monograph Supplement 18, 128.

SBG Eysenck , HJ Eysenck , P Barrett (1985). A revised version of the psychoticism scale. Personality and Individual Differences 6, 2129.

M Fava , J Alpert , AA Nierenberg , D Mischoulon , MW Otto , J Zajecka , H Murck , JF Rosenbaum (2005). A double-blind, randomized trial of St John's wort, fluoxetine, and placebo in major depressive disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 25, 441447.

DM Fergusson , LJ Horwood , JM Lawton (1989). The relationships between neuroticism and depressive symptoms. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 24, 275281.

NA Gillespie , KM Kirk , DM Evans , AC Heath , IB Hickie , NG Martin (2004). Do the genetic or environmental determinants of anxiety and depression change with age? A longitudinal study of Australian twins. Twin Research 7, 3953.

B Headey (2010). The set point theory of well-being has serious flaws: on the eve of a scientific revolution? Social Indicators Research 97, 721.

B Headey , A Wearing (1989). Personality, life events, and subjective well-being: toward a dynamic equilibrium model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57, 731739.

JM Hettema , CA Prescott , KS Kendler (2004). Genetic and environmental sources of covariation between generalized anxiety disorder and neuroticism. American Journal of Psychiatry 161, 15811587.

LJ Horwood , DM Fergusson (1986). Neuroticism, depression and life events: a structural equation model. Social Psychiatry 21, 6371.

R Jardine , NG Martin , AS Henderson (1984). Genetic covariation between neuroticism and the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Genetic Epidemiology 1, 89107.

LL Judd , MH Rapaport , KA Yonkers , AJ Rush , E Frank , ME Thase , DJ Kupfer , JM Plewes , PJ Schettler , G Tollefson (2004). Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine for acute treatment of minor depressive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 161, 18641871.

KS Kendler , JH Baker (2007). Genetic influences on measures of the environment: a systematic review. Psychological Medicine 37, 615626.

KS Kendler , CM Bulik , J Silberg , JM Hettema , J Myers , CA Prescott (2000). Childhood sexual abuse and adult psychiatric and substance use disorders in women: an epidemiological and cotwin control analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry 57, 953959.

KS Kendler , CO Gardner , P Lichtenstein (2008). A developmental twin study of symptoms of anxiety and depression: evidence for genetic innovation and attenuation. Psychological Medicine 38, 15671575.

KS Kendler , M Gatz , C Gardner , NL Pedersen (2006). Personality and major depression: a Swedish longitudinal, population-based twin study. Archives of General Psychiatry 63, 11131120.

KS Kendler , A Heath , NG Martin , LJ Eaves (1986). Symptoms of anxiety and depression in a volunteer twin population. The etiologic role of genetic and environmental factors. Archives of General Psychiatry 43, 213221.

KS Kendler , LM Karkowski , CA Prescott (1998). Stressful life events and major depression: risk period, long-term contextual threat, and diagnostic specificity. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 186, 661669.

KS Kendler , MC Neale , RC Kessler , AC Heath , LJ Eaves (1992). Generalized anxiety disorder in women. A population-based twin study. Archives of General Psychiatry 49, 267272.

KS Kendler , MC Neale , RC Kessler , AC Heath , LJ Eaves (1993). A longitudinal twin study of personality and major depression in women. Archives of General Psychiatry 50, 853862.

KS Kendler , CA Prescott (1999). A population-based twin study of lifetime major depression in men and women. Archives of General Psychiatry 56, 3944.

S Lee , A Tsang , AM Ruscio , JM Haro , DJ Stein , J Alonso , MC Angermeyer , EJ Bromet , K Demyttenaere , G de Girolamo , R de Graaf , O Gureje , N Iwata , EG Karam , JP Lepine , D Levinson , ME Medina-Mora , MAO Browne , J Posada-Villa , RC Kessler (2009). Implications of modifying the duration requirement of generalized anxiety disorder in developed and developing countries. Psychological Medicine 39, 11631176.

RE Lucas , AE Clark , Y Georgellis , E Diener (2004). Unemployment alters the set point for life satisfaction. Psychological Science 15, 813.

K Magnus , E Diener , F Fujita , W Pavot (1993). Extraversion and neuroticism as predictors of objective life events: a longitudinal analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 65, 10461053.

M McGue , K Christensen (1997). Genetic and environmental contributions to depression symptomatology: evidence from Danish twins 75 years of age and older. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 106, 439448.

TG O'Connor , JM Neiderhiser , D Reiss , EM Hetherington , R Plomin (1998). Genetic contributions to continuity, change, and co-occurrence of antisocial and depressive symptoms in adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 39, 323336.

J Ormel , WB Schaufeli (1991). Stability and change in psychological distress and their relationship with self-esteem and locus of control: a dynamic equilibrium model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 60, 288299.

J Ormel , T Wohlfarth (1991). How neuroticism, long-term difficulties, and life situation change influence psychological distress: a longitudinal model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 60, 744755.

G Parker , H Tupling , L Brown (1979). A parental bonding instrument. British Journal of Medical Psychology 52, 110.

JL Silberg , AC Heath , R Kessler , MC Neale , JM Meyer , LJ Eaves , KS Kendler (1990). Genetic and environmental effects on self-reported depressive symptoms in a general population twin sample. Journal of Psychiatric Research 24, 197212.

JH Steiger (1990). Structural model evaluation and modification: an interval estimation approach. Multivariate Behavioral Research 25, 173180.

MJ Taylor (2007). Rapid onset of true antidepressant action. Current Psychiatry Reports 9, 475479.

LR Tucker , C Lewis (1973). A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis. Psychometrika 38, 110.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: