This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
TM Achenbach (1978). The Child Behavior Profile: I. Boys aged 6–11. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 46, 478–488.
PD Allison (2009). Fixed Effects Regression Models. Sage: Washington, DC.
ED Barker , B Maughan (2009). Differentiating early-onset versus childhood-limited conduct problem youth. American Journal of Psychiatry 166, 900–908.
GD Batty , G Der , IJ Deary (2006). Effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring's cognitive ability: empirical evidence for complete confounding in the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Pediatrics 118, 943–950.
BB Boutwell , KM Beaver (2010). Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and offspring externalizing behavioral problems: a propensity score matching analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 7, 146–163.
PA Brennan , ER Grekin , SA Mednick (1999). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and adult male criminal outcomes. Archives of General Psychiatry 56, 215–219.
MJ Brion , C Victora , A Matijasevich , B Horta , L Anselmi , C Steer , AMB Menezes , DA Lawlor , GD Smith (2010). Maternal smoking and child psychological problems: disentangling causal and noncausal effects. Pediatrics 126, e57–e65.
PL Chase-Lansdale , FL Mott , J Brooks-Gunn , DA Phillips (1991). Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: a unique research opportunity. Developmental Psychology 27, 918–931.
S Cnattingius (2004). The epidemiology of smoking during pregnancy: smoking prevalence, maternal characteristics, and pregnancy outcomes. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 6, S125–S140.
BM D'Onofrio , AL Singh , A Iliadou , M Lambe , C Hultman , M Grann , JM Neiderhiser , N Långström , P Lichtenstein (2010 a). Familial confounding of the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring criminality: a population-based study in Sweden. Archives of General Psychiatry 67, 529–538.
BM D'Onofrio , AL Singh , A Iliadou , M Lambe , C Hultman , JM Neiderhiser , N Långström , P Lichtenstein (2010 b). A quasi-experimental study of maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring academic achievement. Child Development 81, 80–100.
BM D'Onofrio , CA Van Hulle , ID Waldman , JL Rodgers , PJ Rathouz , BB Lahey (2007). Causal inferences regarding prenatal alcohol exposure and childhood externalizing problems. Archives of General Psychiatry 64, 1296–1304.
NL Day , L Goldschmid , N Robles , G Richardson , M Cornelius , P Taylor , D Geva , D Stoffer (1991). Prenatal alcohol exposure and offspring growth at 18 months of age: the predictive validity of two measures of drinking. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research 15, 914–918.
C Derauf , M Kekatpure , N Neyzi , B Lester , B Kosofsky (2009). Neuroimaging of children following prenatal drug exposure. Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 20, 441–454.
SJ Donovan , E Susser (2011). Commentary: advent of sibling designs. International Journal of Epidemiology 40, 345–349.
DS Elliott , D Huizinga (1983). Social class and delinquent behavior in a national youth panel. Criminology: An Interdisciplinary Journal 21, 149–177.
M Ernst , ET Moolchan , ML Robinson (2001). Behavioral and neural consequences of prenatal exposure to nicotine. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 40, 630–641.
DM Fergusson , LJ Horwood (2002). Male and female offending trajectories. Development and Psychopathology 14, 159–177.
L George , F Granath , ALV Johansson , S Cnattingius (2006). Self-reported nicotine exposure and plasma levels of cotinine in early and late pregnancy. Acta Obstetrica et Gynecologia Scandinavica 85, 1331–1337.
SE Gilman , H Gardener , SL Buka (2008). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and children's cognitive and physical development: a causal risk factor? American Journal of Epidemiology 168, 522–531.
AB Gold , AB Keller , DC Perry (2009). Prenatal exposure of rats to nicotine causes persistent alterations of nicotinic cholinergic receptors. Brain Research 1250, 88–100.
AC Heath , RC Kessler , MC Neale , JK Hewitt , LJ Eaves , KS Kendler (1993). Testing hypotheses about direction of causation using cross-sectional data. Behavior Genetics 23, 29–50.
AC Huizink (2009). Moderate use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis during pregnancy: new approaches and update on research findings. Reproductive Toxicology 28, 143–151.
ALV Johansson , PW Dickman , MS Kramer , S Cnattingius (2009). Maternal smoking and infant mortality: does quitting smoking reduce the risk of infant death? Epidemiology 20, 590–597.
VS Knopik (2009). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and child outcomes: real or spurious effect? Developmental Neuropsychology 34, 1–36.
R Kuja-Halkola , BM D'Onofrio , AN Iliadou , N Langstrom , P Lichtenstein (2010). Prenatal smoking exposure and offspring stress coping in late adolescence: no causal link. International Journal of Epidemiology 39, 1531–1540.
BB Lahey , BM D'Onofrio (2010). All in the family: comparing siblings to test causal hypotheses regarding environmental influences on behavior. Current Directions in Psychological Science 19, 319–323.
BB Lahey , CA Van Hulle , BM D'Onofrio , JL Rodgers , ID Waldman (2008). Is parental knowledge of their adolescent offspring's whereabouts and peer associations spuriously associated with offspring delinquency? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 36, 807–823.
M Lambe , C Hultman , A Torrang , J MacCabe , S Cnattingius (2006). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and school performance at age 15. Epidemiology 17, 524–530.
JV Lavigne , J Hopkins , KR Gouze , FB Bryant , SA LeBailly , HJ Binns , PM Lavigne (2011). Is smoking during pregnancy a risk factor for psychopathology in young children? A methodological caveat and report on preschoolers. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 36, 10–24.
LD Leve , JM Neiderhiser , LV Scaramella , D Reiss (2010). The Early Growth and Development study: using the prospective adoption design to examine genotype–environment interplay. Behavior Genetics 40, 306–314.
F Lindblad , A Hjern (2010). ADHD after fetal exposure to maternal smoking. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 12, 408–415.
F Lundberg , S Cnattingius , B D'Onofrio , D Altman , M Lambe , C Hultman , A Iliadou (2010). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and intellectual performance in young adult Swedish male offspring. Pediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 24, 79–87.
KA Meyer , P Williams , S Hernandez-Diaz , S Cnattingius (2004). Smoking and risk of oral clefts: exploring the impact of study designs. Epidemiology 15, 671–678.
BF Mitchell , MJ Taggert (2009). Are animal models relevant to key aspects of human parturition? American Journal of Physiology Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 297, R525–R545.
C Obel , J Olsen , TB Henriksen , A Rodriguez , MR Järvelin , I Moilanen , E Parner , KM Linnet , A Taanila , H Ebeling , E Heiervang , M Gissler (2011). Is maternal smoking during pregnancy a risk factor for Hyperkinetic disorder? – findings from a sibling design. International Journal of Epidemiology 40, 338–345.
D Olds (1997). Tobacco exposure and impaired development: a review of the evidence. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 3, 257–269.
A Post , H Gilljam , S Bremberg , MR Galanti (2008). Maternal smoking during pregnancy: a comparison between concurrent and retrospective self-reports. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 22, 155–161.
F Rice , GT Harold , J Boivin , DF Hay , M Van den Bree , A Thapar (2009). Disentangling prenatal and inherited influences in humans with an experimental design. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106, 2464–2467.
JL Rodgers , DC Rowe , C Li (1994). Beyond nature vs. nurture: DF analyses of nonshared influences on problem behaviors. Developmental Psychology 30, 374–384.
SJ Roza , FC Verhulst , VWV Jaddoe , EAP Steegers , JP Mackenbach , A Hofman , H Tiemeier (2009). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and child behaviour problems: the Generation R Study. International Journal of Epidemiology 38, 680–689.
M Rutter (2007). Proceeding from observed correlation to causal inference: the use of natural experiments. Perspectives on Psychological Science 2, 377–395.
M Rutter , A Pickles , R Murray , LJ Eaves (2001). Testing hypotheses on specific environmental causal effects on behavior. Psychological Bulletin 127, 291–324.
A Talati , MM Weissman (2010). In utero smoking exposure warrants further investigation. Archives of General Psychiatry 67, 1094.
A Thapar , G Harold , F Rice , X Ge , J Boivin , D Hay , M van den Bree , A Lewis (2007). Do intrauterine or genetic influences explain the foetal origins of chronic disease? A novel experimental method for disentangling effects. BMC Medical Research Methodology 7, 25.
A Thapar , F Rice , D Hay , J Boivin , K Langley , M Van den Bree , M Rutter , G Harold (2009). Prenatal smoking might not cause attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: evidence from a novel design. Biological Psychiatry 66, 722–727.
LS Wakschlag , KE Pickett , E Cook , NL Benowitz , BL Leventhal (2002). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and severe antisocial behavior in offspring: a review. American Journal of Public Health 92, 966–974.