Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

A longitudinal study of social support and depression in unemployed men

  • Winifred Bolton (a1) and Keith Oatley (a1)
Abstract
Synopsis

Interviews were conducted with 49 men just after they had become unemployed, and with a matched sample of 49 employed men. Follow-up interviews took place 6–8 months later. At follow-up 20 originally unemployed men were still without work, and were significantly more depressed than the employed. Five of these 20, but no employed men, had become clinically depressed. In a multiple regression analysis there was a significant employment × social support interaction which indicated that depression scores at follow-up were higher in those who remained unemployed and who had little social contact with others in the month before losing their jobs. Depression becomes likely when people lose a source of social interaction that is important to their sense of worth, and have no alternative means of experiencing this worth in other relationships.

Copyright
Corresponding author
1Address for correspondence: Dr Winifred Bolton, Psychology Department, Goodmayes Hospital, Ilford, Essex.
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

A. J. Beck , C. H. Ward , M. Medelson , J. Mock & J. Erbaugh (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 4, 561571.

W. Bumberry , J. M. Oliver & J. N. McClure (1978). Validation of the BDI in a university population using psychiatric estimates as a criterion. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 46, 150155.

S. Cohen & T. A. Wills (1985). Stress, social support and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin 98, 310357.

L. J. Cronbach (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal reliability of tests. Psychometrika 16, 297334.

S. Gore (1978). The effect of social support in moderating the health consequences of unemployment. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 19, 157165.

T. H. Holmes & R. H. Rahe (1967). The Social Readjustment Rating Scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 11, 213218.

S. Kasl , S. Gore & S. Cobb (1975). The experience of losing a job: reported changes in health, symptoms and illness behavior. Psychosomatic Medicine 37, 106122.

R. L. Leavy (1983). Social support and psychological disorder: a review. Journal of Community Psychology 11, 321.

M. Metcalf & E. Goldman (1965). Validation of an instrument for measuring depression. British Journal of Psychiatry 111, 240242.

K. Oatley & W. Bolton (1985). A social Cognitive theory of depression in reaction to life events. Psychological Review 92, 372388.

P. L. Payne , P. B. Warr & J. Hartley (1984). Social class and the experience of unemployment. Sociology of Health and Illness 6, 152174.

L. I. Pearlin , E. G. Menaghan , M. A. Lieberman & J. T. Mullan (1981). The stress process. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 22, 337356.

N. Rothwell & J. M. G. Williams (1983). Attributional styles and life events. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 22, 139140.

A. J. Rush , A. T. Beck , M. Kovacs & S. Hollon (1977). Comparative efficacy of cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy in the treatment of depressed outpatients. Cognitive Therapy and Research 1, 1737.

P. B. Warr , M. Banks & P. Ullah (1985). The experience of unemployment among black and white urban teenagers. British Journal of Psychology 76, 7587.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×