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Sleep problems and associations with psychopathology and cognition in young people with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  30 May 2019

H. A. Moulding
Affiliation:
MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics and Division of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Hadyn Ellis Building, Maindy Road, Cathays, Cardiff, CF24 4HQ, UK
U. Bartsch
Affiliation:
School Physiology, Pharmacology & Neuroscience, University of Bristol, Biomedical Sciences Building, University Walk, BS8 1TD, UK Lilly UK, Erl Wood Manor, Windlesham, Surrey, GU20 6PH, UK
J. Hall
Affiliation:
MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics and Division of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Hadyn Ellis Building, Maindy Road, Cathays, Cardiff, CF24 4HQ, UK Neuroscience and Mental Health Research Institute, Cardiff University, Hadyn Ellis Building, Maindy Road, Cardiff, CF24 4HQ, UK
M. W. Jones
Affiliation:
School Physiology, Pharmacology & Neuroscience, University of Bristol, Biomedical Sciences Building, University Walk, BS8 1TD, UK
D. E. Linden
Affiliation:
MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics and Division of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Hadyn Ellis Building, Maindy Road, Cathays, Cardiff, CF24 4HQ, UK Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre, Maindy Road, Cardiff, CF24 4HQ, UK
M. J. Owen
Affiliation:
MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics and Division of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Hadyn Ellis Building, Maindy Road, Cathays, Cardiff, CF24 4HQ, UK
M. B. M. van den Bree*
Affiliation:
MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics and Division of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Hadyn Ellis Building, Maindy Road, Cathays, Cardiff, CF24 4HQ, UK
*
Author for correspondence: M. B. M. van den Bree, E-mail: vandenBreeMB@cardiff.ac.uk

Abstract

Background

Young people with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) are at high risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. Sleep problems may play a role in this risk but their prevalence, nature and links to psychopathology and cognitive function remain undescribed in this population.

Method

Sleep problems, psychopathology, developmental coordination and cognitive function were assessed in 140 young people with 22q11.2DS (mean age = 10.1, s.d. = 2.46) and 65 unaffected sibling controls (mean age = 10.8, s.d.SD = 2.26). Primary carers completed questionnaires screening for the children's developmental coordination and autism spectrum disorder.

Results

Sleep problems were identified in 60% of young people with 22q11.2DS compared to 23% of sibling controls (OR 5.00, p < 0.001). Two patterns best-described sleep problems in 22q11.2DS: restless sleep and insomnia. Restless sleep was linked to increased ADHD symptoms (OR 1.16, p < 0.001) and impaired executive function (OR 0.975, p = 0.013). Both patterns were associated with elevated symptoms of anxiety disorder (restless sleep: OR 1.10, p = 0.006 and insomnia: OR 1.07, p = 0.045) and developmental coordination disorder (OR 0.968, p = 0.0023, and OR 0.955, p = 0.009). The insomnia pattern was also linked to elevated conduct disorder symptoms (OR 1.53, p = 0.020).

Conclusions

Clinicians and carers should be aware that sleep problems are common in 22q11.2DS and index psychiatric risk, cognitive deficits and motor coordination problems. Future studies should explore the physiology of sleep and the links with the neurodevelopment in these young people.

Type
Original Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019

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