APA (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn., text revision. American Psychiatric Press: Washington, DC.
APA (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edn. American Psychiatric Publishing: Arlington, VA.
Armour C, Carragher N, Elhai JD (2013
a). Assessing the fit of the dysphoric arousal model across two nationally representative epidemiological surveys: The Australian NSMHWB and the United States NESARC. Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Armour C, Elhai JD, Richardson D, Ractliffe K, Wang L, Elklit A (2012). Assessing a five factor model of PTSD: is dysphoric arousal a unique PTSD construct showing differential relationships with anxiety and depression?
Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Armour C, Raudzah Ghazali S, Elklit A (2013
b). PTSD's latent structure in Malaysian tsunami victims: assessing the newly proposed dysphoric arousal model. Psychiatry Research
Berninger A, Webber MP, Cohen HW, Gustave J, Lee R, Niles JK, Chiu S, Zeig-Owens R, Soo J, Kelly K, Prezant DJ (2010). Trends of elevated PTSD risk in firefighters exposed to the World Trade Center disaster: 2001–2005. Public Health Reports
Bowler RM, Han H, Gocheva V, Nakagawa S, Alper H, DiGrande L, Cone JE (2010). Gender differences in probable posttraumatic stress disorder among police responders to the 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attack. American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Bremner JD, Southwick SM, Darnell A, Charney DS (1996). Chronic PTSD in Vietnam combat veterans: course of illness and substance abuse. American Journal Psychiatry
Bryant RA, Harvey AG, Guthrie RM, Moulds ML (2003). Acute psychophysiological arousal and posttraumatic stress disorder: a two-year prospective study. Journal of Traumatic Stress
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2004). Mental health status of World Trade Center rescue and recovery workers and volunteers – New York City, July 2002–August 2004. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Creamer M, Burgess P, Pattison P (1992). Reaction to trauma: a cognitive processing model. Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Cukor J, Wyka K, Jayasinghe N, Weathers F, Giosan C, Leck P, Roberts J, Spielman L, Crane M, Difede J (2011). Prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms in utility workers deployed to the World Trade Center following the attacks of September 11, 2001. Depression and Anxiety
Elhai JD, Biehn TL, Armour C, Klopper JJ, Frueh BC, Palmieri PA (2011). Evidence for a unique PTSD construct represented by PTSD's D1–D3 symptoms. Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Elhai JD, Layne CM, Steinberg AM, Brymer MJ, Briggs EC, Ostrowski SA, Pynoos RS (2013). Psychometric properties of the UCLA PTSD reaction index. part II: investigating factor structure findings in a national clinic-referred youth sample. Journal of Traumatic Stress
Elhai JD, Palmieri PA (2011). The factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder: a literature update, critique of methodology, and agenda for future research. Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Fan X, Sivo SA (2009). Using goodness-of-fit indexes in assessing mean structure invariance. Structural Equation Modeling
Foa EB, Riggs DS, Gershuny BA (1995). Arousal, numbing, and intrusion: symptom structure of PTSD following assault. American Journal of Psychiatry
Herbert R, Moline J, Skloot G, Metzger K, Baron S, Luft B, Markowitz S, Udasin I, Harrison D, Stein D, Todd A, Enright P, Stellman JM, Landrigan PJ, Levin SM (2006). The World Trade Center disaster and the health of workers: five-year assessment of a unique medical screening program. Environmental Health Perspectives
Hinton DE, Hofmann SG, Pollack MH, Otto MW (2009). Mechanisms of efficacy of CBT for Cambodian refugees with PTSD: improvement in emotion regulation and orthostatic blood pressure response. CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics
Hoge EA, Worthington JJ, Nagurney JT, Chang Y, Kay EB, Feterowski CM, Katzman AR, Goetz JM, Rosasco ML, Lasko NB, Zusman RM, Pollack MH, Orr SP, Pitman RK (2012). Effect of acute posttrauma propranolol on PTSD outcome and physiological responses during script-driven imagery. CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics
Horowitz MJ (2001). Stress Response Syndromes, 3rd edn. Jason Aronson: New York.
Hu L, Bentler PM (1998). Fit indices in covariance structural modeling: sensitivity to underparameterized model misspecification. Psychological Methods
Hu L, Bentler PM (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling
Jöreskog KG (1979). Statistical estimation of structural models in longitudinal developmental investigations. In Longitudinal Research in the Study of Behavior and Development (ed. Nesselroade J. R. and Baltes P. B.), pp. 303–352. Academic Press: New York.
Keane TM, Fairbank JA, Caddell RT, Zimering RT, Bender ME (1985). A behavioral approach to assessing and treating PTSD in Vietnam veterans. In Trauma and its Wake (ed. Figley C. R.), pp. 257–294. Brunner/Mazel: New York.
King DW, Leskin GA, King LA, Weathers FW (1998). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale: evidence for the dimensionality of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Assessment
Lawrence JW, Fauerbach J, Munster A (1996). Early avoidance of traumatic stimuli predicts chronicity of intrusive thoughts following burn injury. Behaviour Research and Therapy
Leskin GA, Kaloupek DG, Keane TM (1998). Treatment for traumatic memories: review and recommendations. Clinical Psychology Review
Lucchini RG, Crane MA, Crowley L, Globina Y, Milek DJ, Boffetta P, Landrigan PJ (2012). The World Trade Center Health Surveillance Program: results of the first 10 years and implications for prevention. Giomale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro ed Ergonomia
34 (Suppl. 3), 529–533.
Luft BJ, Schechter C, Kotov R, Broihier J, Reissman D, Guerrera K, Udasin I, Moline J, Harrison D, Friedman-Jimenez G, Pietrzak RH, Southwick SM, Bromet EJ (2012). Exposure, probable PTSD and lower respiratory illness among World Trade Center rescue, recovery and clean-up workers. Psychological Medicine
Macdonald A, Monson CM, Doron-Lamarca S, Resick PA, Palfai TP (2011). Identifying patterns of symptom change during a randomized controlled trial of cognitive processing therapy for military-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress
Malta LS, Wyka KE, Giosan C, Jayasinghe N, Difede J (2009). Numbing symptoms as predictors of unremitting posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Marshall GN, Schell TL, Glynn SM, Shetty V (2006). The role of hyperarousal in the manifestation of posttraumatic psychological distress following injury. Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Marshall GN, Schell TL, Miles JNV (2013). A multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis of PTSD symptoms: what exactly is wrong with the DSM-IV structure?
Clinical Psychology Review
Mayer L, Carrol S (1987). Testing for lagged, cotemporal and total dependence in cross-lagged panel analysis. Sociological Methods and Research
Muthén B, Muthén L (2002). MPlus: The Comprehensive Modeling Program for Applied Researchers. Muthén and Muthén: Los Angeles, CA.
Nixon RDV, Nehmy T, Seymour M (2007). The effect of cognitive load and hyperarousal on negative intrusive memories. Behaviour Research and Therapy
Perrin MA, DiGrande L, Wheeler K, Thorpe L, Farfel M, Brackbill R (2007). Differences in PTSD prevalence and associated risk factors among World Trade Center disaster rescue and recovery workers. American Journal of Psychiatry
Palmieri PA, Weathers FW, Difede J, King DW (2007). Confirmatory factor analysis of the PTSD Checklist and the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale in disaster workers exposed to the World Trade Center Ground Zero. Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Pietrzak RH, Feder A, Singh R, Schechter CB, Bromet EJ, Katz CL, Reissman DB, Ozbay F, Sharma V, Crane M, Harrison D, Herbert R, Levin SM, Luft BJ, Moline JM, Stellman JM, Udasin IG, Landrigan PJ, Southwick SM (2013
a). Trajectories of PTSD risk and resilience in World Trade Center responders: an 8-year prospective cohort study. Psychological Medicine. Published online:
Pietrzak RH, Galea S, Southwick SM, Gelernter J (2013
b). Examining the relation between the serotonin transporter 5-HTTPLR genotype x trauma exposure interaction on a contemporary phenotypic model of posttraumatic stress symptomatology: a pilot study. Journal of Affective Disorders
Pietrzak RH, Gallezot JD, Ding YS, Henry S, Potenza MN, Southwick SM, Krystal JH, Carson RE, Neumeister A (2013
c). Association of posttraumatic stress disorder with reduced in vivo norepinephrine transporter density in locus coeruleus. JAMA Psychiatry
Pietrzak RH, Henry S, Southwick SM, Krystal JH, Neumeister A (2013
d). Linking in vivo brain serotonin type 1B receptor density to phenotypic heterogeneity of posttraumatic stress symptomatology. Molecular Psychiatry
Pietrzak RH, Schechter CB, Bromet EJ, Katz CL, Reissman DB, Ozbay F, Sharma V, Crane M, Harrison D, Herbert R, Levin SM, Luft BJ, Moline JM, Stellman JM, Udasin IG, Landrigan PJ, Southwick SM (2012
a). The burden of full and subsyndromal posttraumatic stress disorder among police involved in the World Trade Center rescue and recovery effort. Journal of Psychiatric Research
Pietrzak RH, Tsai J, Harpaz-Rotem I, Whealin JM, Southwick SM (2012
b). Support for a novel five-factor model of posttraumatic stress symptoms in three independent samples of Iraq/Afghanistan veterans: a confirmatory factor analytic study. Journal of Psychiatric Research
Pietrzak RH, Van Ness PH, Fried TR, Galea S, Norris F (2012
c). Diagnostic utility and factor structure of the PTSD Checklist in older adults. International Psychogeriatrics
Pitman RK, Delahanty DL (2005). Conceptually driven pharmacologic approaches to acute trauma. CNS Spectrums
Rabe S, Dörfel D, Zöllner T, Maercker A, Karl A (2006). Cardiovascular correlates of motor vehicle accident related posttraumatic stress disorder and its successful treatment. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
Raftery AE (1995). Bayesian model selection in social research. Sociological Methodology
Reddy MK, Anderson BJ, Liebschutz J, Stein MD (2013). Factor structure of PTSD symptoms in opioid-dependent patients rating their overall trauma history. Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Ruggero CJ, Kotov R, Callahan JL, Kilmer JN, Luft BJ, Bromet EJ (2013). PTSD symptom dimensions and their relationship to functioning in World Trade Center responders. Psychiatry Research. Published online:
Satorra A, Bentler PM (2001). A scaled difference chi-square test statistic for moment structure analysis. Psychometrika
Schell TL, Marshall GN, Jaycox LH (2004). All symptoms are not created equal: the prominent role of hyperarousal in the natural course of posttraumatic psychological distress. Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Schindel-Allon I, Aderka IM, Shahar G, Stein M, Gilboa-Schechtman E (2010). Longitudinal associations between post-traumatic distress and depressive symptoms following a traumatic event: a test of three models. Psychological Medicine
Schwarz G (1978). Estimating the dimension of a model. Annals of Statistics
Simms LJ, Watson D, Doebbeling BN (2002). Confirmatory factor analyses of posttraumatic stress symptoms in deployed and nondeployed veterans of the Gulf War. Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Solomon Z, Horesh D, Ein-Dor T (2009). The longitudinal course of posttraumatic stress disorder symptom clusters among war veterans. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Soo J, Webber MP, Gustave J, Lee R, Hall CB, Cohen HW, Kelly KJ, Prezant DJ (2011). Trends in probable PTSD in firefighters exposed to the World Trade Center disaster, 2001–2010. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
5 (Suppl. 2), S197–S203.
Stellman JM, Smith RP, Katz CL, Sharma V, Charney DS, Herbert R, Moline J, Luft BJ, Markowitz S, Udasin I, Harrison D, Baron S, Landrigan PJ, Levin SM, Southwick S (2008). Enduring mental health morbidity and social function impairment in World Trade Center rescue, recovery, and cleanup workers: the psychological dimension of an environmental health disaster. Environmental Health Perspectives
Strawn JR, Geracioti TDJ (2008). Noradrenergic dysfunction and the psychopharmacology of posttraumatic stress disorder. Depression and Anxiety
Thompson KE, Vasterling JJ, Benotsch EG, Brailey K, Constans J, Uddo M, Sutker PB (2004). Early symptom predictors of chronic distress in Gulf War veterans. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Vaiva G, Ducrocq F, Jezequel K, Averland B, Lestavel P, Brunet A, Marmar CR (2003). Immediate treatment with propranolol decreases posttraumatic stress disorder two months after trauma. Biological Psychiatry
Wang L, Li Z, Shi Z, Zhang J, Zhang K, Liu Z, Elhai JD (2011
a). Testing the dimensionality of posttraumatic stress responses in young Chinese adult earthquake survivors: further evidence for ‘dysphoric arousal’ as a unique PTSD construct. Depression and Anxiety
Wang L, Zhang J, Shi Z, Zhou M, Li Z, Zhang K, Liu Z, Elhai JD (2011
b). Comparing alternative factor models of PTSD symptoms across earthquake victims and violent riot witnesses in China: evidence for a five-factor model proposed by Elhai et al (2011). Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Wang M, Armour C, Li X, Dai X, Zhu X, Yao S (2013
a). The factorial invariance across gender of three well-supported models: further evidence for a five-factor model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Wang PS, Lane M, Olfson M, Pincus HA, Wells KB, Kessler RC (2005). Twelve-month use of mental health services in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry
Wang R, Wang L, Li Z, Cao C, Shi Z, Zhang J (2013
b). Latent structure of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in an adolescent sample one month after an earthquake. Journal of Adolescence
Watson D (2005). Rethinking the mood and anxiety disorders: a quantitative hierarchical model for DSM-V. Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Weathers F, Litz B, Herman D, Huska J, Keane T (1993). The PTSD Checklist (PCL): reliability, validity, and diagnostic utility. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, San Antonio, TX (http://www.pdhealth.mil/library/downloads/pcl_sychometrics.doc). Accessed November 2013.
Webber MP, Glaser MS, Weakley J, Soo J, Ye F, Zeig-Owens R, Weiden MD, Nolan A, Aldrich TK, Kelly K, Prezant D (2013). Physician-diagnosed respiratory conditions and mental health symptoms 7–9 years following the World Trade Center disaster. American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Wisnivesky JP, Teitelbaum S, Todd A, Boffetta P, Crane M, Dellenbaugh C, Harrison D, Herbert R, Jeon Y, Kaplan J, Levin S, Luft B, Markowitz S, Moline J, Pietrzak RH, Shapiro M, Southwick SM, Stevenson L, Udasin I, Wallenstein S, Landrigan P (2011). Long persistence of multiple illnesses in September 11 responders. Lancet
Yufik T, Simms LJ (2010). A meta-analytic investigation of the structure of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology