Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Road to full recovery: longitudinal relationship between symptomatic remission and psychosocial recovery in first-episode psychosis over 7.5 years

  • M. Álvarez-Jiménez (a1) (a2), J. F. Gleeson (a2) (a3), L. P. Henry (a1) (a2), S. M. Harrigan (a1) (a2), M. G. Harris (a4), E. Killackey (a1) (a2), S. Bendall (a1) (a2), G. P. Amminger (a1) (a2) (a5), A. R. Yung (a1) (a2), H. Herrman (a1) (a2), H. J. Jackson (a6) and P. D. McGorry (a1) (a2)...
Abstract
Background

In recent years there has been increasing interest in functional recovery in the early phase of schizophrenia. Concurrently, new remission criteria have been proposed and several studies have examined their clinical relevance for prediction of functional outcome in first-episode psychosis (FEP). However, the longitudinal interrelationship between full functional recovery (FFR) and symptom remission has not yet been investigated. This study sought to: (1) examine the relationships between FFR and symptom remission in FEP over 7.5 years; (2) test two different models of the interaction between both variables.

Method

Altogether, 209 FEP patients treated at a specialized early psychosis service were assessed at baseline, 8 months, 14 months and 7.5 years to determine their remission of positive and negative symptoms and functional recovery. Multivariate logistic regression and path analysis were employed to test the hypothesized relationships between symptom remission and FFR.

Results

Remission of both positive and negative symptoms at 8-month follow-up predicted functional recovery at 14-month follow-up, but had limited value for the prediction of FFR at 7.5 years. Functional recovery at 14-month follow-up significantly predicted both FFR and remission of negative symptoms at 7.5 years, irrespective of whether remission criteria were simultaneously met. The association remained significant after controlling for baseline prognostic indicators.

Conclusions

These findings provided support for the hypothesis that early functional and vocational recovery plays a pivotal role in preventing the development of chronic negative symptoms and disability. This underlines the need for interventions that specifically address early psychosocial recovery.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Dr M. Álvarez-Jiménez, Centre for Youth Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Australia. (Email: malvarez@unimelb.edu.au)
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

M Alvarez-Jimenez , JF Gleeson , LP Henry , SM Harrigan , MG Harris , GP Amminger , E Killackey , AR Yung , H Herrman , HJ Jackson , PD McGorry (2011). Prediction of a single psychotic episode: a 7.5-year, prospective study in first-episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 125, 236246.

NC Andreasen , WT Carpenter Jr., JM Kane , RA Lasser , SR Marder , DR Weinberger (2005). Remission in schizophrenia: proposed criteria and rationale for consensus. American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 441449.

M Bertelsen , P Jeppesen , L Petersen , A Thorup , J Ohlenschlaeger , P le Quach , TO Christensen , G Krarup , P Jorgensen , M Nordentoft (2008). Five-year follow-up of a randomized multicenter trial of intensive early intervention vs standard treatment for patients with a first episode of psychotic illness: the OPUS trial. Archives of General Psychiatry 65, 762771.

R Boden , J Sundstrom , E Lindstrom , L Lindstrom (2009). Association between symptomatic remission and functional outcome in first-episode schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 107, 232237.

PA Boyle , AS Buchman , LL Barnes , DA Bennett (2010). Effect of a purpose in life on risk of incident Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older persons. Archives of General Psychiatry 67, 304310.

CM Cassidy , R Norman , R Manchanda , N Schmitz , A Malla (2010). Testing definitions of symptom remission in first-episode psychosis for prediction of functional outcome at 2 years. Schizophrenia Bulletin 36, 10011008.

N Crumlish , P Whitty , M Clarke , S Browne , M Kamali , M Gervin , O McTigue , A Kinsella , JL Waddington , C Larkin , E O'Callaghan (2009). Beyond the critical period: longitudinal study of 8-year outcome in first-episode non-affective psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry 194, 1824.

WW Eaton , R Thara , E Federman , A Tien (1998). Remission and relapse in schizophrenia: the Madras Longitudinal Study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 186, 357363.

BL Fredrickson , MA Cohn , KA Coffey , J Pek , SM Finkel (2008). Open hearts build lives: positive emotions, induced through loving-kindness meditation, build consequential personal resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 95, 10451062.

BL Fredrickson , T Joiner (2002). Positive emotions trigger upward spirals toward emotional well-being. Psychological Science 13, 172175.

BL Fredrickson , MM Tugade , CE Waugh , GR Larkin (2003). What good are positive emotions in crises? A prospective study of resilience and emotions following the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11th, 2001. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84, 365376.

N Geschwind , F Peeters , N Jacobs , P Delespaul , C Derom , E Thiery , J van Os , M Wichers (2010). Meeting risk with resilience: high daily life reward experience preserves mental health. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 122, 129138.

M Harrow , JR Sands , ML Silverstein , JF Goldberg (1997). Course and outcome for schizophrenia versus other psychotic patients: a longitudinal study. Schizophrenia Bulletin 23, 287303.

DW Heinrichs , TE Hanlon , WT Carpenter Jr., (1984). The Quality of Life Scale: an instrument for rating the schizophrenic deficit syndrome. Schizophrenia Bulletin 10, 388398.

L Henry , MG Harris , GP Amminger , HP Yuen , SM Harrigan , M Lambert , P Conus , O Schwartz , A Prosser , S Farrelly , R Purcell , H Herrman , HJ Jackson , M PD. (2007). The EPPIC long term follow-up study of first episode psychosis: methodology and baseline characteristics. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 1, 4960.

LP Henry , GP Amminger , MG Harris , HP Yuen , SM Harrigan , AL Prosser , OS Schwartz , SE Farrelly , H Herrman , HJ Jackson , PD McGorry (2010). The EPPIC follow-up study of first-episode psychosis: longer-term clinical and functional outcome 7 years after index admission. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 71, 716728.

BC Ho , NC Andreasen , M Flaum , P Nopoulos , D Miller (2000). Untreated initial psychosis: its relation to quality of life and symptom remission in first-episode schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 157, 808815.

E Killackey , HJ Jackson , PD McGorry (2008). Vocational intervention in first-episode psychosis: individual placement and support v. treatment as usual. British Journal of Psychiatry 193, 114120.

BE Kok , BL Fredrickson (2010). Upward spirals of the heart: autonomic flexibility, as indexed by vagal tone, reciprocally and prospectively predicts positive emotions and social connectedness. Biological Psychology 85, 432436.

J Lieberman , D Jody , S Geisler , J Alvir , A Loebel , S Szymanski , M Woerner , M Borenstein (1993). Time course and biologic correlates of treatment response in first-episode schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 50, 369376.

D Lukoff , RP Liberman , KH Nuechterlein (1986). Symptom monitoring in the rehabilitation of schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenia Bulletin 12, 578593.

PD McGorry , DL Copolov , BS Singh (1990). Royal Park Multidiagnostic Instrument for Psychosis: Part I. Rationale and review. Schizophrenia Bulletin 16, 501515.


A Malla , J Payne (2005). First-episode psychosis: psychopathology, quality of life, and functional outcome. Schizophrenia Bulletin 31, 650671.

DG Robinson , MG Woerner , M McMeniman , A Mendelowitz , RM Bilder (2004). Symptomatic and functional recovery from a first episode of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 161, 473479.

R Rosenheck , D Leslie , R Keefe , J McEvoy , M Swartz , D Perkins , S Stroup , JK Hsiao , J Lieberman (2006). Barriers to employment for people with schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 163, 411417.

ME Seligman , T Rashid , AC Parks (2006). Positive psychotherapy. The American Psychologist 61, 774788.

L Wunderink , FJ Nienhuis , S Sytema , D Wiersma (2007). Predictive validity of proposed remission criteria in first-episode schizophrenic patients responding to antipsychotics. Schizophrenia Bulletin 33, 792796.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: