Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 72
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Burrows, Emma L. and Hannan, Anthony J. 2016. Cognitive endophenotypes, gene–environment interactions and experience-dependent plasticity in animal models of schizophrenia. Biological Psychology, Vol. 116, p. 82.


    Selemon, L D and Zecevic, N 2015. Schizophrenia: a tale of two critical periods for prefrontal cortical development. Translational Psychiatry, Vol. 5, Issue. 8, p. e623.


    Matheson, S. L. Shepherd, A. M. and Carr, V. J. 2014. How much do we know about schizophrenia and how well do we know it? Evidence from the Schizophrenia Library. Psychological Medicine, Vol. 44, Issue. 16, p. 3387.


    van Os, J. 2012. Psychotic experiences: disadvantaged and different from the norm. The British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 201, Issue. 4, p. 258.


    Rüsch, N. and Becker, T. 2015. Anti-stigma interventions in high- and lower-income settings – a lot remains to be done. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, Vol. 24, Issue. 05, p. 399.


    Jablensky, Assen 2013. Improving Mental Health Care.


    Kirmayer, Laurence J. and Gold, Ian 2011. Critical Neuroscience.


    Kirkbride, James B. 2014. The emerging molecular architecture of schizophrenia, polygenic risk scores and the clinical implications for gXe research. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, Vol. 49, Issue. 10, p. 1531.


    Tost, Heike and Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas 2012. Puzzling over schizophrenia: Schizophrenia, social environment and the brain. Nature Medicine, Vol. 18, Issue. 2, p. 211.


    Rapoport, J L Giedd, J N and Gogtay, N 2012. Neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia: update 2012. Molecular Psychiatry, Vol. 17, Issue. 12, p. 1228.


    Kirkbride, J. B. 2015. Epidemiology on demand: population-based approaches to mental health service commissioning. BJPsych Bulletin, Vol. 39, Issue. 5, p. 242.


    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas and Tost, Heike 2012. Neural mechanisms of social risk for psychiatric disorders. Nature Neuroscience, Vol. 15, Issue. 5, p. 663.


    Selten, J.-P. van der Ven, E. Rutten, B. P. F. and Cantor-Graae, E. 2013. The Social Defeat Hypothesis of Schizophrenia: An Update. Schizophrenia Bulletin, Vol. 39, Issue. 6, p. 1180.


    Torrey, E. Fuller and Yolken, Robert H. 2014. The urban risk and migration risk factors for schizophrenia: Are cats the answer?. Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 159, Issue. 2-3, p. 299.


    Abed, R. T. and Abbas, M. J. 2014. Can the new epidemiology of schizophrenia help elucidate its causation?. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine, Vol. 31, Issue. 01, p. 1.


    Kirmayer, Laurence J and Ryder, Andrew G 2016. Culture and psychopathology. Current Opinion in Psychology, Vol. 8, p. 143.


    Veling, Wim 2013. Ethnic minority position and risk for psychotic disorders. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, Vol. 26, Issue. 2, p. 166.


    Seeman, Mary V 2013. Women and schizophrenia: new findings. Neuropsychiatry, Vol. 3, Issue. 4, p. 423.


    Abed, Riadh 2014. A Framework for Psychopathology Based on Life History Theory: A Landmark Formulation. Psychological Inquiry, Vol. 25, Issue. 3-4, p. 301.


    2015. Cultural Adaptation of CBT for Serious Mental Illness.


    ×

A meta-analysis of the risk for psychotic disorders among first- and second-generation immigrants

  • F. Bourque (a1), E. van der Ven (a1) and A. Malla (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291710001406
  • Published online: 21 July 2010
Abstract
Background

There is increasing acceptance of migration as a risk factor for schizophrenia and related disorders; however, the magnitude of the risk among second-generation immigrants (SGIs) remains unclear. Generational differences in the incidence of psychotic disorders among migrants might improve our understanding of the relationship between migration, ethnicity and psychotic disorders. This meta-analysis aimed at determining the risk of psychotic disorders among SGIs in comparison with non-migrants and first-generation immigrants (FGIs).

Method

Medline, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases were searched systematically for population-based studies on migration and psychotic disorders published between 1977 and 2008. We also contacted experts, tracked citations and screened bibliographies. All potential publications were screened by two independent reviewers in a threefold process. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they reported incidence data, differentiated FGIs from SGIs and provided age-adjusted data. Data extraction and quality assessment were conducted for each study.

Results

Twenty-one studies met all inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of 61 effect sizes for FGIs and 28 for SGIs yielded mean-weighted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of 2.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0–2.7] for FGIs and 2.1 (95% CI 1.8–2.5) for SGIs. There was no significant risk difference between generations, but there were significant differences according to ethno-racial status and host country.

Conclusions

The increased risk of schizophrenia and related disorders among immigrants clearly persists into the second generation, suggesting that post-migration factors play a more important role than pre-migration factors or migration per se. The observed variability suggests that the risk is mediated by the social context.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: F. Bourque, M.D., M.Sc., F.R.C.P.C., Prevention and Early Intervention Program for Psychoses, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, 6875, LaSalle Boulevard, Montreal QC, CanadaH4H 1R3. (Email: francois.bourque@mail.mcgill.ca)
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

PE Bebbington , J Hurry , C Tennant (1981). Psychiatric disorders in selected immigrant groups in Camberwell. Social Psychiatry 16, 4351.

K Bhui , N Tsangarides (2008). Culture and schizophrenia. Psychiatry 7, 454457.

M Borenstein , LV Hedges , JPT Higgins , HR Rothstein (2009 a). Effect sizes based on binary data (2×2 tables). In Introduction to Meta-Analysis, pp. 3340. Wiley: Chichester.

M Borenstein , LV Hedges , JPT Higgins , HR Rothstein (2009 b). Fixed-effect versus random-effects models. In Introduction to Meta-Analysis, pp. 7786. Wiley: Chichester.

M Borenstein , LV Hedges , JPT Higgins , HR Rothstein (2009 c). Identifying and quantifying heterogeneity. In Introduction to Meta-Analysis, pp. 107126. Wiley: Chichester.

J Boydell , J van Os , K McKenzie , J Allardyce , R Goel , RG McCreadie , RM Murray (2001). Incidence of schizophrenia in ethnic minorities in London: ecological study into interactions with environment. British Medical Journal 323, 13361338.


E Cantor-Graae , CB Pedersen , TF McNeil , PB Mortensen (2003). Migration as a risk factor for schizophrenia: a Danish population-based cohort study. British Journal of Psychiatry 182, 117122.

E Cantor-Graae , JP Selten (2005). Schizophrenia and migration: a meta-analysis and review. American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 1224.


D Castle , S Wessely , G Der , RM Murray (1991). The incidence of operationally defined schizophrenia in Camberwell, 1965–84. British Journal of Psychiatry 159, 790794.

R Cochrane (1977). Mental illness in immigrants to England and Wales: an analysis of mental hospital admissions, 1971. Social Psychiatry 12, 2535.

R Cochrane , SS Bal (1987). Migration and schizophrenia: an examination of five hypotheses. Social Psychiatry 22, 181191.

JW Coid , JB Kirkbride , D Barker , F Cowden , R Stamps , M Yang , PB Jones (2008). Raised incidence rates of all psychoses among migrant groups: findings from the East London first episode psychosis study. Archives of General Psychiatry 65, 12501258.

C Corcoran , M Perrin , S Harlap , L Deutsch , S Fennig , O Manor , D Nahon , D Kimhy , D Malaspina , E Susser (2008). Incidence of schizophrenia among second-generation immigrants in the Jerusalem perinatal cohort. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 35, 596602.

MJ Dealberto (2007). Why are immigrants at increased risk for psychosis? Vitamin D insufficiency, epigenetic mechanisms, or both? Medical Hypotheses 68, 259267.

G Dean , D Walsh , H Downing , E Shelley (1981). First admissions of native-born and immigrants to psychiatric hospitals in South-East England 1976. British Journal of Psychiatry 139, 506512.

M Egger , GD Smith , DG Altman (2001). Systematic Reviews in Health Care. Meta-analysis in Context. BMJ Books: London.


P Fearon , C Morgan (2006). Environmental factors in schizophrenia: the role of migrant studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin 32, 405408.

CR Gale , CN Martyn (1995). Migrant studies in multiple sclerosis. Progress in Neurobiology 47, 425448.

G Harrison , C Glazebrook , J Brewin , R Cantwell , T Dalkin , R Fox , P Jones , I Medley (1997). Increased incidence of psychotic disorders in migrants from the Caribbean to the United Kingdom. Psychological Medicine 27, 799806.

G Harrison , D Owens , A Holton , D Neilson , D Boot (1988). A prospective study of severe mental disorder in Afro-Caribbean patients. Psychological Medicine 18, 643657.


I Janssen , M Hanssen , M Bak (2003). Discrimination and delusional ideation. British Journal of Psychiatry 182, 7176.

JB Kirkbride , P Fearon , C Morgan , P Dazzan , K Morgan , RM Murray , PB Jones (2007). Neighbourhood variation in the incidence of psychotic disorders in Southeast London. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 42, 438445.

J Krupinski , R Cochrane (1980). Migration and mental health – a comparative study. Journal of Intercultural Studies 1, 4957.

SS Lin , JL Kelsey (2000). Use of race and ethnicity in epidemiologic research: concepts, methodological issues, and suggestions for research. Epidemiologic Reviews 22, 187202.

J McGrath (1999). Hypothesis: is low prenatal vitamin D a risk-modifying factor for schizophrenia? Schizophrenia Research 40, 173177.

J McGrath , S Saha , J Welham , O El Saadi , C MacCauley , D Chant (2004). A systematic review of the incidence of schizophrenia: the distribution of rates and the influence of sex, urbanicity, migrant status and methodology. BMC Medicine 2, 13.

SV Ramagopalan , DA Dyment , GC Ebers (2008). Genetic epidemiology: the use of old and new tools for multiple sclerosis. Trends in Neurosciences 31, 645652.


SP Sashidharan (1993). Afro-Caribbeans and schizophrenia: the ethnic vulnerability hypothesis re-examined. International Review of Psychiatry 5, 129143.

JP Selten , E Cantor-Graae (2005). Social defeat: risk factor for schizophrenia? British Journal of Psychiatry 187, 101102.

JP Selten , E Cantor-Graae (2007). Hypothesis: social defeat is a risk factor for schizophrenia? British Journal of Psychiatry 191, s9–s12.

JP Selten , E Cantor-Graae , RS Kahn (2007). Migration and schizophrenia. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 20, 111115.

JP Selten , JPJ Slaets , RS Kahn (1997). Schizophrenia in Surinamese and Dutch Antillean immigrants to The Netherlands: evidence of an increased incidence. Psychological Medicine 27, 807811.

M Sharpley , G Hutchinson , K McKenzie , RM Murray (2001). Understanding the excess of psychosis among the African-Caribbean population in England. British Journal of Psychiatry 178, s60s68.

GN Smith , J Boydell , RM Murray , S Flynn , K McKay , M Sherwood , WG Honer (2006). The incidence of schizophrenia in European immigrants to Canada. Schizophrenia Research 87, 205211.

F Song , TA Sheldon , AJ Sutton , KR Abrams , DR Jones (2001). Methods for exploring heterogeneity in meta-analysis. Evaluation and the Health Professions 24, 126151.

DF Stroup , JA Berlin , SC Morton , I Olkin , GD Williamson , D Rennie , D Moher , BJ Becker , TA Sipe , SB Thacker (2000). Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) group. Journal of the American Medical Association 283, 20082012.

R Tandon , MS Keshavan , HA Nasrallah (2008). Schizophrenia, ‘just the facts’ what we know in 2008. 2. Epidemiology and etiology. Schizophrenia Research 102, 118.

CS Thomas , K Stone , M Osborn , PF Thomas , M Fisher (1993). Psychiatric morbidity and compulsory admission among UK-born Europeans, Afro-Caribbeans and Asians in central Manchester. British Journal of Psychiatry 163, 9199.

EF Torrey , JJ Bartko , Z-R Lun , RH Yolken (2007). Antibodies to toxoplasma gondii in patients with schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 33, 729736.

N Veen , JP Selten , HW Hoek , W Feller , Y van der Graaf , R Kahn (2002). Use of illicit substances in a psychosis incidence cohort: a comparison among different ethnic groups in the Netherlands. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 105, 440443.


W Veling , HW Hoek , JP Mackenbach (2008 a). Perceived discrimination and the risk of schizophrenia in ethnic minorities. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 43, 953959.

W Veling , JP Selten , N Veen , W Laan , JD Blom , HW Hoek (2006). Incidence of schizophrenia among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands: a four-year first-contact study. Schizophrenia Research 86, 189193.

W Veling , E Susser , J van Os , JP Mackenbach , JP Selten , HW Hoek (2008 b). Ethnic density of neighborhoods and incidence of psychotic disorders among immigrants. American Journal of Psychiatry 165, 6673.



Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: