Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 31
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Dvorsky, Melissa R. Langberg, Joshua M. Evans, Steven W. and Becker, Stephen P. 2016. The Protective Effects of Social Factors on the Academic Functioning of Adolescents With ADHD. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, p. 1.

    Leung, Alexander K.C. and Hon, Kam Lun 2016. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Advances in Pediatrics, Vol. 63, Issue. 1, p. 255.

    Molitor, Stephen J. Langberg, Joshua M. and Evans, Steven W. 2016. The written expression abilities of adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities, Vol. 51-52, p. 49.

    Salla, Julie Michel, Grégory Pingault, Jean Baptiste Lacourse, Eric Paquin, Stéphane Galéra, Cédric Falissard, Bruno Boivin, Michel Tremblay, Richard E. and Côté, Sylvana M. 2016. Childhood trajectories of inattention-hyperactivity and academic achievement at 12 years. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry,

    Wolfgramm, Christine Suter, Nicole and Göksel, Eva 2016. Examining the Role of Concentration, Vocabulary and Self-concept in Listening and Reading Comprehension. International Journal of Listening, Vol. 30, Issue. 1-2, p. 25.

    Allan, Darcey M. Allan, Nicholas P. Lerner, Matthew D. Farrington, Amber L. and Lonigan, Christopher J. 2015. Identifying unique components of preschool children's self-regulatory skills using executive function tasks and continuous performance tests. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Vol. 32, p. 40.

    Baweja, Raman Mattison, Richard E. and Waxmonsky, James G. 2015. Impact of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder on School Performance: What are the Effects of Medication?. Pediatric Drugs, Vol. 17, Issue. 6, p. 459.

    Savill, Nicola C. Buitelaar, Jan K. Anand, Ernie Day, Kathleen Ann Treuer, Tamás Upadhyaya, Himanshu P. and Coghill, David 2015. The Efficacy of Atomoxetine for the Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Comprehensive Review of Over a Decade of Clinical Research. CNS Drugs, Vol. 29, Issue. 2, p. 131.

    Sayal, Kapil Washbrook, Elizabeth and Propper, Carol 2015. Childhood Behavior Problems and Academic Outcomes in Adolescence: Longitudinal Population-Based Study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 54, Issue. 5, p. 360.

    Tzuriel, David and Trabelsi, Gilat 2015. Cognition, Intelligence, and Achievement.

    Kieling, Renata R. Kieling, Christian Aguiar, Ana Paula Costa, Adriana C. Dorneles, Beatriz V. and Rohde, Luis A. 2014. Searching for the best approach to assess teachers’ perception of inattention and hyperactivity problems at school. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 23, Issue. 6, p. 451.

    Morgan, Paul L. Hillemeier, Marianne M. Farkas, George and Maczuga, Steve 2014. Racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 55, Issue. 8, p. 905.

    Sijtsema, J. J. Verboom, C. E. Penninx, B. W. J. H. Verhulst, F. C. and Ormel, J. 2014. Psychopathology and Academic Performance, Social Well-Being, and Social Preference at School: The TRAILS Study. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, Vol. 45, Issue. 3, p. 273.

    Dallaire, Bernadette Gromaire, Pierre and McCubbin, Michael 2013. Médicalisation et médication de la souffrance: le rôle des approches médicales et de la médication dans les réponses apportées aux besoins des jeunes hébergés dans des Auberges du coeur de Québec et de Chaudière-Appalaches. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, Vol. 32, Issue. 4, p. 59.

    Langberg, Joshua M. Dvorsky, Melissa R. and Evans, Steven W. 2013. What Specific Facets of Executive Function are Associated with Academic Functioning in Youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Vol. 41, Issue. 7, p. 1145.

    Washbrook, E. Propper, C. and Sayal, K. 2013. Pre-school hyperactivity/attention problems and educational outcomes in adolescence: prospective longitudinal study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 203, Issue. 4, p. 265.

    Canu, Will H. and Mancil, Emily B. 2012. An Examination of Teacher Trainees’ Knowledge of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. School Mental Health, Vol. 4, Issue. 2, p. 105.

    Classi, Peter Milton, Denái Ward, Sarah Sarsour, Khaled and Johnston, Joseph 2012. Social and emotional difficulties in children with ADHD and the impact on school attendance and healthcare utilization. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, Vol. 6, Issue. 1, p. 33.

    Dadaczynski, Kevin 2012. Stand der Forschung zum Zusammenhang von Gesundheit und Bildung. Zeitschrift für Gesundheitspsychologie, Vol. 20, Issue. 3, p. 141.

    Emond, Sarah K. Ollendorf, Daniel A. Colby, Jennifer A. Reed, Sarah Jane and Pearson, Steven D. 2012. Management Strategies for Attention–Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Regional Deliberation on the Evidence. Postgraduate Medicine, Vol. 124, Issue. 5, p. 58.


Childhood and adolescent hyperactivity-inattention symptoms and academic achievement 8 years later: the GAZEL Youth study

  • C. Galéra (a1) (a2), M. Melchior (a3), J.-F. Chastang (a3), M.-P. Bouvard (a1) and E. Fombonne (a4)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 April 2009

Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk of negative academic outcomes. However, relatively few studies in this area have been based on long-term longitudinal designs and community-based settings. This study examined the link between childhood hyperactivity-inattention symptoms (HI-s) and subsequent academic achievement in a community setting, controlling for other behavioural symptoms, socio-economic status (SES) and environmental factors at baseline.


The sample consisted of 1264 subjects (aged 12 to 26 years at follow-up) recruited from the longitudinal GAZEL Youth study. Psychopathology, environmental variables and academic outcomes were measured through self-reports. Multivariate modelling was performed to evaluate the effects of childhood HI-s and other risk factors on academic achievement 8 years later.


HI-s independently predicted grade retention [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.38–5.39], failure to graduate from secondary school (adjusted OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.43–4.05), obtaining a lower-level diploma (adjusted OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.84–4.89), and lower academic performance. These results remained significant even after accounting for school difficulties at baseline. Negative academic outcomes were also significantly associated with childhood symptoms of conduct disorder (CD), even after accounting for adjustment variables.


This longitudinal survey replicates, in a general population-based setting, the finding of a link between HI-s and negative academic outcomes.

Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Dr C. Galéra, Pôle de pédopsychiatrie universitaire, Centre Hospitalier Charles-Perrens, 121 rue de la Béchade, 33076Bordeaux, France. (Email:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

TM Achenbach , L Dumenci , LA Rescorla (2003). DSM-oriented and empirically based approaches to constructing scales from the same item pools. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 32, 328340.

TM Achenbach , LA Rescorla (2001). Manual for the ASEBA School-Age Forms and Profiles. Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families, University of Vermont: Burlington, VT.

BP Ackerman , ED Brown (2006). Income poverty, poverty co-factors, and the adjustment of children in elementary school. Advances in Child Development and Behavior 34, 91–129.

APA (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn. American Psychiatric Association: Washington, DC.

TD Armstrong , EJ Costello (2002). Community studies on adolescent substance use, abuse, or dependence and psychiatric comorbidity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 70, 12241239.

WJ Barbaresi , SK Katusic , RC Colligan , AL Weaver , SJ Jacobsen (2007). Modifiers of long-term school outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: does treatment with stimulant medication make a difference? Results from a population-based study. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 28, 274287.

RA Barkley , M Fischer , CS Edelbrock , L Smallish (1990). The adolescent outcome of hyperactive children diagnosed by research criteria: I. An 8-year prospective study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 29, 546557.

TD Barry , R Lynam , LG Klinger (2002). Academic underachievement and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the negative impact of symptom severity on school performance. Journal of School Psychology 40, 259283.

DA Belsley , E Kuh , RE Welsch (1980). Regression Diagnostics: Identifying Influential Data and Sources of Collinearity. John Wiley and Sons: New York.

J Biederman , S Faraone , S Milberger , J Guite , E Mick , L Chen , D Mennin , A Marrs , C Ouellette , P Moore , T Spencer , D Norman , T Wilens , I Kraus , J Perrin (1996). A prospective 4-year follow-up study of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and related disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 53, 437446.

J Biederman , TE Wilens , E Mick , SV Faraone , TJ Spencer (1998). Does attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder impact the developmental course of drug and alcohol abuse and dependence? Biological Psychiatry 44, 269273.

HR Bird , G Canino , MS Gould , J Ribera , M Rubio-Stipec , M Woodbury , S Huertas-Goldman , M Sesman (1987). Use of the Child Behavior Checklist as a screening instrument for epidemiological research in child psychiatry: results of a pilot study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 26, 207213.

CL Carlson , WE Pelham , JM Swanson , JL Wagner (1991). A divided attention analysis of the effects of methylphenidate on the arithmetic performance of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 32, 463471.

GJ DuPaul , MD Rapport (1993). Does methylphenidate normalize the classroom performance of children with attention deficit disorder? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 32, 190198.

J Elia , PA Welsh , CS Gullotta , JL Rapoport (1993). Classroom performance: improvement with both methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine in ADHD boys. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 34, 785804.

DM Fergusson , LJ Horwood (1995). Early disruptive behavior, IQ, and later school achievement and delinquent behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 23, 183199.

DM Fergusson , LJ Woodward (2002). Mental health, educational, and social role outcomes of adolescents with depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 59, 225231.

E Fombonne (1991). The use of questionnaires in psychiatry research: measuring their performance and choosing an optimal cut-off. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 32, 677693.

E Fombonne (1994). The Chartres study: I. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among French school-aged children. British Journal of Psychiatry 164, 6979.

E Fombonne , S Vermeersch (1997 b). Children of the GAZEL Cohort: II. Motive for contact with the medical-educational system by age and sex. Revue d'Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique 45, 107115.

C Galéra , MP Bouvard , G Encrenaz , A Messiah , E Fombonne (2008 b). Hyperactivity-inattention symptoms in childhood and suicidal behaviors in adolescence: the youth GAZEL cohort. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 118, 480489.

C Galéra , MP Bouvard , A Messiah , E Fombonne (2008 a). Hyperactivity-inattention symptoms in childhood and substance use in adolescence: the youth GAZEL cohort. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 94, 3037.

C Galéra , E Fombonne , JF Chastang , M Bouvard (2005). Childhood hyperactivity-inattention symptoms and smoking in adolescence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 78, 101108.

M Goldberg , A Leclerc , S Bonenfant , JF Chastang , A Shmaus , N Kaniewski , M Zins (2007). Cohort profile: the GAZEL cohort study. International Journal of Epidemiology 36, 3239.

SP Hinshaw (1992). Academic underachievement, attention deficits, and aggression: comorbidity and implications for intervention. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 60, 893903.

DW Hosmer , S Lemeshow (2000). Applied Logistic Regression, 2nd edn.Wiley Interscience: New York.

NPCM Krol , EEJ De Bruyn , JC Coolen , EJM van Aarle (2006). From CBCL to DSM: a comparison of two methods to screen for DSM-IV diagnoses using CBCL data. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 31, 127135.

IM Loe , HM Feldman (2007). Academic and educational outcomes of children with ADHD. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 32, 643654.

S Mannuzza , RG Klein , A Bessler , P Malloy , M LaPadula (1993). Adult outcome of hyperactive boys. Educational achievement, occupational rank, and psychiatric status. Archives of General Psychiatry 50, 565576.

J Mash , RA Barkley (2003). Child Psychopathology, 2nd edn.Guilford Press: New York.

B Maughan , J Carroll (2006). Literacy and mental disorders. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 19, 350354.

M Melchior , JF Chastang , P Goldberg , E Fombonne (2008). High prevalence rates of tobacco, alcohol and drug use in adolescents and young adults in France: results from the GAZEL Youth study. Addictive Behaviors 33, 122133.

VL Raggi , AM Chronis (2006). Interventions to address the academic impairment of children and adolescents with ADHD. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 9, 85–110.

MD Rapport , SW Scanlan , CB Denney (1999). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and scholastic achievement: a model for dual developmental pathways. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 40, 11691183.

DB Rubin (1987). Multiple Imputation for Nonresponse in Surveys. Wiley: New York.

TJ Spencer , J Biederman , E Mick (2007). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: diagnosis, lifespan, comorbidities, and neurobiology. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 32, 631642.

C Stanger , E Fombonne , T Achenbach (1994). Epidemiological comparisons of American and French children: parent reports of problems and competencies for ages 6–11. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 3, 1628.

WL Stone , AM La Greca (1990). The social status of children with learning disabilities: a reexamination. Journal of Learning Disabilities 23, 3237.

M Van Ameringen , C Mancini , P Farvolden (2003). The impact of anxiety disorders on educational achievement. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 17, 561571.

S Van der Oord , PJM Prins , J Oosterlaan , PMG Emmelkamp (2008). Efficacy of methylphenidate, psychosocial treatments and their combination in school-aged children with ADHD: a meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review 28, 783800.

MM Weissman , V Warner , P Wickramaratne , D Moreau , M Olfson (1997). Offspring of depressed parents: 10 years later. Archives of General Psychiatry 54, 932940.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *