Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 23
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Fried, Eiko I. and Nesse, Randolph M. 2015. Depression is not a consistent syndrome: An investigation of unique symptom patterns in the STAR*D study. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 172, p. 96.

    van Loo, Hanna M de Jonge, Peter Romeijn, Jan-Willem Kessler, Ronald C and Schoevers, Robert A 2012. Data-driven subtypes of major depressive disorder: a systematic review. BMC Medicine, Vol. 10, Issue. 1, p. 156.

    Carragher, Natacha Adamson, Gary Bunting, Brendan and McCann, Siobhan 2009. Subtypes of depression in a nationally representative sample. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 113, Issue. 1-2, p. 88.

    Harkness, Kate L. and Monroe, Scott M. 2006. Severe melancholic depression is more vulnerable than non-melancholic depression to minor precipitating life events. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 91, Issue. 2-3, p. 257.

    Krishnan, K R 2005. Psychiatric disease in the genomic era: rational approach. Molecular Psychiatry, Vol. 10, Issue. 11, p. 978.

    Royall, Donald R. 2004. The “Subsyndromal” Syndromes of Aging. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 52, Issue. 3, p. 463.

    Boteva, Kalina and Lieberman, Jeffrey 2003. Reconsidering the Classification of Schizophrenia and Manic Depressive Illness — A Critical Analysis and Mew Conceptual Model. The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 4, Issue. 2, p. 81.

    Szádóczky, Erika Rózsa, Sándor Patten, Scott Arató, Mihály and Füredi, János 2003. Lifetime patterns of depressive symptoms in the community and among primary care attenders: an application of grade of membership analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 77, Issue. 1, p. 31.

    Sullivan, Patrick F. Prescott, Carol A. and Kendler, Kenneth S. 2002. The subtypes of major depression in a twin registry. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 68, Issue. 2-3, p. 273.

    Davidson, J Fisher, P van Haselen, R Woodbury, M and Connor, K 2001. Do constitutional types really exist? A further study using grade of membership analysis. British Homoeopathic journal, Vol. 90, Issue. 3, p. 138.

    Sato, T. Narita, T. Hirano, S. Kusunoki, K. Sakado, K. and Uehara, T. 2001. Is interpersonal sensitivity specific to non-melancholic depressions?. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 64, Issue. 2-3, p. 133.

    van Haselen, RA Cinar, S Fisher, P and Davidson, J 2001. The Constitutional Type Questionnaire: validation in the patient population of the Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital. British Homoeopathic journal, Vol. 90, Issue. 3, p. 131.

    Nurnberg, H.George Woodbury, Max A and Bogenschutz, Michael P 1999. A mathematical typology analysis of DSM-111-R personality disorder classification: Grade of membership technique. Comprehensive Psychiatry, Vol. 40, Issue. 1, p. 61.

    Parker, Gordon Gladstone, Gemma Wilhelm, Kay Hickie, Ian Mitchell, Philip Hadzi-pavlovic, Dusan Austin, Marie-Paule and Eyers, Kerrie 1998. An aetiological model of non-melancholic depression: Study design and validity of the measures. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 32, Issue. 1, p. 104.

    Parker, Gordon Gladstone, Gemma Wilhelm, Kay Hickie, Ian Mitchell, Philip Hadzi-pavlovic, Dusan Austin, Marie-Paule and Eyers, Kerrie 1998. An aetiological model of non-melancholic depression: Study design and validity of the measures. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 32, Issue. 1, p. 104.

    Brunner, E. J. Marmot, M. G. Nanchahal, K. Shipley, M. J. Stansfeld, S. A. Juneja, M. and Alberti, K. G. M. M. 1997. Social inequality in coronary risk: Central obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Evidence from the Whitehall II study. Diabetologia, Vol. 40, Issue. 11, p. 1341.

    Rucci, Paola 1997. The Grade-of-Membership analysis: an approach to the psychiatric classification. Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale, Vol. 6, Issue. 03, p. 163.

    Anderson, Jeremy and Trieman, Noam 1995. The taps project. 21: Functional and organic comorbidity and the effect of cognitive and behavioural disability on the placement of elderly psychiatric inpatients?a whole-hospital survey. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, Vol. 10, Issue. 11, p. 959.

    Davidson, Jonathan Woodbury, Max Morrison, Roger Shore, Jonathan and Rshom, Greg Bedayn 1995. Multivariate analysis of five homoeopathic medicines in a psychiatric population. British Homoeopathic journal, Vol. 84, Issue. 4, p. 195.

    Jablensky, Assen and Woodbury, Max A. 1995. Dementia praecox and manic-depressive insanity in 1908: A Grade of Membership analysis of the Kraepelinian dichotomy. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, Vol. 245, Issue. 4-5, p. 202.


A study of depressive typologies using grade of membership analysis

  • Jonathan Davidson (a1), Max A. Woodbury (a1), Susan Pelton (a1) and Ranga Krishnan (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 July 2009

Grade of Membership (GOM) analysis, a multivariate technique for studying disease, was used to explore depressive typology and relationships between depression and anxiety. One hundred and ninety patients with RDC diagnoses of major or minor depression were assessed by the Hamilton and SCL-90 symptom rating scales, the Newcastle diagnostic indices for endogenous depression and for anxiety and depression. Demographic, family and treatment response information were used as external validators.

Five pure types provided the most satisfactory solution to these data. One group corresponded to classical melancholia, occurring in older, stable, in-patients, who lacked panic-phobic symptoms. All patients with agoraphobia fell into two distinct in-patient and out-patient groups, which differed from each other in several ways. In one group, a link was found between panic attacks, agitated melancholia and familial pure depression. The second group was less symptomatic and had more atypical vegetative symptoms.

Two more groups comprised mildly symptomatic, hypochondriacal, depression, and a highly neurotic, obsessive, anxious, non-phobic depression, which was commonly related to a physical stressor.

Corresponding author
1Address for correspondence: Dr Jonathan Davidson, De-partmeant of Psychiatry. V.A. Medical Center, Fulton Street, Durham, NC 27705, USA.
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

N. C. Andreasen , W. M. Grove & A. Mauer (1980). Cluster analysis and the classification of depression. British Journal of Psychiatry 137, 256265.

A. Breier , D. Charney & G. R. Heninger (1984). Major depression in patients with agoraphobia and panic disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 41, 11291135.

M. W. P. Carney , M. Roth & R. F. Garside (1965). The diagnosis of depressive syndromes and the prediction of ECT response. British Journal of Psychiatry 111, 659674.

J. R. T. Davidson & S. Pelton (1986). Forms of atypical depression and their response to antidepressant drugs. Psychiatry Research 17, 8795.

J. R. T. Davidson & C. D. Turnbull (1983). Isocarboxazid efficacy and tolerance. Journal of Affective Disorders 5, 183189.

J. R. T. Davidson , R. D. Miller , C. D. Turnbull & J. Sullivan (1982). Atypical depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 39, 527533.

J. R. T. Davidson , R. D. Miller , C. D. Turnbull , R. Strickland & M. Belyea (1984). A two-dose evaluation of isocarboxazid in depression. Journal of Affective Disorders 6, 201207.

R. W. Downing & K. Rickels (1974). Mixed anxiety-depression: fact or myth? Archives of General Psychiatry 30, 312317.

B. S. Everitt (1972). Cluster analysis: a brief discussion of some of the problems. British Journal of Psychiatry 120, 143145.

C. Gurney , M. Roth , R. F. Garside , T. A. Kerr & K. Schapira (1972). Studies in the classification of affective disorders: the relationship between anxiety states and depressive illness II. British Journal of Psychiatry 121, 162166.

M. Hamilton (1967). Development of a rating scale for primary depressive illness. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 6, 278296.

R. E. Kendell (1976). Classification of depression: a review of contemporary confusion. British Journal of Psychiatry 129, 1528.

L. G. Kiloh & R. F. Garside (1977). Depression: a multivariate study of Sir Aubrey Lewis's data on melancholia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 11, 149153.

J. F. Leckman , M. M. Weissman , K. R. Merikangas , D. L. Pauls & B. A. Prusoff (1983). Panic disorder and major depression: increased risk of depression, alcoholism, panic and phobic disorders in families of depressed probands with panic disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 40. 10551060.

C. Q. Mountjoy & M. Roth (1982 b). Studies in the relationship between depressive disorders and anxiety states. Part II (clinical items). Journal of Affective Disorders 4, 149161.

J. E. Overall , L. E. Hollister , M. H. Johnson & V. E. Pennington (1966). Nosology of depression and differential response to drugs. Journal of the American Medical Association 195, 946950.

E. S. Paykel (1971). Classification of depressed patients: a cluster analysis derived grouping. British Journal of Psychiatry 118, 275288.

E. S. Paykel (1981). Have multivariate statistics contributed to classification? British Journal of Psychiatry 139, 357362.

B. A. Prusoff & G. L. Klerman (1974). Differentiating depressed from anxious neurotic outpatients. Archives of General Psychiatry 30, 302309.

E. Rassaby & E. S. Paykel (1979). Factor patterns in depression - a replication study. Journal of Affective Disorders 1, 187194.

J. S. Strauss , K. R. Gabriel , R. F. Kokes , B. A. Ritzier , A. Van Ord & E. Tarana (1979). Do psychiatric patients fit their diagnosis? Journal of Nervous Mental Disorders 167, 105113.

E. B. Wilson & M. M. Hilferty (1931). The distribution of chisquare. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 17, 684.

G. R. Winokur , R. Cadoret , J. Dorzab & M. Baker (1971). Depressive disease, a genetic study. Archives of General Psychiatry 24, 135144.

M. A. Woodbury & J. Clive (1974). Clinical pure types as a fuzzy partition. Journal of Cybernetics 4 (3), 111121.

L. Zadeh (1965). Fuzzy sets. Information Control 8, 338353

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *