Bahi, Amine 2016. Sustained lentiviral-mediated overexpression of microRNA124a in the dentate gyrus exacerbates anxiety- and autism-like behaviors associated with neonatal isolation in rats. Behavioural Brain Research, Vol. 311, p. 298.
Habel, Ute Wagels, Lisa Ellendt, Sinika Scheller, Maryse Evler, Aynur Bergs, René Clemens, Benjamin Pütz, Annette Kohn, Nils and Schneider, Frank 2016. Gewalt und Gesundheit. Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz, Vol. 59, Issue. 1, p. 17.
Kacanek, Deborah Malee, Kathleen Mellins, Claude A. Tassiopoulos, Katherine Smith, Renee Grant, Mitzie Lee, Sonia Siddiqui, Danish Q. and Puga, Ana 2016. Exposure to Violence and Virologic and Immunological Outcomes Among Youth With Perinatal HIV in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 59, Issue. 1, p. 30.
Lewis, Terri McElroy, Erika Harlaar, Nicole and Runyan, Desmond 2016. Does the impact of child sexual abuse differ from maltreated but non-sexually abused children? A prospective examination of the impact of child sexual abuse on internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 51, p. 31.
Jawahar, Magdalene C. Murgatroyd, Chris Harrison, Emma L. and Baune, Bernhard T. 2015. Epigenetic alterations following early postnatal stress: a review on novel aetiological mechanisms of common psychiatric disorders. Clinical Epigenetics, Vol. 7, Issue. 1,
Soler, Laia Forns, Maria Kirchner, Teresa and Segura, Anna 2015. Relationship between particular areas of victimization and mental health in the context of multiple victimizations in Spanish adolescents. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 24, Issue. 4, p. 417.
Tsai, A. C. Weiser, S. D. Dilworth, S. E. Shumway, M. and Riley, E. D. 2015. Violent Victimization, Mental Health, and Service Utilization Outcomes in a Cohort of Homeless and Unstably Housed Women Living With or at Risk of Becoming Infected With HIV. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 181, Issue. 10, p. 817.
Boskey, Elizabeth R. 2014. Understanding Transgender Identity Development in Childhood and Adolescence. American Journal of Sexuality Education, Vol. 9, Issue. 4, p. 445.
Gershon, Anda Sudheimer, Keith Tirouvanziam, Rabindra Williams, Leanne M. and O’Hara, Ruth 2013. The Long-Term Impact of Early Adversity on Late-Life Psychiatric Disorders. Current Psychiatry Reports, Vol. 15, Issue. 4,
Oquendo, Maria A. Turret, Jason Grunebaum, Michael F. Burke, Ainsley K. Poh, Ernest Stevenson, Ellen Mann, J.John and Galfalvy, Hanga 2013. Sex differences in clinical predictors of depression: A prospective study. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 150, Issue. 3, p. 1179.
Gren-Landell, Malin Aho, Nikolas Andersson, Gerhard and Svedin, Carl Göran 2011. Social anxiety disorder and victimization in a community sample of adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, Vol. 34, Issue. 3, p. 569.
Rhodes, Anne E. Boyle, Michael H. Tonmyr, Lil Wekerle, Christine Goodman, Deborah Leslie, Bruce Mironova, Polina Bethell, Jennifer and Manion, Ian 2011. Sex Differences in Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide-Related Behaviors. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, Vol. 41, Issue. 3, p. 235.
Bakker, Martin P. Ormel, Johan Verhulst, Frank C. and Oldehinkel, Albertine J. 2010. Peer Stressors and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Mental Health: The TRAILS Study. Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 46, Issue. 5, p. 444.
Fletcher, Jason M. 2009. Childhood mistreatment and adolescent and young adult depression. Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 68, Issue. 5, p. 799.
Although gender differences in rates of internalizing disorders, particularly depression, are well documented, the causes of these differences are not well understood. One influential hypothesis [Cutler & Nolen-Hoeksema, Sex Roles (1991), 24, 425–438] proposes that higher rates of depression in females compared to males may be partially attributable to gender differences in the effects of childhood sexual abuse. The present study has evaluated this possibility by reviewing evidence for gender moderating the effects of childhood victimization on psychiatric outcomes.
Literature search using PsycINFO and Medline, applying the following inclusion criteria: publication from 1996 to 2006, community-based sampling, adequate male-to-female sample ratio, use of clearly defined psychiatric outcomes, and a statistical test of gender differences in the effects of childhood victimization on psychiatric outcomes.
Thirty studies met inclusion criteria. Overall, the results were mixed. Nearly half of all studies find no gender differences. In studies that do observe gender differences, victimization tends to be associated with higher psychiatric risk in females in studies with adult samples, whereas in samples of youth, victimization tends to be associated with higher psychiatric risk in males. With respect to outcome, when gender differences were observed, outcomes were distributed across both internalizing and externalizing categories for both genders.
The gender differences in prevalence rates of internalizing disorders, such as depression, do not appear to be attributable to differential effects of childhood victimization.
This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.