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Do DSM-5 Section II personality disorders and Section III personality trait domains reflect the same genetic and environmental risk factors?

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 April 2017

T. Reichborn-Kjennerud*
Affiliation:
Department of Mental Disorders, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
R. F. Krueger
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
E. Ystrom
Affiliation:
Department of Mental Disorders, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
F. A. Torvik
Affiliation:
Department of Mental Disorders, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
T. H. Rosenström
Affiliation:
Department of Mental Disorders, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
S. H. Aggen
Affiliation:
Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Richmond, VA, USA Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA
S. C. South
Affiliation:
Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University, IN, USA
M. C. Neale
Affiliation:
Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Richmond, VA, USA Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA Department of Human and Molecular Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA
G. P. Knudsen
Affiliation:
Department of Mental Disorders, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
K. S. Kendler
Affiliation:
Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Richmond, VA, USA Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA Department of Human and Molecular Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA
N. O. Czajkowski
Affiliation:
Department of Mental Disorders, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
*
*Address for correspondence: T. Reichborn-Kjennerud, Department of Mental Disorders, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; and Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. (Email: terk@fhi.no)

Abstract

Background

DSM-5 includes two conceptualizations of personality disorders (PDs). The classification in Section II is identical to the one found in DSM-IV, and includes 10 categorical PDs. The Alternative Model (Section III) includes criteria for dimensional measures of maladaptive personality traits organized into five domains. The degree to which the two conceptualizations reflect the same etiological factors is not known.

Methods

We use data from a large population-based sample of adult twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel on interview-based DSM-IV PDs and a short self-report inventory that indexes the five domains of the DSM-5 Alternative Model plus a domain explicitly targeting compulsivity. Schizotypal, Paranoid, Antisocial, Borderline, Avoidant, and Obsessive-compulsive PDs were assessed at the same time as the maladaptive personality traits and 10 years previously. Schizoid, Histrionic, Narcissistic, and Dependent PDs were only assessed at the first interview. Biometric models were used to estimate overlap in genetic and environmental risk factors.

Results

When measured concurrently, there was 100% genetic overlap between the maladaptive trait domains and Paranoid, Schizotypal, Antisocial, Borderline, and Avoidant PDs. For OCPD, 43% of the genetic variance was shared with the domains. Genetic correlations between the individual domains and PDs ranged from +0.21 to +0.91.

Conclusion

The pathological personality trait domains, which are part of the Alternative Model for classification of PDs in DSM-5 Section III, appears to tap, at an aggregate level, the same genetic risk factors as the DSM-5 Section II classification for most of the PDs.

Type
Original Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2017 

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Do DSM-5 Section II personality disorders and Section III personality trait domains reflect the same genetic and environmental risk factors?
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