Cunha, P.J. Rosa, P.G.P. Duran, F.L.S. Santos, L.C. Crippa, J.A.S. Busatto, G.F. and Schaufelberger, M.S. 2017. Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies.
Loflin, M.J. and Earleywine, M. 2017. Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies.
Martín-Santos, R. de Souza Crippa, J.A. and Bhattacharyya, S. 2017. Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies.
Aguilar, David D Giuffrida, Andrea and Lodge, Daniel J 2016. THC and endocannabinoids differentially regulate neuronal activity in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in the subchronic PCP model of schizophrenia. Journal of Psychopharmacology, Vol. 30, Issue. 2, p. 169.
Broyd, Samantha J. van Hell, Hendrika H. Beale, Camilla Yücel, Murat and Solowij, Nadia 2016. Acute and Chronic Effects of Cannabinoids on Human Cognition—A Systematic Review. Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 79, Issue. 7, p. 557.
Brumback, T. Castro, N. Jacobus, J. and Tapert, S. 2016. Imaging the Addicted Brain.
de Sousa Fernandes Perna, Elizabeth B. Theunissen, Eef L. Kuypers, Kim P. C. Evers, Elisabeth A. Stiers, Peter Toennes, Stefan W. Witteman, Jurriaan van Dalen, Wim and Ramaekers, Johannes G. 2016. Brain reactivity to alcohol and cannabis marketing during sobriety and intoxication. Addiction Biology, p. n/a.
Ganzer, Florian Bröning, Sonja Kraft, Stefanie Sack, Peter-Michael and Thomasius, Rainer 2016. Weighing the Evidence: A Systematic Review on Long-Term Neurocognitive Effects of Cannabis Use in Abstinent Adolescents and Adults. Neuropsychology Review, Vol. 26, Issue. 2, p. 186.
Hill, Shirley Y. Sharma, Vinod and Jones, Bobby L. 2016. Lifetime use of cannabis from longitudinal assessments, cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) variation, and reduced volume of the right anterior cingulate. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, Vol. 255, p. 24.
Lorenzetti, Valentina and Cousijn, Janna 2016. Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse.
Mueller, F. Lenz, C. Steiner, M. Dolder, P.C. Walter, M. Lang, U.E. Liechti, M.E. and Borgwardt, S. 2016. Neuroimaging in moderate MDMA use: A systematic review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, Vol. 62, p. 21.
Rasmussen, Jerod Casey, B. J. van Erp, Theo G. M. Tamm, Leanne Epstein, Jeffery N. Buss, Claudia Bjork, James M. Molina, Brooke S. G. Velanova, Katerina Mathalon, Daniel H. Somerville, Leah Swanson, James M. Wigal, Tim Arnold, L. Eugene and Potkin, Steven G. 2016. ADHD and cannabis use in young adults examined using fMRI of a Go/NoGo task. Brain Imaging and Behavior, Vol. 10, Issue. 3, p. 761.
Trull, Timothy J. Wycoff, Andrea M. Lane, Sean P. Carpenter, Ryan W. and Brown, Whitney C. 2016. Cannabis and alcohol use, affect and impulsivity in psychiatric out-patients' daily lives. Addiction, Vol. 111, Issue. 11, p. 2052.
Wilson, Robin P and Bhattacharyya, Sagnik 2016. Antipsychotic efficacy in psychosis with co-morbid cannabis misuse: A systematic review. Journal of Psychopharmacology, Vol. 30, Issue. 2, p. 99.
Ansell, Emily B. Laws, Holly B. Roche, Michael J. and Sinha, Rajita 2015. Effects of marijuana use on impulsivity and hostility in daily life. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol. 148, p. 136.
Bhattacharyya, Sagnik Atakan, Z. Martin-Santos, R. Crippa, J.A. Kambeitz, J. Malhi, S. Giampietro, V. Williams, S. Brammer, M. Rubia, K. Collier, D.A. and McGuire, P.K. 2015. Impairment of inhibitory control processing related to acute psychotomimetic effects of cannabis. European Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 25, Issue. 1, p. 26.
Borgwardt, S. and Lang, U.E. 2015. Veränderungen von Hirnvolumina durch Antipsychotika bei Schizophrenie?. Der Nervenarzt, Vol. 86, Issue. 1, p. 74.
Caldwell, Jessica Z. K. Armstrong, Jeffrey M. Hanson, Jamie L. Sutterer, Matthew J. Stodola, Diane E. Koenigs, Michael Kalin, Ned H. Essex, Marilyn J. Davidson, Richard J. and Kavushansky, Alexandra 2015. Preschool Externalizing Behavior Predicts Gender-Specific Variation in Adolescent Neural Structure. PLOS ONE, Vol. 10, Issue. 2, p. e0117453.
Campbell, Leah Floyd Wilmoth, Kristin and Mason, Michael 2015. Association of exposure to neighborhood drug activity, neurobehavioral traits, and marijuana use among at-risk African American females. Addictive Behaviors, Vol. 50, p. 45.
Gutiérrez-Galve, L. Chu, E. M. Leeson, V. C. Price, G. Barnes, T. R. E. Joyce, E. M. and Ron, M. A. 2015. A longitudinal study of cortical changes and their cognitive correlates in patients followed up after first-episode psychosis. Psychological Medicine, Vol. 45, Issue. 01, p. 205.
We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence for specific effects of cannabis on brain structure and function. The review focuses on the cognitive changes associated with acute and chronic use of the drug.
We reviewed literature reporting neuroimaging studies of chronic or acute cannabis use published up until January 2009. The search was conducted using Medline, EMBASE, LILACS and PsycLIT indexing services using the following key words: cannabis, marijuana, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, THC, cannabidiol, CBD, neuroimaging, brain imaging, computerized tomography, CT, magnetic resonance, MRI, single photon emission tomography, SPECT, functional magnetic resonance, fMRI, positron emission tomography, PET, diffusion tensor MRI, DTI-MRI, MRS and spectroscopy.
Sixty-six studies were identified, of which 41 met the inclusion criteria. Thirty-three were functional (SPECT/PET/fMRI) and eight structural (volumetric/DTI) imaging studies. The high degree of heterogeneity across studies precluded a meta-analysis. The functional studies suggest that resting global and prefrontal blood flow are lower in cannabis users than in controls. The results from the activation studies using a cognitive task are inconsistent because of the heterogeneity of the methods used. Studies of acute administration of THC or marijuana report increased resting activity and activation of the frontal and anterior cingulate cortex during cognitive tasks. Only three of the structural imaging studies found differences between users and controls.
Functional neuroimaging studies suggest a modulation of global and prefrontal metabolism both during the resting state and after the administration of THC/marijuana cigarettes. Minimal evidence of major effects of cannabis on brain structure has been reported.
This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.
Full text views reflects the number of PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.
Abstract views reflect the number of visits to the article landing page.
* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 18th August 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.