Brunner R, Parzer P, Haffner J, Steen R, Roos J, Klett M, Resch F (2007). Prevalence and psychological correlates of occasional and repetitive deliberate self-harm in adolescents. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Health 161, 641–649.
Cloutier P, Humphreys L (2008). Measurement of nonsuicidal self-injury in adolescents. In Self-Injury in Youth (ed. Nixon and M. K.Heath N. L.), pp. 115–142. Routledge: New York.
Csorba J, Szelesne EF, Steiner P, Farkas L, Nemeth A (2005). Symptom specificity of adolescents with self-injurious behavior. Psychiatria Hungarica 20, 456–462.
Favaro A, Ferrara S, Santonastaso P (2007). Self-injurious behavior in a community sample of young women: relationship with childhood abuse and other types of self-damaging behaviors. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 68, 122–131.
Favazza AR (1998). The coming of age of self-mutilation. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 186, 259–268.
Fliege H, Kocalevent RD, Walter OB, Gratz KL, Gutierrez PM, Klapp BF (2006). Three assessment tools for deliberate self-harm and suicide behaviour: evaluation and psychopathological correlates. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 61, 113–121.
Friedman RA (2006). Uncovering an epidemic – screening for mental illness in teens. New England Journal of Medicine 355, 2717–2719.
Gould MS, Marrocco FA, Kleinmann M, Thomas JG, Mostkoff K, Cote J, Davies M (2005). Evaluating iatrogenic risk of youth suicide screening programs. Journal of the American Medical Association 293, 1635–1643.
Gratz KL (2006). Risk factors for deliberate self-harm among female college students: the role and interaction of childhood maltreatment, emotional inexpressivity, and affect intensity/reactivity. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 76, 238–250.
Gutierrez PM, Osman A (2008). Adolescent Suicide: An Integrated Approach to the Assessment of Risk and Protective Factors. Northern Illinois University Press: DeKalb, IL.
Gutierrez PM, Osman A, Barrios FX, Kopper BA (2001). Development and initial validation of the self-harm behavior questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment 77, 475–490.
Hawton K, Bergen H, Casey D, Simkin S, Palmer B, Coooper J, Kapur N, Horrocks J, House A, Lilley R, Noble R, Owens D (2007). Self-harm in England: a tale of three cities. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 42, 513–521.
Hawton K, Rodham K, Evans E, Weatherall R (2002). Deliberate self-harm in adolescents: self-report survey in schools in England. British Medical Journal 325, 1207–1211.
Heath NL, Nixon MK (2008). Assessment of nonsuicidal self-injury in youth. In Self-Injury in Youth (ed. Nixon and M. K.Heath N. L.), pp. 143–170. Routledge: New York.
Jacobson CM, Gould M (2007). The epidemiology and phenomenology of non-suicidal self-injurious behavior among adolescents: a critical review of the literature. Archives of Suicide Research 11, 129–147.
Joiner T (2005). Why People Die by Suicide. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA.
Kirkcaldy BD, Brown J, Siefen RG (2006). Disruptive behaviour disorders, self harm and suicidal ideation among German adolescents in psychiatric care. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health 18, 597–614.
Laye-Gindhu A, Schonert-Reichl KA (2005). Nonsuicidal self-harm among community adolescents: understanding the ‘whats’ and ‘whys’ of self-harm. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 34, 447–457.
Lloyd-Richardson EE, Perrine N, Dierker L, Kelley ML (2007). Characteristics and functions of non-suicidal self-injury in a community sample of adolescents. Psychological Medicine 37, 1183–1192.
Lundh LG, Karim J, Quilisch E (2007). Deliberate self-harm in 15-year-old adolescents: a pilot study with a modified version of the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 48, 33–41.
Madge N, Hewitt A, Hawton K, de Wilde EJ, Corcoran P, Fekete S, van Heeringen K, De Leo D, Ystgaard M (2008). Deliberate self-harm within an international community sample of young people: comparative findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-Harm in Europe (CASE) study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 49, 667–677.
Mitchell KJ, Ybarra ML (2007). Online behaviour of youth who engage in self-harm provides clues for preventive intervention. Preventive Medicine 45, 392–396.
Muehlenkamp JJ (2005). Self-injurious behavior as a separate clinical syndrome. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 75, 324–333.
Muehlenkamp JJ, Gutierrez PM (2004). An investigation of differences between self-injurious behavior and suicide attempts in a sample of adolescents. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 34, 12–23.
Muehlenkamp JJ, Gutierrez PM (2007). Risk for suicide attempts among adolescents who engage in non-suicidal self-injury. Archives of Suicide Research 11, 69–82.
Nada-Raja S, Skegg K, Langley J, Morrison D, Sowerby P (2004). Self-harmful behaviors in a population-based sample of young adults. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 34, 177–186.
Nixon MK, Cloutier PF, Aggarwal S (2002). Affect regulation and addictive aspects of repetitive self-injury in hospitalized adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 41, 1333–1341.
Nock MK, Joiner TE Jr., Gordon KH, Lloyd-Richardson E, Prinstein MJ (2006). Non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents: diagnostic correlates and relation to suicide attempts. Psychiatry Research 30, 65–72.
Nock MK, Kessler RC (2006). Prevalence and risk factors for suicide attempts versus suicide gestures: analysis of the National Comorbidity Survey. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 115, 616–623.
Patton GC, Harris R, Carlin JB, Hibbert ME, Coffey C, Schwartz M, Bowes G (1997). Adolescent suicidal behaviours: a population-based study of risk. Psychological Medicine 27, 715–724.
Patton GC, Hemphill SA, Beyers JM, Bond L, Toumbourou JW, McMorris BJ, Catalano RF (2007). Pubertal stage and deliberate self-harm in adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 46, 508–514.
Portzky G, De Wilde EJ, van Heeringen K (2008). Deliberate self harm in young people: differences in prevalence and risk factors between The Netherlands and Belgium. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 17, 179–186.
Posner K, Oquendo MA, Gould M, Stanley B, Davies M (2007). Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment (C-CASA): classification of suicidal events in the FDA's pediatric suicidal risk analysis of antidepressants. American Journal of Psychiatry 164, 1035–1043.
Rodham K, Hawton K, Evans E (2004). Reasons for deliberate self-harm: comparison of self-poisoners and self-cutters in a community sample of adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 43, 80–87.
Ross S, Heath N (2002). A study of the frequency of self-mutilation in a community sample of adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 31, 67–77.
Silverman MM, Berman AL, Sanddal ND, O'Carroll PW, Joiner TE (2007). Rebuilding the tower of Babel: a revised nomenclature for the study of suicide and suicidal behaviors. Part 2: Suicide-related ideations, communications and behaviors. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 37, 264–277.
Skegg K, Nada-Raja S, Moffitt TE (2004). Minor self-harm and psychiatric disorder: a population-based study. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 34, 187–196.
Sourander A, Aromaa M, Pihlakoski L, Haavisto A, Rautava P, Helenius H, Sillanpaa M (2006). Early predictors of deliberate self-harm among adolescents. A prospective follow-up study from age 3 to age 15. Journal of Affective Disorders 93, 87–96.
Tigges BB (2003). Parental consent and adolescent risk behavior research. Journal of Nursing Scholarship 35, 283–289.
Whitlock J, Eckenrode J, Silverman D (2006). Self-injurious behaviors in a college population. Pediatrics 117, 1939–1948.
Whitlock J, Knox KL (2007). The relationship between self-injurious behaviour and suicide in a young adult population. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 161, 634–640.
Whitlock J, Powers JL, Eckenrode J (2006). The virtual cutting edge: the internet and adolescent self-injury. Developmental Psychology 42, 407–417.
Young R, Sweeting H, West P (2006). Prevalence of deliberate self-harm and attempted suicide within contemporary Goth youth subculture: longitudinal cohort study. British Medical Journal 332, 1058–1061.
Young R, van Beinum M, Sweeting H, West P (2007). Young people who self-harm. British Journal of Psychiatry 191, 44–49.
Zoroglu SS, Tuzun U, Sar V, Tutkun H, Savacs HA, Ozturk M, Alyanak B, Kora ME (2003). Suicide attempt and self-mutilation among Turkish high school students in relation with abuse, neglect and dissociation. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 57, 119–126.