This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
P Alonso , JM Menchon , D Mataix-Cols , J Pifarre , M Urretavizcaya , JM Crespo , S Jimenez , G Vallejo , J Vallejo (2004). Perceived parental rearing style in obsessive–compulsive disorder: relation to symptom dimensions. Psychiatry Research 127, 267–278.
G Andrews , DP Goldberg , RF Krueger , WT Carpenter Jr., SE Hyman , P Sachdev , DS Pine (2009 a). Exploring the feasibility of a meta-structure for DSM-V and ICD-11: could it improve utility and validity? Psychological Medicine. doi:10.1017/S0033291709990250.
G Andrews , DS Pine , MJ Hobbs , TM Anderson , M Sunderland (2009 b). Neurodevelopmental disorders: Cluster 2 of the proposed meta-structure for DSM-V and ICD-11. Psychological Medicine. doi:10.1017/S0033291709990274.
J Angst (1998). Dysthymia and personality. European Psychiatry 13, 188–197.
J Angst , A Gamma , F Benazzi , B Silverstein , V Ajdacic-Gross , D Eich , W Rossler (2006). Atypical depressive syndromes in varying definitions. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 256, 44–54.
K Beesdo , A Bittner , DS Pine , MB Stein , M Hofler , R Lieb , H-U Wittchen (2007). Incidence of social anxiety disorder and the consistent risk for secondary depression in the first three decades of life. Archives of General Psychiatry 64, 903–912.
OJ Bienvenu , JF Samuels , PT Costa , IM Reti , WW Eaton , G Nestadt (2004). Anxiety and depressive disorders and the five-factor model of personality: a higher- and lower-order personality trait investigation in a community sample. Depression and Anxiety 20, 92–97.
A Bittner , RD Goodwin , H-U Wittchen , K Beesdo , M Hofler , R Lieb (2004). What characteristics of primary anxiety disorder predict subsequent major depressive disorder? Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 65, 618–626.
SE Bruce , KA Yonkers , MW Otto , JL Eisen , RB Weisberg , M Pagano , MT Shea , MB Keller (2005). Influence of psychiatric comorbidity on recovery and recurrence in generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia and panic disorder: a 12 year prospective study. American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 1179–1187.
G Butler , A Mathews (1983). Cognitive processes in anxiety. Advances in Behaviour Research Therapy 5, 51–62.
WT Carpenter Jr., JR Bustillo , GK Thaker , J van Os , RF Krueger , MJ Green (2009). Psychoses: Cluster 3 of the proposed meta-structure for DSM-V and ICD-11. Psychological Medicine. doi:10.1017/S0033291709990286.
A Caspi , K Sugden , TE Moffitt , A Taylor , IW Craig , H Harrington , J McClay , J Mill , J Martin , A Braithwaite , R Poulton (2003). Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science 301, 386–389.
DS Charney (2003). Neuroanatomical circuits modulating fear and anxiety behaviors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 108 (Suppl. 417), S38–S50.
LA Clark , D Watson (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 100, 316–336.
LA Clark , D Watson (2006). Distress and fear disorders: an alternative empirically based taxonomy of the ‘mood’ and ‘anxiety’ disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry 189, 481–483.
I Colman , MEJ Wadsworth , TJ Croudace , PB Jones (2007). Forty-year psychiatric outcomes following assessment for internalizing disorder in adolescence. American Journal of Psychiatry 164, 126–133.
EW Cook , LW Hawk , TL Davis , VE Stevenson (1991). Affective individual differences and startle reflex modulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 100, 5–13.
BJ Cox , IP Clara , MW Enns (2002). Posttraumatic stress disorder and the structure of common mental illness. Depression and Anxiety 15, 168–171.
BJ Cox , P MacPherson , MW Enns , LA McWilliams (2004). Neuroticism and self-criticism associated with posttraumatic stress disorder in a nationally representative sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy 42, 105–114.
AD Craig (2002). How do you feel? Interoception: the sense of the physiological condition of the body. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3, 655–666.
TKJ Craig , AD Cox , K Klein (2002). Intergenerational transmission of somatisation behaviour: a study of chronic somatisers and their children. Psychological Medicine 32, 805–816.
J Das-Munshi , DP Goldberg , PE Bebbington , DK Bhugra , TS Brugha , ME Dewey , R Jenkins , R Stewart , M Prince (2008). Public health significance of mixed anxiety and depression: beyond current classification. British Journal of Psychiatry 192, 171–177.
JR Davidson , LA Tupler , WH Wilson , KM Connor (1998). A family study of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder following rape trauma. Journal of Psychiatric Research 32, 301–309.
V De Gucht , B Fischler , W Heiser (2003). Job stress, personality, and psychological distress as determinants of somatization and functional somatic syndromes. Stress and Health 19, 195–204.
SK Donaldson , DN Klein , LP Riso , JE Schwartz (1997). Comorbidity between dysthymic and major depressive disorders: a family study analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders 42, 103–111.
WC Drevets (2001). Neuroimaging and neuropathological studies of depression: implications for the cognitive-emotional features of mood disorders. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 11, 240–249.
WC Drevets (2003). Neuroimaging abnormalities in the amygdala in mood disorders. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 985, 420–444.
WW Eaton , H Shao , G Nestadt , HB Lee , OJ Bienvenu , P Zandi (2008). Population-based study of first onset and chronicity in major depressive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 65, 513–520.
TC Eley , K Sugden , A Corsico , AM Gregory , P Sham , P McGuffin , R Plomin , IW Craig (2004). Gene–environment interaction analysis of serotonin system markers with adolescent depression. Molecular Psychiatry 9, 908–915.
A Etkin , TD Wager (2007). Functional neuroimaging of anxiety: a meta-analysis of emotional processing in PTSD, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. American Journal of Psychiatry 164, 1476–1488.
S Ettelt , HJ Grabe , S Ruhrmann , F Buhtz , A Hochrein , S Kraft , R Pukrop , J Klosterkotter , P Falkai , W Maier , U John , HJ Freyberger , M Wagner (2008). Harm avoidance in subjects with obsessive–compulsive disorder and their families. Journal of Affective Disorders 107, 265–269.
DM Fergusson , LJ Horwood , JM Boden (2006). Structure of internalising symptoms in early adulthood. British Journal of Psychiatry 189, 540–546.
DM Fergusson , LJ Horwood , EM Ridder (2005). Show me a child at seven: the consequences of conduct problems in childhood for psychosocial functioning in adulthood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 46, 837–849.
AJ Fyer , S Mannuzza , TF Chapman , LY Martin , DF Klein (1995). Specificity in familial aggregation of phobic disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 52, 564–573.
MW Gilbertson , LA Paulus , SK Williston , TV Gurvits , NB Lasko , RK Pitman , SP Orr (2006). Neurocognitive function in monozygotic twin discordant for combat exposure: relationship to posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 115, 484–495.
E Gilboa-Schechtman , D Erhard-Weiss , P Jeczemien (2002). Interpersonal deficits meet cognitive biases: memory for facial expression in depressed and anxious men and women. Psychiatry Research 113, 279–293.
NA Gillespie , G Zhu , AC Heath , IB Hickie , NG Martin (2000). The genetic aetiology of somatic distress. Psychological Medicine 30, 1051–1062.
DP Goldberg , R Gater , N Sartorius , TB Ustun , M Piccinelli , O Gureje , C Rutter (1997). The validity of two versions of the GHQ in the WHO study of mental illness in general health care. Psychological Medicine 27, 191–197.
RB Goldstein , MM Weissman , PB Adams , E Horwath , JD Lish , D Charney , SW Woods , C Sobin , PJ Wickramaratne (1994). Psychiatric disorder in relatives of probands with panic disorder and/or major depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 51, 383–394.
GL Hanna , DJ Fisher , KR Chadha , JA Himle , M van Etten (2005). Familial and sporadic subtypes of early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biological Psychiatry 57, 895–900.
AR Hariri , VS Mattay , A Tessitore , B Kolachana , F Fera , D Goldman , MF Egan , DR Weinberger (2002). Serotonin transporter genetic variation and the response of the human amygdala. Science 297, 400–403.
AR Harkness , JL McNulty , YS Ben-Porath (1995). The personality psychopathology five (PSY-5) : constructs and MMPI-2 scales. Psychological Assessment 7, 104–114.
DSJ Hawker , MJ Boulton (2000). Twenty years' research on peer victimization and psychosocial maladjustment: a meta-analytic review of cross-sectional studies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 41, 441–455.
C Heim , CB Nemeroff (2001). The role of childhood trauma in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders: preclinical and clinical studies. Biological Psychiatry 49, 1023–1029.
C Heim , DJ Newport , S Heit , YP Graham , M Wilcox , R Bonsall , AH Miller , CB Nemeroff (2000). Pituitary-adrenal and autonomic responses to stress in women after sexual and physical abuse in childhood. Journal of the American Medical Association 284, 592–597.
JM Hettema , MC Neale , JM Myers , CA Prescott , KS Kendler (2006). A population-based twin study of the relationship between neuroticism and internalizing disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry 163, 857–864.
JM Hettema , CA Prescott , KS Kendler (2004). Genetic and environmental sources of covariation between generalized anxiety disorder and neuroticism. American Journal of Psychiatry 161, 1581–1587.
M Hexel , G Sonneck (2002). Somatoform symptoms, anxiety, and depression in the context of traumatic life experiences by comparing participants with and without psychiatric diagnoses. Psychopathology 35, 303–312.
JH Houtveen , LJP van Doornen (2007). Medically unexplained symptoms and between-group differences in 24-h ambulatory recording of stress physiology. Biological Psychology 76, 239–249.
JI Hudson , B Mangweth , HG Pope , C De Col , A Hausmann , S Gutweniger , NM Laird , W Biebl , MT Tsuang (2003). Family study of affective spectrum disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 60, 170–177.
SR Jaffee , TE Moffitt , A Capsi , E Fombonne , R Poulton , J Martin (2002). Differences in early childhood risk factors for juvenile-onset and adult-onset depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 59, 215–222.
R Jardine , NG Martin , AS Henderson (1984). Genetic covariation between neuroticism and the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Genetic Epidemiology 1, 89–107.
AH Kemp , PJ Hopkinson , DF Hermens , DL Rowe , AL Sumich , R Clark , W Drinkenburg , N Abdi , R Penrose , A McFarlane , P Boyce , E Gordon , LM Williams (2009). Fronto-temporal alterations within the first 200 ms during an attentional task distinguish major depression, non-clinical participants with depressed mood and healthy controls: a potential biomarker? Human Brain Mapping 30, 602–614.
KS Kendler , CG Davis , RC Kessler (1997). The familial aggregation of common psychiatric and substance use disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey: a family history study. British Journal of Psychiatry 170, 541–548.
KS Kendler , M Gatz , CO Gardner , NL Pedersen (2006). Personality and major depression: a Swedish longitudinal, population-based twin study. Archives of General Psychiatry 63, 1113–1120.
KS Kendler , JW Kuhn , J Vittum , CA Prescott , B Riley (2005). The interaction of stressful life events and a serotonin transporter polymorphism in the prediction of episodes of major depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 529–535.
KS Kendler , MC Neale , RC Kessler , AC Heath , LJ Eaves (1992). Major depression and generalized anxiety disorder: same genes, (partly) different environments? Archives of General Psychiatry 49, 716–722.
KS Kendler , MC Neale , RC Kessler , AC Heath , LJ Eaves (1993). A longitudinal twin study of personality and major depression in women. Archives of General Psychiatry 50, 853–862.
KS Kendler , CA Prescott , J Myers , MC Neale (2003). The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for common psychiatric and substance use disorders in men and women. Archives of General Psychiatry 60, 929–937.
RC Kessler , TC Wai , WT Chui , O Delmer , KR Merikangas , EE Walters (2005). Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 617–627.
AA Khan , KC Jacobson , CO Gardner , CA Prescott , KS Kendler (2005). Personality and comorbidity of common psychiatric disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry 186, 190–196.
J Kim-Cohen , A Caspi , TE Moffitt , H Harrington , BJ Milne , R Poulton (2003). Prior juvenile diagnoses in adults with mental disorders: developmental follow-back of a prospective-longitudinal cohort. Archives of General Psychiatry 60, 709–717.
DN Klein , LP Riso , SK Donaldson , JE Schwartz , RL Anderson , PC Ouimette , H Lizardi , TA Aronson (1995). Family study of early-onset dysthymia: mood and personalty disorders in relatives of outpatients with dysthymia and episodic major depression and normal controls. Archives of General Psychiatry 52, 487–496.
KC Koenen , MJ Lyons , J Goldberg , J Simpson , WM Williams , R Toomey , SA Eisen , WR True , M Cloitre , J Wolfe , MT Tsuang (2003). A high risk twin study of combat-related PTSD comorbidity. Twin Research 6, 218–226.
S Krantz , C Hammen (1979). Assessment of cognitive bias in depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 88, 611–619.
RF Krueger (1999 a). The structure of common mental disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 56, 921–927.
RF Krueger (1999 b). Personality traits in late adolescence predict mental disorders in early adulthood: a prospective-epidemiological study. Journal of Personality 67, 39–65.
RF Krueger , A Caspi , TE Moffitt , PA Silva (1998). The structure and stability of common mental disorders (DSM-III-R) : a longitudinal-epidemiological study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 107, 216–227.
RF Krueger , A Caspi , TE Moffitt , PA Silva , R McGee (1996). Personality traits are differentially linked to mental disorders: a multitrait–multidiagnosis study of an adolescent birth cohort. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 105, 299–312.
RF Krueger , YE Chentsova-Dutton , KE Markon , DP Goldberg , JH Ormel (2003). A cross-cultural study of the structure of comorbidity among common psychopathological syndromes in the general health care setting. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 112, 437–447.
RF Krueger , M McGrue , WG Iacono (2001). The higher order structure of common DSM mental disorders: internalization, externalization, and their connections to personality. Personality and Individual Differences 30, 1245–1259.
RF Krueger , SC South (2009). Externalizing disorders: Cluster 5 of the proposed meta-structure for DSM-V and ICD-11. Psychological Medicine. doi:10.1017/S0033291709990328.
SA Kvaal , S Patodia (2000). Relations among positive affect, negative affect, and somatic symptoms in a medically ill patient sample. Psychological Reports 87, 227–233.
BB Lahey , PJ Rathouz , C van Hulle , RC Urbano , RF Krueger , B Applegate , HA Garriock , DA Chapman , ID Waldman (2008). Testing structural models of DSM-IV symptoms of common forms of child and adolescent psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 36, 187–206.
K-P Lesch , D Bengel , A Heils , SZ Sabol , BD Greenberg , S Petri , J Benjamin , CR Muller , DH Hamer , DL Murphy (1996). Association of anxiety-related traits with a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene regulatory region. Science 274, 1527–1531.
R Lieb , B Isensee , M Hofler , H Pfister , H-U Wittchen (2002 a). Parental major depression and the risk of depression and other metal disorders in offspring: a prospective-longitudinal community study. Archives of General Psychiatry 59, 365–374.
R Lieb , P Zimmerman , RH Friis , M Hofler , S Tholen , H-U Wittchen (2002 b). The natural course of DSM-IV somatoform disorders and syndromes among adolescents and young adults: a prospective-longitudinal community study. European Psychiatry 17, 321–331.
FE Lotich , BG Pollock (2004). Meta-analysis of serotonin transporter polymorphisms and affective disorder. Psychiatric Genetics 14, 121–129.
AK MacLeod , A Byrne (1996). Anxiety, depression, and the anticipation of future positive and negative experiences. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 105, 286–289.
A McGrady , D Lynch , R Nagel , C Zsembik (1999). Application of the high risk model of threat perception to a primary care patient population. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 187, 369–375.
J Mendlewicz , G Papadimitrou , J Wilmotte (1993). Family study of panic disorder: comparison with generalized anxiety disorder, major depression and normal subjects. Psychiatric Genetics 3, 73–78.
KR Merikangas , H Zhang , S Avenevoli , S Acharyya , M Neuenschwander , J Angst (2003). Longitudinal trajectories of depression and anxiety in a prospective community study. Archives of General Psychiatry 60, 993–1000.
S Mineka , D Watson , LA Clark (1998). Co-morbidity of anxiety and unipolar mood disorders. Annual Review of Psychology 49, 377–412.
TE Moffitt , HL Harrington , A Caspi , J Kim-Cohen , DP Goldberg , A Gregory , R Poulton (2007 b). Depression and generalized anxiety disorder: cumulative and sequential comorbidity in a birth cohort followed to age 32. Archives of General Psychiatry 64, 651–660.
CS Monk , EH Telzer , K Mogg , BP Bradley , X Mai , HM Louro , G Chen , EB McClure-Tone , M Ernst , DS Pine (2008). Amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activation to masked angry faces in children and adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 65, 568–576.
WE Narrow , DS Rae , LN Robins , DA Regier (2002). Revised prevalence estimates of mental disorders in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry 59, 115–123.
Y Ono , K Yoshimura , K Yamauchi , M Asai , J Young , S Fujihara , T Kitamura (2000). Somatoform symptoms in a Japanese community population: prevalence and association with personality characteristics. Transcultural Psychiatry 37, 217–227.
KL Phan , T Wager , SF Taylor , I Liberzon (2002). Functional neuroanatomy of emotion: a meta-analysis of emotion activation studies in PET and fMRI. NeuroImage 16, 331–348.
DS Pine , P Cohen , D Gurley , J Brook , Y Ma (1998). The risk for early adulthood anxiety and depressive disorders in adolescents with anxiety and depressive disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 55, 56–64.
JL Rapoport , P Shaw (2008). Obsessive compulsive disorder. In Rutter's Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5th edn (ed. M. Rutter , D. V. N. Bishop , D. S. Pine , S. Scott , J. S. Stevenson , E. A. Taylor and A. Thapar ), pp. 698–718. Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK.
SL Rauch , LM Shin , EA Phelps (2006). Neurocircuitry models of posttraumatic stress disorder and extinction: human neuroimaging research – past, present, and future. Biological Psychiatry 60, 376–382.
SL Rauch , LM Shin , CI Wright (2003). Neuroimaging studies of amygdale function in anxiety disorders. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 985, 389–410.
J Reich (1995). Family psychiatric histories in male patients with generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry 7, 71–78.
J Reilly , GA Baker , J Rhodes , P Salmon (1999). The association of sexual and physical abuse with somatization: characteristics of patients presenting with irritable bowel syndrome and non-epileptic attack disorder. Psychological Medicine 29, 399–406.
RC Reiter , LR Shakerin , JC Gambone , AK Milburn (1991). Correlation between sexual abuse and somatization in women with somatic and nonsomatic chronic pelvic pain. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 165, 104–109.
D Rhebergen , ATF Beekman , R de Graaf , WA Nolen , J Spijker , WJ Hoogendijk , BWJK Pennix (2009). The three-year naturalistic course of major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder and double depression. Journal of Affective Disorders 115, 450–459.
P Sachdev , G Andrews , MJ Hobbs , M Sunderland , TM Anderson (2009). Neurocognitive disorders: Cluster 1 of the proposed meta-structure for DSM-V and ICD-11. Psychological Medicine. doi:10.1017/S0033291709990262.
JA Schinka , RM Busch , N Robichaux-Keene (2004). A meta-analysis of the association between the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and trait anxiety. Molecular Psychiatry 9, 197–202.
S Sen , M Burmeister , D Ghosh (2004). Meta-analysis of the association between a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and anxiety-related personality traits. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics 127B, 85–89.
I Skre , S Onstad , S Torgersen , S Lygren , E Kringlen (1993). A twin study of DSM-III-R anxiety disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 88, 85–92.
SE Swedo , JL Rapoport , H Leonard , M Leane , D Cheslow (1989). Obsessive–compulsive disorder in children and adolescents. Clinical phenomenology of 70 consecutive cases. Archives of General Psychiatry 46, 335–341.
AJ Tomarken , AD Keener (1998). Frontal brain asymmetry and depression: a self-regulatory perspective. Cognition and Emotion 12, 387–420.
S Torgersen (1986). Genetics of somatoform disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 43, 502–505.
MA van den Hout , IM Engelhard (2004). Pretrauma neuroticism, negative appraisals of intrusions, and severity of PTSD symptoms. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 26, 181–183.
WAM Vollebergh , J Iedema , RV Bijl , R de Graaf , F Smit , J Ormel (2001). The structure and stability of common mental disorders: the NEMESIS study. Archives of General Psychiatry 58, 597–603.
EA Walker , AN Gelfand , MD Gelfand , MP Koss , WJ Katon (1995). Medical and psychiatric symptoms in female gastroenterology clinic patients with histories of sexual victimization. General Hospital Psychiatry 17, 85–92.
D Watson , LA Clark , A Tellegen (1984). Cross-cultural convergence in the structure of mood. A Japanese replication and comparison with US findings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47, 127–144.
MM Weissman , P Wickramaratne , Y Nomura , V Warner , H Verdeli , DJ Pilowsky , C Grillon , G Bruder (2005). Families at high and low risk for depression: a 3-generation study. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 29–36.
K Wilhelm , PB Mitchell , H Niven (2006). Life events, first depression onset, and the serotonin transporter gene. British Journal of Psychiatry 188, 210–215.
SAG Willis-Owen , MG Turri , MR Munafo , PG Surtees , NWJ Wainwright , RD Brixey , J Flint (2005). The serotonin transporter length polymorphism, neuroticism, and depression: a comprehensive assessment of association. Biological Psychiatry 58, 451–456.
H-U Wittchen , RC Kessler , H Pfister , M Hofler , R Lieb (2000). Why do people with anxiety disorders become depressed? A prospective-longitudinal community study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica (Suppl.) 102, 14–23.