Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-t82dr Total loading time: 0.334 Render date: 2021-12-05T05:16:49.239Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Post-traumatic stress disorder following disasters: a systematic review

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 September 2007

Y. Neria*
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA
A. Nandi
Affiliation:
Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
S. Galea
Affiliation:
Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Center for Urban Epidemiologic Studies, New York Academy of Medicine, New York City, NY, USA
*
*Address for correspondence: Dr Y. Neria, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 69, New York, NY 10032, USA. (Email: ny126@columbia.edu)

Abstract

Background

Disasters are traumatic events that may result in a wide range of mental and physical health consequences. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is probably the most commonly studied post-disaster psychiatric disorder. This review aimed to systematically assess the evidence about PTSD following exposure to disasters.

Method

A systematic search was performed. Eligible studies for this review included reports based on the DSM criteria of PTSD symptoms. The time-frame for inclusion of reports in this review is from 1980 (when PTSD was first introduced in DSM-III) and February 2007 when the literature search for this examination was terminated.

Results

We identified 284 reports of PTSD following disasters published in peer-reviewed journals since 1980. We categorized them according to the following classification: (1) human-made disasters (n=90), (2) technological disasters (n=65), and (3) natural disasters (n=116). Since some studies reported on findings from mixed samples (e.g. survivors of flooding and chemical contamination) we grouped these studies together (n=13).

Conclusions

The body of research conducted after disasters in the past three decades suggests that the burden of PTSD among persons exposed to disasters is substantial. Post-disaster PTSD is associated with a range of correlates including sociodemographic and background factors, event exposure characteristics, social support factors and personality traits. Relatively few studies have employed longitudinal assessments enabling documentation of the course of PTSD. Methodological limitations and future directions for research in this field are discussed.

Type
Invited Review
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2007

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

APA (1980). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edn (DSM-III). American Psychiatric Association: Washington, DC.Google ScholarPubMed
Abenhaim, L, Dab, W, Salmi, LR (1992). Study of civilian victims of terrorist attacks (France 1982–1987). Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 45, 103109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Adams, RE, Boscarino, JA (2005). Differences in mental health outcomes among Whites, African Americans, and Hispanics following a community disaster. Psychiatry 68, 250265.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ahern, J, Galea, S, Resnick, H, Kilpatrick, D, Bucuvalas, M, Gold, J, Vlahov, D (2002). Television images and psychological symptoms after the September 11 terrorist attacks. Psychiatry 65, 289300.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alexander, DA (1993). Stress among police body handlers. A long-term follow-up. The British Journal of Psychiatry 163, 806808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Armagan, E, Engindeniz, Z, Devay, AO, Erdur, B, Ozcakir, A (2006). Frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder among relief force workers after the tsunami in Asia: do rescuers become victims? Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 21, 168172.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Basoglu, M, Kilic, C, Salcioglu, E, Livanou, M (2004). Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid depression in earthquake survivors in Turkey: an epidemiological study. Journal of Traumatic Stress 17, 133141.Google ScholarPubMed
Bradburn, IS (1991). After the earth shook: children's stress symptoms 6–8 months after a disaster. Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy 13, 173179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Breslau, N, Chase, GA, Anthony, JC (2002). The uniqueness of the DSM definition of post-traumatic stress disorder: implications for research. Psychological Medicine 32, 573576.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Breslau, N, Davis, GC, Andreski, P, Peterson, E (1991). Traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder in an urban population of young adults. Archives of General Psychiatry 48, 216222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Breslau, N, Kessler, RC, Chilcoat, HD, Schultz, LR, Davis, GC, Andreski, P (1998). Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in the community: the 1996 Detroit Area Survey of Trauma. Archives of General Psychiatry 55, 626632.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brewin, CR, Andrews, B, Valentine, JD (2000). Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 68, 748766.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brunello, N, Davidson, JR, Deahl, M, Kessler, RC, Mendlewicz, J, Racagni, G, Shalev, AY, Zohar, J (2001). Posttraumatic stress disorder: diagnosis and epidemiology, comorbidity and social consequences, biology and treatment. Neuropsychobiology 43, 150162.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Canino, G, Bravo, M, Rubio-Stipec, M, Woodbury, M (1990). The impact of disaster on mental health: prospective and retrospective analyses. International Journal of Mental Health 19, 5169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carlier, IV, Gersons, BP (1997). Stress reactions in disaster victims following the Bijlmermeer plane crash. Journal of Traumatic Stress 10, 329335.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carr, VJ, Lewin, TJ, Kenardy, JA, Webster, RA, Hazell, PL, Carter, GL, Williamson, M (1997 a). Psychosocial sequelae of the 1989 Newcastle earthquake: III. Role of vulnerability factors in post-disaster morbidity. Psychological Medicine 27, 179190.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carr, VJ, Lewin, TJ, Webster, RA, Hazell, PL, Kenardy, JA, Carter, GL (1995). Psychosocial sequelae of the 1989 Newcastle earthquake: I. Community disaster experiences and psychological morbidity 6 months post-disaster. Psychological Medicine 25, 539555.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carr, VJ, Lewin, TJ, Webster, RA, Kenardy, JA, Hazell, PL, Carter, GL (1997 b). Psychosocial sequelae of the 1989 Newcastle earthquake: II. Exposure and morbidity profiles during the first 2 years post-disaster. Psychological Medicine 27, 167178.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
CDC (2004). Mental health status of World Trade Center rescue and recovery workers and volunteers – New York City, July 2002–August 2004. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports 53, 812815.Google ScholarPubMed
CDC (2006). Health hazard evaluation of police officers and firefighters after Hurricane Katrina – New Orleans, Louisiana, October 17–28 and November 30–December 5, 2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports 55, 456458.Google ScholarPubMed
Chang, CM, Connor, KM, Lai, TJ, Lee, LC, Davidson, JR (2005). Predictors of posttraumatic outcomes following the 1999 Taiwan earthquake. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 193, 4046.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chang, CM, Lee, LC, Connor, KM, Davidson, JR, Jeffries, K, Lai, TJ (2003). Posttraumatic distress and coping strategies among rescue workers after an earthquake. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 191, 391398.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chung, MC, Dennis, I, Easthope, Y, Farmer, S, Werrett, J (2005). Differentiating posttraumatic stress between elderly and younger residents. Psychiatry 68, 164713.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cwikel, JG, Abdelgani, A, Rozovski, U, Kordysh, E, Goldsmith, JR, Quastel, MR (2000). Long-term stress reactions in new immigrants to Israel exposed to the Chernobyl accident. Anxiety Stress and Coping 13, 413439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Durham, TW, McCammon, SL, Allison, EJ Jr. (1985). The psychological impact of disaster on rescue personnel. Annals of Emergency Medicine 14, 664668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Durkin, ME (1993). Major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder following the Coalinga and Chile earthquakes: a cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Social and Behavior Personality 8, 405420.Google Scholar
Favaro, A, Zaetta, C, Colombo, G, Santonastaso, P (2004). Surviving the Vajont disaster: psychiatric consequences 36 years later. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 192, 227231.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Finnsdottir, T, Elklit, A (2002). Posttraumatic sequelae in a community hit by an avalanche. Journal of Traumatic Stress 15, 479485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Franklin, CL, Young, D, Zimmerman, M (2002). Psychiatric patients' vulnerability in the wake of the September 11th terrorist attacks. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 190, 833838.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Freed, D, Bowler, R, Fleming, I (1998). Post-traumatic stress disorder as a consequence of a toxic spill in Northern California. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 28, 264281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fullerton, CS, Ursano, RJ, Reeves, J, Shigemura, J, Grieger, T (2006). Perceived safety in disaster workers following 9/11. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 194, 6163.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Galea, S, Ahern, J, Resnick, H, Kilpatrick, D, Bucuvalas, M, Gold, J, Vlahov, D (2002). Psychological sequelae of the September 11 terrorist attacks in New York City. New England Journal of Medicine 346, 982987.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Galea, S, Nandi, A, Vlahov, D (2005). The epidemiology of post-traumatic stress disorder after disasters. Epidemiologic Reviews 27, 7891.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Galea, S, Resnick, H (2005). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the general population after mass terrorist incidents: considerations about the nature of exposure. CNS Spectrums 10, 107115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Galea, S, Vlahov, D, Resnick, H, Ahern, J, Susser, E, Gold, J, Bucuvalas, M, Kilpatrick, D (2003). Trends of probable post-traumatic stress disorder in New York City after the September 11 terrorist attacks. American Journal of Epidemiology 158, 514524.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Galea, S, Vlahov, D, Tracy, M, Hoover, DR, Resnick, H, Kilpatrick, D (2004). Hispanic ethnicity and post-traumatic stress disorder after a disaster: evidence from a general population survey after September 11, 2001. Annals of Epidemiology 14, 520531.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Godeau, E, Vignes, C, Navarro, F, Iachan, R, Ross, J, Pasquier, C, Guinard, A (2005). Effects of a large-scale industrial disaster on rates of symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress disorders among schoolchildren in Toulouse. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 159, 579584.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goenjian, AK, Pynoos, RS, Steinberg, AM, Najarian, LM, Asarnow, JR, Karayan, I, Ghurabi, M, Fairbanks, LA (1995). Psychiatric comorbidity in children after the 1988 earthquake in Armenia. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 34, 11741184.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goenjian, AK, Steinberg, AM, Najarian, LM, Fairbanks, LA, Tashjian, M, Pynoos, RS (2000). Prospective study of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depressive reactions after earthquake and political violence. American Journal of Psychiatry 157, 911916.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Green, BL, Grace, MC, Vary, MG, Kramer, TL, Gleser, GC, Leonard, AC (1994). Children of disaster in the second decade: a 17-year follow-up of Buffalo Creek survivors. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 33, 7179.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Green, BL, Lindy, JD, Grace, MC, Gleser, GC, Leonard, AC, Korol, M, Winget, C (1990). Buffalo Creek survivors in the second decade: stability of stress symptoms. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 60, 4354.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hanson, RF, Kilpatrick, DG, Freedy, JR, Saunders, BE (1995). Los Angeles County after the 1992 civil disturbances: degree of exposure and impact on mental health. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 63, 987996.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Havenaar, JM, Rumyantzeva, GM, van den Brink, W, Poelijoe, NW, van den Bout, J, van Engeland, H, Koeter, MW (1997). Long-term mental health effects of the Chernobyl disaster: an epidemiologic survey in two former Soviet regions. American Journal of Psychiatry 154, 16051607.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hoven, CW, Duarte, CS, Lucas, CP, Wu, P, Mandell, DJ, Goodwin, RD, Cohen, M, Balaban, V, Woodruff, BA, Bin, F, Musa, GJ, Mei, L, Cantor, PA, Aber, JL, Cohen, P, Susser, E (2005). Psychopathology among New York city public school children 6 months after September 11. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 545552.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hull, AM, Alexander, DA, Klein, S (2002). Survivors of the Piper Alpha oil platform disaster: long-term follow-up study. British Journal of Psychiatry 181, 433438.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jordan, NN, Hoge, CW, Tobler, SK, Wells, J, Dydek, GJ, Egerton, WE (2004). Mental health impact of 9/11 Pentagon attack: validation of a rapid assessment tool. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 26, 284293.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Joseph, S, Yule, W, Williams, R, Hodgkinson, P (1994). Correlates of post-traumatic stress at 30 months: the Herald of Free Enterprise disaster. Behaviour Research and Therapy 32, 521524.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, RC (2000). Posttraumatic stress disorder: the burden to the individual and to society. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 61 (Suppl. 5), 412; discussion 1314.Google Scholar
Kessler, RC, Sonnega, A, Bromet, E, Hughes, M, Nelson, CB (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry 52, 10481060.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Koplewicz, HS, Vogel, JM, Solanto, MV, Morrissey, RF, Alonso, CM, Abikoff, H, Gallagher, R, Novick, RM (2002). Child and parent response to the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. Journal of Traumatic Stress 15, 7785.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, I, Ha, YS, Kim, YA, Kwon, YH (2004). PTSD symptoms in elementary school children after Typhoon Rusa. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi 34, 636645.Google ScholarPubMed
Liu, A, Tan, H, Zhou, J, Li, S, Yang, T, Wang, J, Liu, J, Tang, X, Sun, Z, Wen, SW (2006). An epidemiologic study of posttraumatic stress disorder in flood victims in Hunan China. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 51, 350354.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Livanou, M, Basoglu, M, Salcioglu, E, Kalendar, D (2002). Traumatic stress responses in treatment-seeking earthquake survivors in Turkey. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 190, 816823.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Madakasira, S, O'Brien, KF (1987). Acute posttraumatic stress disorder in victims of a natural disaster. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 175, 286290.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McFarlane, AC (1988). The longitudinal course of posttraumatic morbidity. The range of outcomes and their predictors. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 176, 3039.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McFarlane, AC, Papay, P (1992). Multiple diagnoses in posttraumatic stress disorder in the victims of a natural disaster. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 180, 498504.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miguel-Tobal, JJ, Cano-Vindel, A, Gonzalez-Ordi, H, Iruarrizaga, I, Rudenstine, S, Vlahov, D, Galea, S (2006). PTSD and depression after the Madrid March 11 train bombings. Journal of Traumatic Stress 19, 6980.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mileti, D (1999). Disasters by Design. Joseph Henry Press: Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Mirzamani, M, Bolton, D (2002). PTSD symptoms of mothers following occurrence of a disaster affecting their children. Psychol Rep 90, 431438.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murphy, RT, Wismar, K, Freeman, K (2003). Stress symptoms among African-American college students after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 191, 108114.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Najarian, LM, Goenjian, AK, Pelcovitz, D, Mandel, F, Najarian, B (2001). The effect of relocation after a natural disaster. Journal of Traumatic Stress 14, 511526.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nandi, A, Galea, S, Ahern, J, Vlahov, D (2005). Probable cigarette dependence, PTSD, and depression after an urban disaster: results from a population survey of New York City residents 4 months after September 11, 2001. Psychiatry 68, 299310.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neria, Y, Gross, R, Litz, B, Maguen, S, Insel, B, Seirmarco, G, Rosenfeld, H, Suh, EJ, Kishon, R, Cook, JM, Marshall, RD (2007). Prevalence and psychological correlates of complicated grief among bereaved adults. Journal of Traumatic Stress 20, 251262.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neria, Y, Gross, R, Marshall, R (eds) (2006 a). 9/11: Mental Health in the Wake of Terrorist Attacks. Cambridge University Press: New York.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neria, Y, Gross, R, Marshall, R (2006 b). Mental health in the wake of terrorism: making sense of mass casualty trauma. In 9/11: Mental Health in the Wake of Terrorist Attacks (ed. Neria, Y., Gross, R. and Marshall, R.). Cambridge University Press: New York.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neria, Y, Gross, R, Olfson, M, Gameroff, MJ, Wickramaratne, P, Das, A, Pilowsky, D, Feder, A, Blanco, C, Marshall, RD, Lantigua, R, Shea, S, Weissman, MM (2006 c). Posttraumatic stress disorder in primary care one year after the 9/11 attacks. General Hospital Psychiatry 28, 213222.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neuner, F, Schauer, E, Catani, C, Ruf, M, Elbert, T (2006). Post-tsunami stress: a study of posttraumatic stress disorder in children living in three severely affected regions in Sri Lanka. Journal of Traumatic Stress 19, 339347.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Norris, FH (1992). Epidemiology of trauma: frequency and impact of different potentially traumatic events on different demographic groups. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 60, 409418.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Norris, FH, Friedman, MJ, Watson, PJ, Byrne, CM, Diaz, E, Kaniasty, K (2002). 60,000 disaster victims speak: Part I. An empirical review of the empirical literature, 1981–2001. Psychiatry 65, 207239.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Norris, FH, Murphy, AD, Baker, CK, Perilla, JL (2004). Postdisaster PTSD over four waves of a panel study of Mexico's 1999 flood. Journal of Traumatic Stress 17, 283292.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Norris, FH, Perilla, JL, Riad, JK, Kaniasty, K, Lavizzo, EA (1999). Stability and change in stress, resources, and psychological distress following natural disaster: findings from Hurricane Andrew. Anxiety Stress Coping 12, 363396.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
North, CS, Pfefferbaum, B, Narayanan, P, Thielman, S, McCoy, G, Dumont, C, Kawasaki, A, Ryosho, N, Kim, YS, Spitznagel, EL (2005). Comparison of post-disaster psychiatric disorders after terrorist bombings in Nairobi and Oklahoma City. British Journal of Psychiatry 186, 487493.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
North, CS, Smith, EM, Spitznagel, EL (1994). Posttraumatic stress disorder in survivors of a mass shooting. American Journal of Psychiatry 151, 8288.Google ScholarPubMed
North, CS, Smith, EM, Spitznagel, EL (1997). One-year follow-up of survivors of a mass shooting. American Journal of Psychiatry 154, 16961702.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Onder, E, Tural, U, Aker, T, Kilic, C, Erdogan, S (2006). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders three years after the 1999 earthquake in Turkey: Marmara Earthquake Survey (MES). Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 41, 868874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ozen, S, Sir, A (2004). Frequency of PTSD in a group of search and rescue workers two months after 2003 Bingol (Turkey) earthquake. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 192, 573575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Palinkas, LA, Petterson, JS, Russell, J, Downs, MA (1993). Community patterns of psychiatric disorders after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. American Journal of Psychiatry 150, 15171523.Google ScholarPubMed
Parslow, RA, Jorm, AF, Christensen, H (2006). Associations of pre-trauma attributes and trauma exposure with screening positive for PTSD: analysis of a community-based study of 2,085 young adults. Psychological Medicine 36, 387395.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pfefferbaum, B, Nixon, SJ, Krug, RS, Tivis, RD, Moore, VL, Brown, JM, Pynoos, RS, Foy, D, Gurwitch, RH (1999). Clinical needs assessment of middle and high school students following the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing. American Journal of Psychiatry 156, 10691074.Google ScholarPubMed
Pynoos, RS, Frederick, C, Nader, K, Arroyo, W, Steinberg, A, Eth, S, Nunez, F, Fairbanks, L (1987). Life threat and posttraumatic stress in school-age children. Archives of General Psychiatry 44, 10571063.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Quarantelli, EL (1995). What is a disaster? Six views of the problem. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health 13, 221229.Google Scholar
Quarantelli, EL (ed.) (1998). What is a Disaster: Perspectives on the Question. Routledge: London, New York.Google Scholar
Resnick, HS, Kilpatrick, DG, Dansky, BS, Saunders, BE, Best, CL (1993). Prevalence of civilian trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in a representative national sample of women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 61, 984991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Russoniello, CV, Skalko, TK, O'Brien, K, McGhee, SA, Bingham-Alexander, D, Beatley, J (2002). Childhood posttraumatic stress disorder and efforts to cope after Hurricane Floyd. Behavioral Medicine 28, 6171.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schlenger, WE, Caddell, JM, Ebert, L, Jordan, BK, Rourke, KM, Wilson, D, Thalji, L, Dennis, JM, Fairbank, JA, Kulka, RA (2002). Psychological reactions to terrorist attacks: findings from the National Study of Americans' Reactions to September 11. Journal of the American Medical Asssociation 288, 581588.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scott, RB, Brooks, N, McKinlay, W (1995). Post-traumatic morbidity in a civilian community of litigants: a follow-up at 3 years. Journal of Traumatic Stress 8, 403417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shannon, MP, Lonigan, CJ, Finch, AJ Jr., Taylor, CM (1994). Children exposed to disaster: I. Epidemiology of post-traumatic symptoms and symptom profiles. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 33, 8093.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Silver, RC, Holman, EA, McIntosh, DN, Poulin, M, Gil-Rivas, V (2002). Nationwide longitudinal study of psychological responses to September 11. Jama 288, 12351244.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sims, A, Sims, D (1998). The phenomenology of post-traumatic stress disorder. A symptomatic study of 70 victims of psychological trauma. Psychopathology 31, 96112.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sloan, P (1988). Post-traumatic stress in survivors of an airplane crash-landing: a clinical and explanatory research intervention. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1, 211229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, EM, North, CS, Spitznagel, EL (1993). Post-traumatic stress in survivors of three disasters. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 8, 353368.Google Scholar
Soldatos, CR, Paparrigopoulos, TJ, Pappa, DA, Christodoulou, GN (2006). Early post-traumatic stress disorder in relation to acute stress reaction: an ICD-10 study among help seekers following an earthquake. Psychiatry Research 143, 245253.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spurrell, MT, McFarlane, AC (1993). Post-traumatic stress disorder and coping after a natural disaster. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 28, 194200.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stuber, J, Resnick, H, Galea, S (2006). Gender disparities in posttraumatic stress disorder after mass trauma. Gender Medicine 3, 5467.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sungur, M, Kaya, B (2001). The onset and longitudinal course of a man-made post-traumatic morbidity: survivors of the Sivas disaster. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice 5, 195202.Google Scholar
Thompson, MP, Norris, FH, Hanacek, B (1993). Age differences in the psychological consequences of Hurricane Hugo. Psychology and Aging 8, 606616.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tierny, K, Lindell, M, Perry, R (2001). Facing the Unexpected Disaster: Preparedness and Response in the United States. Joseph Henry Press: Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Tucker, P, Pfefferbaum, B, Nixon, SJ, Dickson, W (2000). Predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms in Oklahoma City: exposure, social support, peri-traumatic responses. Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research 27, 406416.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tyano, S, Iancu, I, Solomon, Z, Sever, J, Goldstein, I, Touviana, Y, Bleich, A (1996). Seven-year follow-up of child survivors of a bus-train collision. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 35, 365373.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ursano, RJ, Fullerton, CS, Kao, TC, Bhartiya, VR (1995). Longitudinal assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression after exposure to traumatic death. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 183, 3642.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Griensven, F, Chakkraband, ML, Thienkrua, W, Pengjuntr, W, Lopes Cardozo, B, Tantipiwatanaskul, P, Mock, PA, Ekassawin, S, Varangrat, A, Gotway, C, Sabin, M, Tappero, JW (2006). Mental health problems among adults in tsunami-affected areas in southern Thailand. Journal of the American Medical Association 296, 537548.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Verger, P, Dab, W, Lamping, DL, Loze, JY, Deschaseaux-Voinet, C, Abenhaim, L, Rouillon, F (2004). The psychological impact of terrorism: an epidemiologic study of posttraumatic stress disorder and associated factors in victims of the 1995–1996 bombings in France. American Journal of Psychiatry 161, 13841389.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vernberg, EM, Silverman, WK, La Greca, AM, Prinstein, MJ (1996). Prediction of posttraumatic stress symptoms in children after hurricane Andrew. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 105, 237248.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, X, Gao, L, Shinfuku, N, Zhang, H, Zhao, C, Shen, Y (2000). Longitudinal study of earthquake-related PTSD in a randomly selected community sample in north China. American Journal of Psychiatry 157, 12601266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Neria Supplementary Material

Tables

Download Neria Supplementary Material(File)
File 565 KB
696
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Post-traumatic stress disorder following disasters: a systematic review
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Post-traumatic stress disorder following disasters: a systematic review
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Post-traumatic stress disorder following disasters: a systematic review
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *