Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59df476f6b-9sq5k Total loading time: 0.278 Render date: 2021-05-18T15:46:10.118Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }

Phenotypic and aetiological architecture of depressive symptoms in a Japanese twin sample

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 June 2019

Yusuke Takahashi
Affiliation:
The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research and Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, Division of Psychology and Language Sciences, University College London, London, UK
Jean-Baptiste Pingault
Affiliation:
Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, Division of Psychology and Language Sciences, University College London, London, UK Social, Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry Centre, King's College London, London, UK
Shinji Yamagata
Affiliation:
Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Nagoya University, Aichi, Japan
Juko Ando
Affiliation:
Faculty of Letters, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan
Corresponding

Abstract

Background

The phenotypic and aetiological architecture of depression symptomatology has been mostly studied in Western samples. In this study, we conducted a genetically informed factor analysis to elucidate both the phenotypic and aetiological architectures of self-reported depression among a Japanese adult twin sample.

Methods

Depressive symptoms assessed by Zung's Self-rating Depression Scale were self-rated by 425 twin pairs (301 monozygotic and 124 dizygotic twin pairs) in a community sample in Japan.

Results

An exploratory factor analysis extracted three symptom domains representing cognitive, affective and somatic symptomatology. A confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that a bi-factor solution fitted better than the alternative solutions, implying that depression may be defined as a combination of a single general construct and three factors specific to each of the three symptom domains. A multivariate genetic analysis with the bi-factor solution showed that the general factor was substantially heritable (47%), and that only the affective symptom domain was significantly heritable (29%) among the three specific factors, their remaining variance being explained by non-shared environmental influences.

Conclusions

Depression symptomatology appears to be adequately captured by a substantially heritable general factor. The heritability of this factor (47%) in a Japanese adult sample is in line with commonly reported heritability estimates for depression. The three specific factors – cognitive, affective and somatic – are mostly explained by non-shared environmental factors, which include measurement error. The extent to which these specific factors are uniquely associated with correlates of depression when the general factor is accounted for should be investigated in future studies.

Type
Original Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Agrawal, A, Jacobson, KC, Gardner, CO, Prescott, CA and Kendler, KS (2004) A population based twin study of sex differences in depressive symptoms. Twin Research 7, 176181.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Akaike, H (1987) Factor analysis and AIC. Psychometrika 52, 317332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edn, Text Revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
Ando, J, Fujisawa, K, Shikishima, C, Hiraishi, K, Nozaki, M, Yamagata, S, Takahashi, Y, Ozaki, K, Suzuki, K, Deno, M, Sasaki, S, Toda, T, Kobayashi, K, Sugimoto, Y, Okada, M, Kijima, N, Ono, Y, Yoshimura, K, Kakihana, S, Maekawa, H, Kamakura, T, Nonaka, K, Kato, N and Ooki, S (2013) Two cohort and three independent anonymous twin projects at the Keio Twin Research Center (KoTReC). Twin Research and Human Genetics 16, 202216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ball, HA, Sumathipala, A, Siribaddana, SH, Kovas, Y, Glozier, N, McGuffin, P and Hotopf, M (2009). Genetic and environmental contributions to depression in Sri Lanka. The British Journal of Psychiatry 195, 504509.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Byers, AL, Levy, BR, Kasl, SV, Bruce, ML and Allore, AG (2009) Heritability of depressive symptoms: a case study using a multilevel approach. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 18, 287296.Google ScholarPubMed
Chen, J and Yu, J (2015) Sex differences in genetic and environmental influences on adolescent depressive symptoms: a meta-analytic review. Depression Research and Treatment, Article ID 476238.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, J, Li, X, Natsuaki, MN, Leve, LD and Harold, GT (2014) Genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms in Chinese adolescents. Behavior Genetics 44, 3644.10.1007/s10519-013-9632-8CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cheung, HN and Power, MJ (2012) The development of a new multidimensional depression assessment scale: preliminary results. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy 19, 170178.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chida, F, Okayama, A, Nishi, N and Sakai, A (2004) Factor analysis of Zung Scale scores in a Japanese general population, Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 58, 420426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Falissard, B (2012) psy: various procedures used in psychometry. R package version 1.1. Available at http://cran.r-project.org/package=psy.Google Scholar
Fernandez-Pujals, AM, Adams, MJ, Thomson, P, McKechanie, AG, Blackwood, DHR, Smith, BH, Dominiczak, AF, Morris, AD, Matthews, K, Campbell, A, Linksted, P, Haley, CS, Deary, IJ, Porteous, DJ, MacIntyre, DJ and McIntosh, AM (2015) Epidemiology and heritability of major depressive disorder, stratified by age of onset, sex, and illness course in Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS). PLoS ONE 10: e0142197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Foley, DL, Neale, MC, Gardner, CO, Pickles, A, Prescott, CA and Kendler, KS (2003) Major depression and associated impairment: same or different genetic and environmental risk factors? American Journal of Psychiatry 160, 21282133.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fong, TCT, Chan, CLW, Ho, RTH, Chan, JSM, Chan, CHY and Ng, SM (2016) Dimensionality of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: an exploratory bi-factor analytic study. Quality of Life Research 25, 731737.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fukuda, K and Kobayashi, S (1983) Japanese Version of Self-Rating Depression Scale. Kyoto: Sankyobo.Google Scholar
Happonen, M, Pulkkinen, L, Kaprio, J, Van der Meere, J, Viken, RJ and Rose, RJ (2002) The heritability of depressive symptoms: multiple informants and multiple measures. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 43, 471479.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Henry, J, Pingault, J-B, Boivin, M, Rijsdijk, F and Viding, E (2016) Genetic and environmental aetiology of the dimensions of Callous-Unemotional traits. Psychological Medicine 46, 405414.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hofmann, RJ (1978) Complexity and simplicity as objective indices descriptive of factor solutions. Multivariate Behavioral Research 13, 247250.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Holzinger, KJ and Swineford, F (1937) The bi-factor method. Psychometrika 2, 4154.10.1007/BF02287965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kawakami, N (2007) Epidemiology of depressive disorders in Japan and the world. Nippon Rinsho 65, 15781584.Google ScholarPubMed
Kendler, KS, Gardner, CO, Neale, MC and Prescott, CA (2001) Genetic risk factors for major depression in men and women: similar or different heritabilities and same or partly distinct genes? Psychological Medicine 31, 605616.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kendler, KS, Gatz, M, Gardner, CO and Pedersen, NL (2006) A Swedish national twin study of lifetime major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry 163, 109114.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kendler, KS, Aggen, SH and Neale, MC (2013) Evidence for multiple genetic factors underlying DSM-IV criteria for major depression. JAMA Psychiatry 70, 599607.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, RC and Bromet, EJ (2013) The epidemiology of depression across cultures. Annual Review of Public Health 34, 119138.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kitamura, T, Hirano, H, Chen, Z and Hirata, M (2004) Factor structure of the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale in first-year university students in Japan. Psychiatry Research 128, 281287.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Knopik, VS, Neiderheiser, J, DeFries, JC and Plomin, R (2016) Behavioral Genetics, 7th edn. New York, NY: Worth.Google ScholarPubMed
Lee, HC, Chiu, HF, Wing, YK, Leung, CM, Kwong, PK and Chung, DW (1994) The Zung self-rating depression scale: screening for depression among the Hong Kong Chinese elderly. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology 7, 216220.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Luciano, M, Hagenaars, SP, Davies, G, Hill, WD, Clarke, T-K, Shirali, M, Harris, SE, Marioni, RE, Liewald, DC, Fawns-Ritchie, C, Adams, MJ, Howard, DM, Lewis, CM, Gale, CR, McIntosh, AM and Deary, IJ (2018). Association analysis in over 329000 individuals identifies 116 independent variants influencing neuroticism. Nature Genetics 50, 611.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Magnus, P, Berg, K and Nance, WE (1983) Predicting zygosity in Norwegian twin pairs born 1915–1960. Clinical Genetics 24, 103112.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mazure, CM (1998) Life stressors as risk factors in depression. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 5, 291313.Google Scholar
McElroy, E, Casey, P, Adamson, G, Filippopoulos, P and Shevlin, M (2018) A comprehensive analysis of the factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in a sample of outpatients with adjustment disorder and depressive episode. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine 35, 5361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGue, M and Bouchard, TJ Jr. (1984) Adjustment of twin data for the effects of age and sex. Behavior Genetics 14, 325343.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGue, M and Christensen, K (1997) Genetic and environmental contributions to depression symptomatology: evidence from Danish twins 75 years of age and older. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 106, 439448.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neale, MC, Hunter, MD, Pritikin, JN, Zahery, M, Brick, TR, Kirkpatrick, RM, Estabrook, R, Bates, TC, Maes, HH and Boker, SM (2016) Openmx 2.0: extended structural equation and statistical modeling. Psychometrika 81, 535549.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Olsen, JA and Kenny, DA (2006) Structural equation modeling with interchangeable dyads. Psychological Methods 11, 127141.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ooki, S, Yamada, K, Asaka, A and Hayakawa, K (1990) Zygosity diagnosis of twins by questionnaire. Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae 39, 109115.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Passik, SD, Lundberg, JC, Rosenfeld, B, Kirsh, KL, Donaghy, K, Theobald, D, Lundberg, E and Dugan, W (2000) Factor analysis of the Zung Self-Rating Depression scale in a large ambulatory oncology sample. Psychosomatics 41, 121127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Romera, I, Delgado-Cohen, H, Perez, T, Caballero, L and Gilaberte, I (2008) Factor analysis of the Zung self-rating depression scale in a large sample of patients with major depressive disorder in primary care. BMC Psychiatry 8: 4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosseel, Y (2012) Lavaan: an R package for structural equation modeling. Journal of Statistical Software 48, 136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sakamoto, S, Kijima, N, Tomoda, A and Kambara, M (1998) Factor structures of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) for undergraduates. Journal of Clinical Psychology 54, 477487.3.0.CO;2-K>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schwarz, GE (1978) Estimating the dimension of a model, Annals of Statistics 6, 461464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sclove, L (1987) Application of model-selection criteria to some problems in multivariate analysis. Psychometrika 52, 333343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sugawara, M, Sakamoto, S, Kitamura, T, Toda, MA and Shima, S (1999) Structure of depressive symptoms in pregnancy and the postpartum period. Journal of Affective Disorders 54, 161169.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sullivan, PF, Neale, MC and Kendler, KS (2000) Genetic epidemiology of major depression: review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry 157, 15521562.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Torgersen, S (1979) The determination of twin zygosity by means of a mailed questionnaire. Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae 28, 225236.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wood, AC, Rijsdijk, F, Saudino, KJ, Asherson, P and Kuntsi, J (2008) High heritability for a composite index of children's activity level measures. Behavior Genetics 38, 266276.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization (2017) Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
Zung, WWK (1965) A self-rating depression scale. Archives of General Psychiatry 12, 6370.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Phenotypic and aetiological architecture of depressive symptoms in a Japanese twin sample
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Phenotypic and aetiological architecture of depressive symptoms in a Japanese twin sample
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Phenotypic and aetiological architecture of depressive symptoms in a Japanese twin sample
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *