Skip to main content Accessibility help

The global burden of anxiety disorders in 2010

  • A. J. Baxter (a1) (a2), T. Vos (a3), K. M. Scott (a4), A. J. Ferrari (a1) (a2) and H. A. Whiteford (a1) (a2)...



Despite their high prevalence, the global burden of anxiety disorders has never been calculated comprehensively. The new Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study has estimated burden due to morbidity and mortality caused by any anxiety disorder.


Prevalence was estimated using Bayesian meta-regression informed by data identified in a systematic review. Years of life lived with disability (YLDs) were calculated by multiplying prevalent cases by an average disability weight based on severity proportions (mild, moderate and severe). Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were then calculated and age standardized using global standard population figures. Estimates were also made for additional suicide mortality attributable to anxiety disorders. Findings are presented for YLDs, DALYs and attributable burden due to suicide for 21 world regions in 1990 and 2010.


Anxiety disorders were the sixth leading cause of disability, in terms of YLDs, in both high-income (HI) and low- and middle-income (LMI) countries. Globally, anxiety disorders accounted for 390 DALYs per 100 000 persons [95% uncertainty interval (UI) 191–371 DALYs per 100 000] in 2010, with no discernible change observed over time. Females accounted for about 65% of the DALYs caused by anxiety disorders, with the highest burden in both males and females experienced by those aged between 15 and 34 years. Although there was regional variation in prevalence, the overlap between uncertainty estimates means that substantive differences in burden between populations could not be identified.


Anxiety disorders are chronic, disabling conditions that are distributed across the globe. Future estimates of burden could be further improved by obtaining more representative data on severity state proportions.


Corresponding author

* Address for correspondence: A. J. Baxter, M.P.H., Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4074, Australia. (Email:


Hide All
ABS (1997). National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, 1997 (SMHWB). Australian Bureau of Statistics: Canberra, Australia.
AHRQ (2009). United States Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) 2000–2009. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Rockville, MD.
Andrews, G and the Tolkien II Team (2007). Tolkien II: A Needs-based, Costed Stepped-care Model for Mental Health Services. World Health Organization, Collaborating Centre for Classification in Mental Health: Sydney, NSW.
Andrews, G, Sanderson, K, Slade, T, Issakidis, C (2000). Why does the burden of disease persist? Relating the burden of anxiety and depression to effectiveness of treatment. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 78, 446454.
APA (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). American Psychiatric Association: Washington, DC.
APA (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). American Psychiatric Association: Arlington, VA.
Ayuso-Mateos, JL (2006). Global Burden of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Year 2000: Version 1 Estimates. GBD 2000 Working Paper. World Health Organization, Geneva. ( Accessed 1 February 2009.
Baxter, AJ, Scott, KM, Ferrari, AJ, Norman, R, Vos, T, Whiteford, HA (2014). Challenging the myth of an ‘epidemic’ of common mental disorders: trends in the global prevalence of anxiety and depression between 1990 and 2010. Depression and Anxiety. Published online: January 2014 . doi:10.1002/da.22230.
Demyttenaere, K, Bruffaerts, R, Posada-Villa, J, Gasquet, I, Kovess, V, Lepine, JP, Angermeyer, MC, Bernert, S, de Girolamo, G, Morosini, P, Polidori, G, Kikkawa, T, Kawakami, N, Ono, Y, Takeshima, T, Uda, H, Karam, EG, Fayyad, JA, Karam, AN, Mneimneh, ZN, Medina-Mora, ME, Borges, G, Lara, C, de Graaf, R, Ormel, J, Gureje, O, Shen, Y, Huang, Y, Zhang, M, Alonso, J, Haro, JM, Vilagut, G, Bromet, EJ, Gluzman, S, Webb, C, Kessler, RC, Merikangas, KR, Anthony, JC, Von Korff, MR, Wang, PS, Brugha, TS, Aguilar-Gaxiola, S, Lee, S, Heeringa, S, Pennell, BE, Zaslavsky, AM, Ustun, TB, Chatterji, S; WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium (2004). Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Journal of the American Medical Association 291, 25812590.
Flaxman, AD, Vos, T, Murray, CJL (eds) (2013). An Integrative Metaregression Framework for Descriptive Epidemiology. University of Washington Press: Seattle, WA.
Issakidis, C, Sanderson, K, Corry, J, Andrews, G, Lapsley, H (2004). Modelling the population cost-effectiveness of current and evidence-based optimal treatment for anxiety disorders. Psychological Medicine 34, 1935.
Kessler, RC, Aguilar-Gaxiola, S, Alonso, J, Chatterji, S, Lee, S, Ormel, J, Ustün, TB, Wang, PS (2009). The global burden of mental disorders: an update from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys. Epidemiologia a Psichiatria Sociale 18, 2333.
Kessler, RC, Greenberg, PE (2002). The economic burden of anxiety and stress disorders. In Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress (ed. Davis, K. L., Charney, D., Coyle, J. T. and Nemeroff, C.), pp. 981992. Lippencott, Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, PA.
Kessler, RC, Haro, JM, Kawakami, N, Karam, A, Levinson, D, Medina Mora, ME, Oakley Browne, MA, Posada-Villa, J, Stein, DJ, Adley Tsang, CH, Aguilar-Gaxiola, S, Angermeyer, M, Alonso, J, Lee, S, Heeringa, S, Pennell, B-E, Berglund, P, Gruber, MJ, Petukhova, M, Chatterji, S, Ustün, TB, Anthony, JC, de Graaf, R, Demyttenaere, K, Gasquet, I, de Girolamo, G, Gluzman, S, Gureje, O; WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium (2007). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of mental disorders in the World Health Organization's World Mental Health Survey Initiative. World Psychiatry 6, 168176.
Kessler, RC, Ormel, J, Petukhova, M, McLaughlin, KA, Greif Green, J, Russo, LJ, Stein, DJ, Zaslavsky, AM, Aguilar-Gaxiola, S, Alonso, J, Andrade, L, Benjet, C, de Girolamo, G, de Graaf, R, Demyttenaere, K, Fayyad, J, Haro, JM, Hu, CY, Karam, A, Lee, S, Lepine, J-P, Matchsinger, H, Mihaescu-Pintia, C, Posada-Villa, J, Sagar, R, Üstün, TB (2011). Development of lifetime comorbidity in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Archives of General Psychiatry 68, 90100.
Lau, EX, Rapee, RM (2011). Prevention of anxiety disorders. Current Psychiatry Reports 13, 258266.
Li, Z, Page, A, Martin, G, Taylor, R (2011). Attributable risk of psychiatric and socio-economic factors for suicide from individual-level, population-based studies: a systematic review. Social Science and Medicine 72, 608616.
Lim, SS, Vos, T, Flaxman, AD, Danaei, G, Shibuya, K, Adair-Rohani, H, Amann, M, Anderson, HR, Andrews, KG, Aryee, M, Atkinson, C, Bacchus, LJ, Bahalim, AN, Balakrishnan, K, Balmes, J, Barker-Collo, S, Baxter, A, Bell, ML, Blore, JD, Blyth, F, Bonner, C, Borges, G, Bourne, R, Boussinesq, M, Brauer, M, Brooks, P, Bruce, NG, Brunekreef, B, Bryan-Hancock, C, Bucello, C, Buchbinder, R, Bull, F, Burnett, RT, Byers, TE, Calabria, B, Carapetis, J, Carnahan, E, Chafe, Z, Charlson, F, Chen, H, Chen, JS, Cheng, AT-A, Child, JC, Cohen, A, Colson, KE, Cowie, BC, Darby, S, Darling, S, Davis, A, Degenhardt, L, Dentener, F, Des Jarlais, DC, Devries, K, Dherani, M, Ding, EL, Dorsey, ER, Driscoll, T, Edmond, K, Ali, SE, Engell, RE, Erwin, PJ, Fahimi, S, Falder, G, Farzadfar, F, Ferrari, A, Finucane, MM, Flaxman, S, Fowkes, FGR, Freedman, G, Freeman, MK, Gakidou, E, Ghosh, S, Giovannucci, E, Gmel, G, Graham, K, Grainger, R, Grant, B, Gunnell, D, Gutierrez, HR, Hall, W, Hoek, HW, Hogan, A, Hosgood, HD, Hoy, D, Hu, H, Hubbell, BJ, Hutchings, SJ, Ibeanusi, SE, Jacklyn, GL, Jasrasaria, R, Jonas, JB, Kan, H, Kanis, JA, Kassebaum, N, Kawakami, N, Khang, Y-H, Khatibzadeh, S, Khoo, J-P, Kok, C, Laden, F, Lalloo, R, Lan, Q, Lathlean, T, Leasher, JL, Leigh, J, Li, Y, Lin, JK, Lipshultz, SE, London, S, Lozano, R, Lu, Y, Mak, J, Malekzadeh, R, Mallinger, L, Marcenes, W, March, L, Marks, R, Martin, R, McGale, P, McGrath, J, Mehta, S, Mensah, GA, Merriman, TR, Micha, R, Michaud, C, Mishra, V, Hanafiah, KM, Mokdad, AA, Morawska, L, Mozaffarian, D, Murphy, T, Naghavi, M, Neal, B, Nelson, PK, Nolla, JM, Norman, R, Olives, C, Omer, SB, Orchard, J, Osborne, R, Ostro, B, Page, A, Pandey, KD, Parry, CDH, Passmore, E, Patra, J, Pearce, N, Pelizzari, PM, Petzold, M, Phillips, MR, Pope, D, Pope, CA, Powles, J, Rao, M, Razavi, H, Rehfuess, EA, Rehm, JT, Ritz, B, Rivara, FP, Roberts, T, Robinson, C, Rodriguez-Portales, JA, Romieu, I, Room, R, Rosenfeld, LC, Roy, A, Rushton, L, Salomon, JA, Sampson, U, Sanchez-Riera, L, Sanman, E, Sapkota, A, Seedat, S, Shi, P, Shield, K, Shivakoti, R, Singh, GM, Sleet, DA, Smith, E, Smith, KR, Stapelberg, NJC, Steenland, K, Stöckl, H, Stovner, LJ, Straif, K, Straney, L, Thurston, GD, Tran, JH, Van Dingenen, R, van Donkelaar, A, Veerman, JL, Vijayakumar, L, Weintraub, R, Weissman, MM, White, RA, Whiteford, H, Wiersma, ST, Wilkinson, JD, Williams, HC, Williams, W, Wilson, N, Woolf, AD, Yip, P, Zielinski, JM, Lopez, AD, Murray, CJL, Ezzati, M (2012). A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 380, 22242260.
Lochner, C, Mogotsi, M, du Toit, PL, Kaminer, D, Niehaus, DJ, Stein, DJ (2003). Quality of life in anxiety disorders: a comparison of obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and panic disorder. Psychopathology 36, 255262.
McGorry, PD, Purcell, R, Goldstone, S, Amminger, GP (2011). Age of onset and timing of treatment for mental and substance use disorders: implications for preventive intervention strategies and models of care. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 24, 301306.
Mendlowicz, MV, Stein, MB (2000). Quality of life in individuals with anxiety disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry 157, 669682.
Moffitt, TE, Caspi, A, Taylor, AJ, Kokaua, J, Milne, BJ, Polanczyk, G, Poulton, R (2010). How common are common mental disorders? Evidence that lifetime prevalence rates are doubled by prospective versus retrospective ascertainment. Psychological Medicine 40, 899909.
Moher, D, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J, Altman, DG; PRISMA Group (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA Statement. PLoS Medicine 6, e1000097.
Murray, CJL, Ezzati, M, Flaxman, AD, Lim, S, Lozano, R, Michaud, C, Naghavi, M, Salomon, JA, Shibuya, K, Vos, T, Wikler, D, Lopez, AD (2012). GBD 2010: design, definitions, and metrics. Lancet 380, 20632066.
Murray, CJL, Lopez, AD (eds) (1996). The Global Burden of Disease: A Comprehensive Assessment of Mortality and Disability from Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors in 1990 and Projected to 2020. Global Burden of Disease and Injury Series. Harvard School of Public Health on behalf of the World Health Organization and the World Bank: Cambridge, MA.
NIAAA: NIH (2001–2002 and 2004–2005). National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave 1 and Wave 2. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism: National Institutes of Health: Bethesda, MD.
Ormel, J, Petukhova, M, Chatterji, S, Aguilar-Gaxiola, S, Alonso, J, Angermeyer, MC, Bromet, EJ, Burger, H, Demyttenaere, K, de Girolamo, G, Hario, JM, Hwang, I, Karam, EG, Kawakami, N, Lepine, JP, Medina-Mora, ME, Posada-Villa, J, Sampson, N, Scott, K, Ustun, TB, Von Korff, M, Williams, DR, Zhang, M, Kessler, RC (2008). Disability and treatment of specific mental and physical disorders across the world. British Journal of Psychiatry 192, 368375.
Salomon, JA, Vos, T, Hogan, DR, Gagnon, M, Naghavi, M, Mokdad, A, Begum, N, Shah, R, Karyana, M, Kosen, S, Farje, MR, Moncada, G, Dutta, A, Sazawal, S, Dyer, A, Seiler, J, Aboyans, V, Baker, L, Baxter, A, Benjamin, EJ, Bhalla, K, Abdulhak, AB, Blyth, F, Bourne, R, Braithwaite, T, Brooks, P, Brugha, TS, Bryan-Hancock, C, Buchbinder, R, Burney, P, Calabria, B, Chen, H, Chugh, SS, Cooley, R, Criqui, MH, Cross, M, Dabhadkar, KC, Dahodwala, N, Davis, A, Degenhardt, L, Díaz-Torné, C, Dorsey, ER, Driscoll, T, Edmond, K, Elbaz, A, Ezzati, M, Feigin, V, Ferri, CP, Flaxman, AD, Flood, L, Fransen, M, Fuse, K, Gabbe, BJ, Gillum, RF, Haagsma, J, Harrison, JE, Havmoeller, R, Hay, RJ, Hel-Baqui, A, Hoek, HW, Hoffman, H, Hogeland, E, Hoy, D, Jarvis, D, Karthikeyan, G, Knowlton, LM, Lathlean, T, Leasher, JL, Lim, SS, Lipshultz, SE, Lopez, AD, Lozano, R, Lyons, R, Malekzadeh, R, Marcenes, W, March, L, Margolis, DJ, McGill, N, McGrath, J, Mensah, GA, Meyer, A-C, Michaud, C, Moran, A, Mori, R, Murdoch, ME, Naldi, L, Newton, CR, Norman, R, Omer, SB, Osborne, R, Pearce, N, Perez-Ruiz, F, Perico, N, Pesudovs, K, Phillips, D, Pourmalek, F, Prince, M, Rehm, JT, Remuzzi, G, Richardson, K, Room, R, Saha, S, Sampson, U, Sanchez-Riera, L, Segui-Gomez, M, Shahraz, S, Shibuya, K, Singh, D, Sliwa, K, Smith, E, Soerjomataram, I, Steiner, T, Stolk, WA, Stovner, LJ, Sudfeld, C, Taylor, HR, Tleyjeh, IM, van der Werf, MJ, Watson, WL, Weatherall, DJ, Weintraub, R, Weisskopf, MG, Whiteford, H, Wilkinson, JD, Woolf, AD, Zheng, Z-J, Murray, CJL (2012). Common values in assessing health outcomes from disease and injury: disability weights measurement study for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 380, 21292143.
Sanderson, K, Andrews, G (2002). Prevalence and severity of mental health-related disability and relationship to diagnosis. Psychiatric Services 53, 8086.
Schopflocher, DP, Tobias, M (2013). What difference does dependent comorbidity make in burden of disease studies? A survey analysis and simulation. Lancet 381, S130.
Vos, T, Flaxman, AD, Naghavi, M, Lozano, R, Michaud, C, Ezzati, M, Shibuya, K, Salomon, JA, Abdalla, S, Aboyans, V, Abraham, J, Ackerman, I, Aggarwal, R, Ahn, SY, Ali, MK, Alvarado, M, Anderson, HR, Anderson, LM, Andrews, KG, Atkinson, C, Baddour, LM, Bahalim, AN, Barker-Collo, S, Barrero, LH, Bartels, DH, Basáñez, M-G, Baxter, A, Bell, ML, Benjamin, EJ, Bennett, D, Bernabé, E, Bhalla, K, Bhandari, B, Bikbov, B, Abdulhak, AB, Birbeck, G, Black, JA, Blencowe, H, Blore, JD, Blyth, F, Bolliger, I, Bonaventure, A, Boufous, S, Bourne, R, Boussinesq, M, Braithwaite, T, Brayne, C, Bridgett, L, Brooker, S, Brooks, P, Brugha, TS, Bryan-Hancock, C, Bucello, C, Buchbinder, R, Buckle, G, Budke, CM, Burch, M, Burney, P, Burstein, R, Calabria, B, Campbell, B, Canter, CE, Carabin, H, Carapetis, J, Carmona, L, Cella, C, Charlson, F, Chen, H, Cheng, AT-A, Chou, D, Chugh, SS, Coffeng, LE, Colan, SD, Colquhoun, S, Colson, KE, Condon, J, Connor, MD, Cooper, LT, Corriere, M, Cortinovis, M, de Vaccaro, KC, Couser, W, Cowie, BC, Criqui, MH, Cross, M, Dabhadkar, KC, Dahiya, M, Dahodwala, N, Damsere-Derry, J, Danaei, G, Davis, A, De Leo, D, Degenhardt, L, Dellavalle, R, Delossantos, A, Denenberg, J, Derrett, S, Des Jarlais, DC, Dharmaratne, SD, Dherani, M, Diaz-Torne, C, Dolk, H, Dorsey, ER, Driscoll, T, Duber, H, Ebel, B, Edmond, K, Elbaz, A, Ali, SE, Erskine, H, Erwin, PJ, Espindola, P, Ewoigbokhan, SE, Farzadfar, F, Feigin, V, Felson, DT, Ferrari, A, Ferri, CP, Fèvre, EM, Finucane, MM, Flaxman, S, Flood, L, Foreman, K, Forouzanfar, MH, Fowkes, FGR, Franklin, R, Fransen, M, Freeman, MK, Gabbe, BJ, Gabriel, SE, Gakidou, E, Ganatra, HA, Garcia, B, Gaspari, F, Gillum, RF, Gmel, G, Gosselin, R, Grainger, R, Groeger, J, Guillemin, F, Gunnell, D, Gupta, R, Haagsma, J, Hagan, H, Halasa, YA, Hall, W, Haring, D, Haro, JM, Harrison, JE, Havmoeller, R, Hay, RJ, Higashi, H, Hill, C, Hoen, B, Hoffman, H, Hotez, PJ, Hoy, D, Huang, JJ, Ibeanusi, SE, Jacobsen, KH, James, SL, Jarvis, D, Jasrasaria, R, Jayaraman, S, Johns, N, Jonas, JB, Karthikeyan, G, Kassebaum, N, Kawakami, N, Keren, A, Khoo, J-P, King, CH, Knowlton, LM, Kobusingye, O, Koranteng, A, Krishnamurthi, R, Lalloo, R, Laslett, LL, Lathlean, T, Leasher, JL, Lee, YY, Leigh, J, Lim, SS, Limb, E, Lin, JK, Lipnick, M, Lipshultz, SE, Liu, W, Loane, M, Ohno, SL, Lyons, R, Ma, J, Mabweijano, J, MacIntyre, MF, Malekzadeh, R, Mallinger, L, Manivannan, S, Marcenes, W, March, L, Margolis, DJ, Marks, GB, Marks, R, Matsumori, A, Matzopoulos, R, Mayosi, BM, McAnulty, JH, McDermott, MM, McGill, N, McGrath, J, Medina-Mora, ME, Meltzer, M, Mensah, GA, Merriman, TR, Meyer, A-C, Miglioli, V, Miller, M, Miller, TR, Mitchell, PB, Mocumbi, AO, Moffitt, TE, Mokdad, AA, Monasta, L, Montico, M, Moradi-Lakeh, M, Moran, A, Morawska, L, Mori, R, Murdoch, ME, Mwaniki, MK, Naidoo, K, Nair, MN, Naldi, L, Narayan, KMV, Nelson, PK, Nelson, RG, Nevitt, MC, Newton, CR, Nolte, S, Norman, P, Norman, R, O'Donnell, M, O'Hanlon, S, Olives, C, Omer, SB, Ortblad, K, Osborne, R, Ozgediz, D, Page, A, Pahari, B, Pandian, JD, Rivero, AP, Patten, SB, Pearce, N, Padilla, RP, Perez-Ruiz, F, Perico, N, Pesudovs, K, Phillips, D, Phillips, MR, Pierce, K, Pion, S, Polanczyk, GV, Polinder, S, Pope, CA, Popova, S, Porrini, E, Pourmalek, F, Prince, M, Pullan, RL, Ramaiah, KD, Ranganathan, D, Razavi, H, Regan, M, Rehm, JT, Rein, DB, Remuzzi, G, Richardson, K, Rivara, FP, Roberts, T, Robinson, C, De Leòn, FR, Ronfani, L, Room, R, Rosenfeld, LC, Rushton, L, Sacco, RL, Saha, S, Sampson, U, Sanchez-Riera, L, Sanman, E, Schwebel, DC, Scott, JG, Segui-Gomez, M, Shahraz, S, Shepard, DS, Shin, H, Shivakoti, R, Singh, D, Singh, GM, Singh, JA, Singleton, J, Sleet, DA, Sliwa, K, Smith, E, Smith, JL, Stapelberg, NJC, Steer, A, Steiner, T, Stolk, WA, Stovner, LJ, Sudfeld, C, Syed, S, Tamburlini, G, Tavakkoli, M, Taylor, HR, Taylor, JA, Taylor, WJ, Thomas, B, Thomson, WM, Thurston, GD, Tleyjeh, IM, Tonelli, M, Towbin, JA, Truelsen, T, Tsilimbaris, MK, Ubeda, C, Undurraga, EA, van der Werf, MJ, van Os, J, Vavilala, MS, Venketasubramanian, N, Wang, M, Wang, W, Watt, K, Weatherall, DJ, Weinstock, MA, Weintraub, R, Weisskopf, MG, Weissman, MM, White, RA, Whiteford, H, Wiersma, ST, Wilkinson, JD, Williams, HC, Williams, SRM, Witt, E, Wolfe, F, Woolf, AD, Wulf, S, Yeh, P-H, Zaidi, AKM, Zheng, Z-J, Zonies, D, Lopez, AD, Murray, CJL (2012). Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 380, 21632196.
Whiteford, HA, Degenhardt, L, Rehm, J, Baxter, AJ, Ferrari, AJ, Erskine, HE, Charlson, FJ, Norman, RE, Flaxman, A, Johns, N, Burnstein, R, Murray, CJL, Vos, T (2013). Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 382, 15751586.
WHO (1993). The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Diagnostic Criteria for Research. World Health Organization: Geneva.
WHO (2008). The Global Burden of Disease: 2004 Update. World Health Organization: Geneva.
Yonkers, KA, Bruce, SE, Dyck, IR, Keller, MB (2003). Chronicity, relapse, and illness – course of panic disorder, social phobia, and generalized anxiety disorder: findings in men and women from 8 years of follow-up. Depression and Anxiety 17, 173179.


Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Baxter supplementary material
Baxter supplementary material

 Word (88 KB)
88 KB


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed