Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Classification of depression by grade of membership: a confirmation study

  • Jonathan R. T. Davidson (a1), Max A. Woodbury (a1), Sidney Zisook (a1) and Earl L. Giller (a1)
Abstract
SYNOPSIS

One hundred and thirty out-patients with depression were studied by grade of membership multivariate (GOM) analysis. Five depressive types were generated. Pure Type I represented a mild form of melancholia in older, stable males, who showed a modest drug response. Pure Type II included obsessive-anxious symptoms in older patients who responded well to an MAOI drug, but poorly to placebo. Pure Type III was a mildly symptomatic form of depression which responded well to placebo. Pure Type IV included features of agitation, mood worsening later in the day, anorexia and depersonalization; it was commonly precipitated by external stress and MAOI treatment was more effective than placebo. In Pure Type V depression, patients were mostly younger females with high levels of symptomatology, atypical vegetative symptoms, unstable life-styles, disadvantaged backgrounds and a poor response to MAOI and placebo. These results resemble in many ways our earlier GOM study of depression, as well as other multivariate studies of depression in the literature.

Copyright
Corresponding author
1Address for correspondence: Dr Jonathan R. T. Davidson, Duke University Medical Center, Psychiatry Outpatient Programs, Box 3812, Durham. North Carolina 27710, USA
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

N. C. Andreasen , W. M. Grove & A. Mauer (1980). Cluster analysis and the classification of depression. British Journal of Psychiatry 137, 256265.

A V. Bhat , P. R. R Rowan & E. S. Paykel (1984). Response to phenelzine and amitriptyline: absence of differential predictors by multiple regression analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders. 6, 209214.

L. R. Derogatis , R. S Lipman , K. Rickels & L Covi (1974). The Hopkins' Symptom Checklist (HSCL): A self-report inventory. Behavioral Science 19, 115.

E L. Giller , D. Bialos , M. Riddle A. Sholomskas (1982). Monoamine oxidase inhibitor responsive depression. Psychiatry Research 6, 4148

M. Hamilton (1967). Development of a rating scale for primary depressive illness. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 6, 278296

K. G. Manton , I. C. Siegler & M. A. Woodbury (1986). Patterns of intellectual development in later life. Journal of Gerontology 41, 486499.

J. E. Overall , L. E. Hollister , M. H. Johnson & V. E. Rennington (1966). Nosology of depression and differential response to drugs. Journal of the American Medical Association 195, 946950

E. S. Paykel (1971). Classification of depressed patients: a cluster analysis derived grouping. British Journal of Psychiatry, 118, 275288.

E. S. Paykel (1981). Have multivariate statistics contributed to classification? British Journal of Psychiatry 139, 357362.

E. Rassaby & E. S Paykel (1979). Factor patterns in depression: a replication study. Journal of Affective Disorders 1, 187194.

W Sargant (1966). Psychiatric treatment in general teaching hospitals: a plea for a mechanistic approach. British Medical Journal 2, 10451048.

P. J. Tyrer & D. Steinberg (1975). Symptomatic treatment of agoraphobia and social phobia: a follow-up study. British Journal of Psychiatry 127, 163168.

C. Van Valkenburg , H. S. Akiskal , V. Puzantian & T. Rosenthal (1984). Anxious depressions: clinical, family history and naturalistic outcome. Journal of Affective Disorders 6, 5366.

G. Winokur (1972). Types of depressive illness. British Journal of Psychiatry 120, 265266.

G. Winokur & J. Morrison (1973). The Iowa 500: follow-up of 225 depressives. British Journal of Psychiatry 123, 543548.

M. A. Woodbury & J. Clive (1974). Clinical pure types as a fuzzy partition. Journal of Cybernetics 4, 111121.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×