Skip to main content

Ethnic minority position and migrant status as risk factors for psychotic symptoms in the general population: a meta-analysis

  • Edouard Leaune (a1) (a2), Marie-Jose Dealberto (a3), David Luck (a4) (a5) (a6), Stéphanie Grot (a4) (a5) (a6), Halima Zeroug-Vial (a1), Emmanuel Poulet (a1) (a2) and Jerome Brunelin (a1) (a2)...

Psychotic symptoms (PS) are experienced by a substantial proportion of the general population. When not reaching a threshold of clinical relevance, these symptoms are defined as psychotic experiences (PEs) and may exist on a continuum with psychotic disorders. Unfavorable socio-environmental conditions, such as ethnic minority position (EMP) and migrant status (MS), may increase the risk of developing PS and PEs. We conducted an electronic systematic review and a meta-analysis assessing the role of EMP and MS for the development and persistence of PS in the general population. Sub-group analyses were performed investigating the influence of ethnic groups, host countries, age, types of PS, and scales. Twenty-four studies met our inclusion criteria. EMP was a relevant risk factor for reporting PS [odds ratio (OR) 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22–1.70) and PEs (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.16–1.60). The greatest risk was observed in people from the Maghreb and the Middle East ethnic groups in Europe (OR 3.30, 95% CI 2.09–5.21), in Hispanic in the USA (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.43–2.73), and in the Black populations (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.39–2.47). We found a significant association between MS and delusional symptoms (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.33–1.62). We found no association between EMP and persistence of PEs.

EMP was associated with increased risk of reporting PS and PEs, and the risk was higher in ethnic groups facing deprivation and discrimination. We found an association between MS and delusional symptoms. These results raise questions about the precise role of socio-environmental factors along the psychosis continuum.

Corresponding author
Author for correspondence: Edouard Leaune, E-mail:
Hide All
Adriaanse, M, van Domburgh, L, Hoek, HW, Susser, E, Doreleijers, TA and Veling, W (2015) Prevalence, impact and cultural context of psychotic experiences among ethnic minority youth. Psychological Medicine 45, 637646.
Akdeniz, C, Tost, H, Streit, F, Haddad, L, Wüst, S, Schäfer, A, Schneider, M, Rietschel, M, Kirsch, P and Meyer-Lindenberg, A (2014) Neuroimaging evidence for a role of neural social stress processing in ethnic minority-associated environmental risk. JAMA Psychiatry 71, 672680.
André, S and Dronckers, J (2016) Perceived in-group discrimination by first and second generation immigrants from different countries of origin in 27 EU member-states. International Sociology 32, 105129.
Andrews, G and Peters, L (1998) The psychometric properties of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 33, 8088.
Anglin, DM, Greenspoon, M, Lighty, Q and Ellman, LM (2016 a) Race-based rejection sensitivity partially accounts for the relationship between racial discrimination and distressing attenuated positive psychotic symptoms. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 10, 411418.
Anglin, DM, Lui, F, Espinosa, A, Tikhonov, A and Ellman, L (2016 b) Ethnic identity, racial discrimination and attenuated psychotic symptoms in an urban population of emerging adults. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 12, 380390.
Bebbington, P and Nayani, T (1995) The psychosis screening questionnaire. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 5, 1119.
Bécares, L, Dewey, ME and Das-Munshi, J (2017) Ethnic density effects for adult mental health: systematic review and meta-analysis of international studies. Psychological Medicine 14, 119.
Bentall, RP and Fernyhough, C (2008) Social predictors of psychotic experiences: specificity and psychological mechanisms. Schizophrenia Bulletin 34, 10121020.
Bhavsar, V, Fusar-Poli, P and McGuire, P (2017 a) Neighbourhood deprivation is positively associated with detection of the ultra-high risk (UHR) state for psychosis in South East London. Schizophrenia Research 192, 371376.
Bhavsar, V, Maccabe, JH, Hatch, SL, Hotopf, M, Boydell, J and McGuire, P (2017 b) Subclinical psychotic experiences and subsequent contact with mental health services. British Journal of Psychiatry 3, 6470.
Binbay, T, Drukker, M, Elbi, H, Tanik, FA, Özkinay, F, Onay, H, Zagli, N, van Os, J and Alptekin, K (2012) Testing the psychosis continuum: differential impact of genetic and nongenetic risk factors and comorbid psychopathology across the entire spectrum of psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 9921002.
Borenstein, M, Hedges, L, Higgins, J and Rothstein, H (2005) Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 2. Engelwood, NJ: Biostat.
Borrell, C, Palència, L, Bartoll, X, Ikram, U and Malmusi, D (2015) Perceived discrimination and health among immigrants in Europe according to national integration policies. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12, 1068710699.
Bosqui, TJ, Hoy, K and Shannon, C (2014) A systematic review and meta-analysis of the ethnic density effect in psychotic disorders. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 49, 519529.
Bourque, F, van der Ven, E and Malla, A (2011) A meta-analysis of the risk for psychotic disorders among first- and second-generation immigrants. Psychological Medicine 41, 897910.
Boydell, J, Bebbington, P, Bhavsar, V, Kravariti, E, van Os, J, Murray, RM and Dutta, R (2013) Unemployment, ethnicity and psychosis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 127, 202209.
Brucato, G, Masucci, MD, Arndt, LY, Ben-David, S, Colibazzi, T, Corcoran, CM, Crumbley, AH, Crump, FM, Gill, KE, Kimhy, D, Lister, A, Schobel, SA, Yang, LH, Lieberman, JA and Girgis, RR (2017) Baseline demographics, clinical features and predictors of conversion among 200 individuals in a longitudinal prospective psychosis-risk cohort. Psychological Medicine 47, 19231935.
Calkins, ME, Moore, TM, Merikangas, KR, Burstein, M, Satterthwaite, TD, Bilker, WB, Ruparel, K, Chiavacci, R, Wolf, DH, Mentch, F, Qiu, H, Connolly, JJ, Sleiman, PA, Hakonarson, H, Gur, RC and Gur, RE (2014) The psychosis spectrum in a young U.S. community sample: findings from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort. World Psychiatry 13, 296305.
Calkins, ME, Moore, TM, Satterthwaite, TD, Wolf, DH, Turetsky, BI, Roalf, DR, Merikangas, KR, Ruparel, K, Kohler, CG, Gur, RC and Gur, RE (2017) Persistence of psychosis spectrum symptoms in the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort: a prospective two-year follow-up. World Psychiatry 16, 6276.
Cantor-Graae, E and Selten, JP (2005) Schizophrenia and migration: a meta-analysis and review. The American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 1224.
Cederlöf, M, Kuja-Halkola, R, Larsson, H, Sjölander, A, Östberg, P, Lundström, S, Kelleher, I and Lichtenstein, P (2017) A longitudinal study of adolescent psychotic experiences and later development of substance use disorder and suicidal behavior. Schizophrenia Research 181, 1316.
Cicero, DC and Cohn, JR (2017) The role of ethnic identity, self-concept, and aberrant salience in psychotic-like experiences. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology 24, 101111.
Cohen, CI and Marino, L (2013) Racial and ethnic differences in the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in the general population. Psychiatric Services 64, 11031109.
Cooper, H, Hedges, LV and Valentine, JC (2009) The Handbook of Research Synthesis and Meta-Analysis. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Crager, M, Chu, T, Link, B and Rasmussen, A (2013) Forced migration and psychotic symptoms: an analysis of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Journal of Immigrant and Refugee Studies 11, 299314.
Dealberto, MJ (2010) Ethnic origin and increased risk for schizophrenia in immigrants to countries of recent and longstanding immigration. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 121, 325339.
Demmin, DL, DeVylder, JE and Hilimire, MR (2017) Screening for sub-threshold psychotic experiences and perceived need for psychological services. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 11, 139146.
Devylder, JE, Oh, HY, Yang, LH, Cabassa, LJ, Chen, FP and Lukens, EP (2013) Acculturative stress and psychotic-like experiences among Asian and Latino immigrants to the United States. Schizophrenia Research 150, 223228.
DeVylder, JE, Burnette, D and Yang, LH (2014) Co-occurrence of psychotic experiences and common mental health conditions across four racially and ethnically diverse population samples. Psychological Medicine 44, 35033513.
DeVylder, JE, Lehmann, M and Chen, F (2015 a) Social and clinical correlates of the persistence of psychotic experiences in the general population. Schizophrenia Research 169, 286291.
DeVylder, JE, Lukens, EP, Link, BG and Lieberman, JA (2015 b) Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among adults with psychotic experiences: data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys. JAMA Psychiatry 72, 219225.
Dolphin, L, Dooley, B and Fitzgerald, A (2015) Prevalence and correlates of psychotic like experiences in a nationally representative community sample of adolescents in Ireland. Schizophrenia Research 169, 241247.
Earl, T, Fortuna, LR, Gao, S, Williams, DR, Neighbors, HW, Takeuchi, D and Alegría, M (2015) An exploration of how psychotic-like symptoms are experienced, endorsed, and understood from the National Latino and Asian American Study and National Survey of American Life. Ethnicity and Health 20, 273292.
Egerton, A, Howes, OD, Houle, S, McKenzie, K, Valmaggia, LR, Bagby, MR, Tseng, HH, Bloomfield, MA, Kenk, M, Bhattacharyya, S, Suridjan, I, Chaddock, CA, Winton-Brown, TT, Allen, P, Rusjan, P, Remington, G, Meyer-Lindenberg, A, McGuire, PK and Mizrahi, R (2017) Elevated striatal dopamine function in immigrants and their children: a risk mechanism for psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 43, 293301.
Egger, M, Davey Smith, G, Schneider, M and Minder, C (1997) Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. British Medical Journal 315, 629634.
Hamilton, TG (2015) The healthy immigrant (migrant) effect: in search of a better native-born comparison group. Social Science Research 54, 353365.
Higgins, JPT, Thompson, SG, Deeks, JJ and Altman, DG (2003) Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. British Medical Journal 327, 557560.
Honings, S, Drukker, M, Groen, R and van Os, J (2016) Psychotic experiences and risk of self-injurious behaviour in the general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine 46, 237251.
Janssen, I, Hanssen, M, Bak, M, Bijl, RV, de Graaf, R, Vollebergh, W, McKenzie, K and van Os, J (2003) Discrimination and delusional ideation. The British Journal of Psychiatry 182, 7176.
Jenkins, R, Mbatia, J, Singleton, N and White, B (2010) Prevalence of psychotic symptoms and their risk factors in urban Tanzania. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 7, 25142525.
Johns, LC (2005) Hallucinations in the general population. Current Psychiatry Reports 7, 162167.
Johns, LC and van Os, J (2001) The continuity of psychotic experiences in the general population. Clinical Psychology Review 21, 11251141.
Johns, LC, Cannon, M, Singleton, N, Murray, RM, Farrell, M, Brugha, T, Bebbington, P, Jenkins, R and Meltzer, H (2004) Prevalence and correlates of self-reported psychotic symptoms in the British population. British Journal of Psychiatry 185, 298305.
Kaymaz, N, Drukker, M, Lieb, R, Wittchen, HU, Werbeloff, N, Weiser, M, Lataster, T and van Os, J (2012) Do subthreshold psychotic experiences predict clinical outcomes in unselected non-help-seeking population-based samples? A systematic review and meta-analysis, enriched with new results. Psychological Medicine 42, 22392253.
Kelleher, I and Cannon, M (2011) Psychotic-like experiences in the general population: characterizing a high-risk group for psychosis. Psychological Medicine 41, 16.
Kelleher, I, Devlin, N, Wigman, JTW, Kehoe, A, Murtagh, A, Fitzpatrick, C and Cannon, M (2014) Psychotic experiences in a mental health clinic sample: implications for suicidality, multimorbidity and functioning. Psychological Medicine 44, 16151624.
Kelleher, I, Wigman, JTW, Harley, M, O'Hanlon, E, Coughlan, H, Rawdon, C, Murphy, J, Power, E, Higgins, NM and Cannon, M (2015) Psychotic experiences in the population: association with functioning and mental distress. Schizophrenia Research 165, 914.
Keraite, A, Sumathipala, A, Siriwardhana, C, Morgan, C and Reininghaus, U (2016) Exposure to conflict and disaster: a national survey on the prevalence of psychotic experiences in Sri Lanka. Schizophrenia Research 171, 7985.
King, M, Nazroo, J, Weich, S, McKenzie, K, Bhui, K, Karlsen, S, Stansfeld, S, Tyrer, P, Blanchard, M, Lloyd, K, McManus, S, Sproston, K and Erens, B (2005) Psychotic symptoms in the general population of England—a comparison of ethnic groups (The EMPIRIC study). Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 40, 375381.
Kirkbride, JB (2017) Migration and psychosis: our smoking lung? World Psychiatry 16, 119120.
Kirkbride, JB, Barker, D, Cowden, F, Stamps, R, Yang, M, Jones, PB and Coid, JW (2008) Psychoses, ethnicity and socio-economic status. The British Journal of Psychiatry 193, 1824.
Kirkbride, JB, Errazuriz, A, Croudace, TJ, Morgan, C, Jackson, D, Boydell, J, Murray, RM and Jones, PB (2012) Incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in England, 1950–2009: a systematic review and meta-analyses. PLoS ONE 7, e31660.
Kirkbride, JB, Jones, PB, Ullrich, S and Coid, JW (2014) Social deprivation, inequality, and the neighborhood-level incidence of psychotic syndromes in East London. Schizophrenia Bulletin 40, 169180.
Kirkbride, JB, Stochl, J, Zimbron, J, Crane, CM, Metastasio, A, Aguilar, E, Webster, R, Theegala, S, Kabacs, N, Jones, PB and Perez, J (2015) Social and spatial heterogeneity in psychosis proneness in a multilevel case-prodrome-control study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 132, 283292.
Kirkbride, JB, Hameed, Y, Ioannidis, K, Ankireddypalli, G, Crane, CM, Nasir, M, Kabacs, N, Metastasio, A, Jenkins, O, Espandian, A, Spyridi, S, Ralevic, D, Siddabattuni, S, Walden, B, Adeoye, A, Perez, J and Jones, PB (2017) Ethnic minority status, age-at-immigration and psychosis risk in rural environments: evidence from the SEPEA Study. Schizophrenia Bulletin 43, 12511261.
Kounali, D, Zammit, S, Wiles, N, Sullivan, S, Cannon, M, Stochl, , Jones, P, Mahedy, L, Gage, SH, Heron, J and Lewis, G (2014). Common versus psychopathology-specific risk factors for psychotic experiences and depression during adolescence. Psychological Medicine 44, 25572566.
Laurens, KR, Hodgins, S, Maughan, B, Murray, RM, Rutter, ML and Taylor, EA (2007) Community screening for psychotic-like experiences and other putative antecedents of schizophrenia in children aged 9–12 years. Schizophrenia Research 90, 130146.
Laurens, KR, West, SA, Murray, RM and Hodgins, S (2008) Psychotic-like experiences and other antecedents of schizophrenia in children aged 9–12 years: a comparison of ethnic and migrant groups in the United Kingdom. Psychological Medicine 38, 11031111.
Lee, KW, Chan, KW, Chang, WC, Lee, EHM, Hui, CLM and Chen, EYH (2016) A systematic review on definitions and assessments of psychotic-like experiences. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 10, 316.
Liberati, A, Altman, DG, Tetzlaff, J, Mulrow, C, Gøtzsche, PC, Ioannidis, JPA, Clarke, M, Devereaux, PJ, Kleijnen, J and Moher, D (2009) The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate healthcare interventions: explanation and elaboration. British Medical Journal 339, b2700.
Lim, CS, Subramaniam, M, Poon, LY, Chong, SA and Verma, S (2011) Cross-ethnic differences in severity of symptomatology of individuals with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 5, 242248.
Linscott, RJ and van Os, J (2013) An updated and conservative systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological evidence on psychotic experiences in children and adults: on the pathway from proneness to persistence to dimensional expression across mental disorders. Psychological Medicine 43, 11331149.
McGrath, JJ, Saha, S, Al-Hamzawi, A, Alonso, J, Bromet, EJ, Bruffaerts, R, Caldas-de-Almeida, JM, Chiu, WT, de Jonge, P, Fayyad, J, Florescu, S, Gureje, O, Haro, JM, Hu, C, Kovess-Masfety, V, Lepine, JP, Lim, CC, Mora, ME, Navarro-Mateu, F, Ochoa, S, Sampson, N, Scott, K, Viana, MC and Kessler, RC (2015) Psychotic experiences in the general population: a cross-national analysis based on 31,261 respondents from 18 countries. JAMA Psychiatry 72, 697705.
McGrath, JJ, Saha, S, Al-Hamzawi, A, Andrade, L, Benjet, C, Bromet, EJ, Browne, MO, Caldas de Almeida, JM, Chiu, WT, Demyttenaere, K, Fayyad, J, Florescu, S, de Girolamo, G, Gureje, O, Haro, JM, Ten Have, M, Hu, C, Kovess-Masfety, V, Lim, CC, Navarro-Mateu, F, Sampson, N, Posada-Villa, J, Kendler, KS and Kessler, RC (2016) The bidirectional associations between psychotic experiences and DSM-IV mental disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry 173, 9971006.
Mewes, R, Reich, H, Skoluda, N, Seele, F and Nater, UM (2017) Elevated hair cortisol concentrations in recently fled asylum seekers in comparison to permanently settled immigrants and non-immigrants. Translational Psychiatry 7, e1051.
Morgan, C and Bhugra, D (2010) Principles of Social Psychiatry. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
Morgan, C, Fisher, H, Hutchinson, G, Kirkbride, J, Craig, TK, Morgan, K, Dazzan, P, Boydell, J, Doody, GA, Jones, PB, Murray, RM, Leff, J and Fearon, P (2009) Ethnicity, social disadvantage and psychotic-like experiences in a healthy population based sample. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 119, 226235.
Morgan, C, Charalambides, M, Hutchinson, G and Murray, RM (2010) Migration, ethnicity, and psychosis: toward a sociodevelopmental model. Schizophrenia Bulletin 36, 655664.
Murphy, J, Shevlin, M, Houston, J and Adamson, G (2012) A population based analysis of subclinical psychosis and help-seeking behavior. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 360367.
O'Donoghue, B, Nelson, B, Yuen, HP, Lane, A, Wood, S, Thompson, A, Lin, A, McGorry, P and Yung, AR (2015) Social environmental risk factors for transition to psychosis in an Ultra-High Risk population. Schizophrenia Research 161, 150155.
Oh, H, Yang, LH, Anglin, DM and DeVylder, JE (2014) Perceived discrimination and psychotic experiences across multiple ethnic groups in the United States. Schizophrenia Research 157, 259265.
Oh, H, Abe, J, Negi, N and DeVylder, J (2015) Immigration and psychotic experiences in the United States: another example of the epidemiological paradox? Psychiatry Research 229, 784790.
Oh, H, Cogburn, CD, Anglin, D, Lukens, E and DeVylder, J (2016) Major discriminatory events and risk for psychotic experiences among Black Americans. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 86, 277285.
Omer, S, Kirkbride, JB, Pringle, DG, Russell, V, O'Callaghan, E and Waddington, JL (2014) Neighbourhood-level socio-environmental factors and incidence of first episode psychosis by place at onset in rural Ireland: the Cavan-Monaghan First Episode Psychosis Study [CAMFEPS]. Schizophrenia Research 152, 152157.
Paksarian, D, Merikangas, KR, Calkins, ME and Gur, RE (2016) Racial-ethnic disparities in empirically-derived subtypes of subclinical psychosis among a U.S. Sample of youths. Schizophrenia Research 170, 205210.
Pechey, R and Halligan, P (2011) The prevalence of delusion-like beliefs relative to sociocultural beliefs in the general population. Psychopathology 44, 106115.
Pedersen, CB and Cantor-Graae, E (2012) Age at migration and risk of schizophrenia among immigrants in Denmark: a 25-year incidence study. The American Journal of Psychiatry 169, 11171118.
Pignon, B, Schürhoff, F, Szöke, A, Geoffroy, PA, Jardri, R, Roelandt, JL, Rolland, B, Thomas, P, Vaiva, G and Amad, A (2017) Sociodemographic and clinical correlates of psychotic symptoms in the general population: findings from the MHGP survey. Schizophrenia Research 193, 336342.
Poulton, R, Caspi, A, Moffitt, TE, Cannon, M, Murray, R and Harrington, H (2000) Children's self-reported psychotic symptoms and adult schizophreniform disorder: a 15-year longitudinal study. Archives of General Psychiatry 57, 10531058.
Radua, J, Ramella-Cravaro, V, Ioannidis, JPA, Reichenberg, A, Phiphopthatsanee, N, Amir, T, Amir, T, Yenn Thoo, H, Oliver, D, Davies, C, Morgan, C, McGuire, P, Murray, RM and Fusar-Poli, P (2018) What causes psychosis? An umbrella review of risk and protective factors. World Psychiatry 17, 4966.
Reeves, S, Hudson, S, Fletcher, H, Sauer, J, Stewart, R and Howard, R (2003) Are Black Caribbean patients more likely to receive an incorrect diagnosis of very-late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis than their white British counterparts? The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 11, 674677.
Rivera, B, Casal, B and Currais, L (2016) The healthy immigrant effect on mental health: determinants and implications for mental health policy in Spain. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research 3, 616627.
Robins, LN, Wing, J, Wittchen, HU, Helzer, JE, Babor, TF, Burke, J, Farmer, A, Jablenski, A, Pickens, R, Regier, DA, Sartorius, N and Towle, LH (1988) The Composite International Diagnostic Interview. An epidemiologic instrument suitable for use in conjunction with different diagnostic systems and in different cultures. Archives of General Psychiatry 45, 10691077.
Saha, S, Scott, JG, Varghese, D and McGrath, JJ (2013) Socio-economic disadvantage and delusional-like experiences: a nationwide population-based study. European Psychiatry 28, 5963.
Schofield, P, Das-Munshi, J, Becares, L, Morgan, C, Bhavsar, V, Hotopf, M and Hatch, SL (2016) Minority status and mental distress: a comparison of group density effects. Psychological Medicine 46, 30513059.
Schwartz, SJ, Unger, JB, Zamboanga, BL and Szapocznik, J (2010) Rethinking the concept of acculturation. The American Psychologist 65, 237251.
Scott, J, Chant, D, Andrews, G and McGrath, J (2006) Psychotic-like experiences in the general community: the correlates of CIDI psychosis screen items in an Australian sample. Psychological Medicine 36, 231238.
Selten, JP, Booij, J, Buwalda, B and Meyer-Lindenberg, A (2017) Biological mechanisms whereby social exclusion may contribute to the etiology of psychosis: a narrative review. Schizophrenia Bulletin 43, 287292.
Selten, JP and Cantor-Graae, E (2007) Hypothesis: social defeat is a risk factor for schizophrenia? The British Journal of Psychiatry 51, s912.
Selten, JP, van der Ven, E, Rutten, BPF and Cantor-Graae, E (2013) The social defeat hypothesis of schizophrenia: an update. Schizophrenia Bulletin 39, 11801186.
Shevlin, M, Murphy, J, Read, J, Mallett, J, Adamson, G and Houston, JE (2011) Childhood adversity and hallucinations: a community-based study using the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 46, 12031210.
Singh, SP, Winsper, C, Wolke, D and Bryson, A (2014) School mobility and prospective pathways to psychotic-like symptoms in early adolescence: a prospective birth cohort study. Journal of the American Academy of Child 53, 518527.
Stouten, LH, Veling, W, van der Helm, M, Laan, W and van der Gaag, M (2013) Cognitive deficits and ethnicity: a cohort study of early psychosis patients in The Netherlands. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 48, 3747.
Sun, M, Hu, X, Zhang, W, Guo, R, Hu, A, Mwansisya, TE, Zhou, L, Liu, C, Chen, X, Huang, X, Shi, J, Chiu, HF and Liu, Z (2015) Psychotic-like experiences and associated socio-demographic factors among adolescents in China. Schizophrenia Research 166, 4954.
Van de Beek, MH, van der Krieke, L, Schoevers, RA and Veling, W (2017) Social exclusion and psychopathology in an online cohort of Moroccan-Dutch migrants: results of the MEDINA-study. PLoS ONE 12, e0179827.
Vanheusden, K, Mulder, CL, van der Ende, J, Selten, JP, van Lenthe, FJ, Verhulst, FC and Mackenbach, JP (2008) Associations between ethnicity and self-reported hallucinations in a population sample of young adults in The Netherlands. Psychological Medicine 38, 10951102.
Van Os, J (2003) Is there a continuum of psychotic experiences in the general population? Epidemiologia E Psichiatria Sociale 12, 242252.
Van Os, J, Hanssen, M, Bijl, RV and Vollebergh, W (2001) Prevalence of psychotic disorder and community level of psychotic symptoms: an urban-rural comparison. Archives of General Psychiatry 58, 663668.
Van Os, J, Kenis, G and Rutten, BPF (2010) The environment and schizophrenia. Nature 468, 203212.
Veling, W (2013) Ethnic minority position and risk for psychotic disorders. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 26, 166171.
Veling, W, Selten, JP, Mackenbach, JP and Hoek, HW (2007 a) Symptoms at first contact for psychotic disorder: comparison between native Dutch and ethnic minorities. Schizophrenia Research 95, 3038.
Veling, W, Selten, JP, Susser, E, Laan, W, Mackenbach, JP and Hoek, HW (2007 b) Discrimination and the incidence of psychotic disorders among ethnic minorities in The Netherlands. International Journal of Epidemiology 36, 761768.
Veling, W, Hoek, HW, Selten, JP and Susser, E (2011) Age at migration and future risk of psychotic disorders among immigrants in the Netherlands: a 7-year incidence study. The American Journal of Psychiatry 168, 12781285.
Veling, W, Susser, E, Selten, JP and Hoek, HW (2015) Social disorganization of neighborhoods and incidence of psychotic disorders: a 7-year first-contact incidence study. Psychological Medicine 45, 17891798.
Verdoux, H and van Os, J (2002) Psychotic symptoms in non-clinical populations and the continuum of psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 54, 5965.
Von Elm, E, Altman, DG, Egger, M, Pocock, SJ, Gøtzsche, PC and Vandenbroucke, JP and STROBE Initiative (2007) The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. The Lancet 370, 14531457.
Waters, MC (1994) Ethnic and racial identities of second generation black immigrants in New York City. International Migration Review 28, 795820.
Welham, J, Isohanni, M, Jones, P and McGrath, J (2009) The antecedents of schizophrenia: a review of birth cohort studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin 35, 603623.
Wigman, JTW, van Winkel, R, Raaijmakers, QAW, Ormel, J, Verhulst, FC, Reijneveld, SA, van Os, J and Vollebergh, WA (2011) Evidence for a persistent, environment-dependent and deteriorating subtype of subclinical psychotic experiences: a 6-year longitudinal general population study. Psychological Medicine 41, 23172329.
World Bank Group (2017) World Development Indicators 2017. S.l.: WORLD BANK.
Zammit, S, Kounali, D, Cannon, M, David, AS, Gunnell, D, Heron, J, Jones, PB, Lewis, S, Sullivan, S, Wolke, D and Lewis, G (2013) Psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders at age 18 in relation to psychotic experiences at age 12 in a longitudinal population-based cohort study. The American Journal of Psychiatry 170, 742750.
Zandi, T, Havenaar, JM, Limburg-Okken, AG, van Es, H, Sidali, S, Kadri, N, van den Brink, W and Kahn, RS (2008) The need for culture sensitive diagnostic procedures: a study among psychotic patients in Morocco. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 43, 244250.
Zandi, T, Havenaar, JM, Smits, M, Limburg-Okken, AG, van Es, H, Cahn, W, Algra, A, Kahn, RS and van den Brink, W (2010) First contact incidence of psychotic disorders among native Dutch and Moroccan immigrants in the Netherlands: influence of diagnostic bias. Schizophrenia Research 119, 2733.
Zandi, T, Havenaar, JM, Laan, W, Kahn, RS and van den Brink, W (2011) Predictive validity of a culturally informed diagnosis of schizophrenia: a 30 month follow-up study with first episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 133, 2935.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Leaune et al. supplementary material
Leaune et al. supplementary material 1

 Word (32 KB)
32 KB


Altmetric attention score