Skip to main content
×
Home

Physiological and psychological measures in anxious patients

  • Alyson J. Bond (a1), D. Colin James (a1) and Malcolm H. Lader (a1)
Sysnopsis
SYSNOPSIS

Thirty drug-free patients suffering from chronic anxiety states were compared with 30 normal controls matched for age, sex, and social class on a variety of physiological and psychological measures. The tests included the electroencephalogram, the auditory evoked response, and skin conductance recorded during a passive and an active condition and auditory reaction time, the digit symbol substitution test, and arithmetic. The patients showed increased EEG voltage, shorter latencies of the evoked response, higher skin conductance levels, higher pulse rate and less pupillary constriction, and they responded less to the increase in activation. They also showed impairment on complex psychological tests. It is concluded that pathological anxiety involves an increase in arousal irrelevant to the task and has a disorganizing rather than a facilitating effect on performance.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Angyal A. F. (1948). The diagnosis of neurotic traits by means of a new perceptual test. Journal of Psychology, 25, 105135.
Bellis C. J. (1933). Reaction time and chronological age. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 30, 801803.
Bond A. J., and Lader M. H. (1972). Residual effects of hypnotics. Psychopharmacologia, 25, 117132.
Bond A. J., James D. C., and Lader M. H. (1974). Sedative effects on physiological and psychological measures in anxious patients. Psychological Medicine. (In press.)
Bostock H., and Jarvis M. J. (1970). Changes in the form of the cerebral evoked response related to the speed of simple reaction time. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 29, 137145.
Brazier M. A. B., Finesinger J. E., and Cobb S. (1945). A contrast between the electroencephalograms of 100 psychoneurotic patients and those of 500 normal adults. American Journal of Psychiatry, 101, 443448.
Ellingson R. J. (1954). The incidence of EEG abnormality among patients with mental disorders of apparently non-organic origin: a critical review. American Journal of Psychiatry, 111, 263275.
Gibson H. B. (1965). Manual of the Gibson Spiral Maze. University of London Press: London.
Goodenough F. L. (1935). The development of the reactive process from early childhood to maturity. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 431450.
Howe E. S. (1958). GSR conditioning in anxiety states, normals, and chronic functional schizophrenic subjects. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 56, 183189.
Kamin L. J., and Clark J. W. (1957). The Taylor scale and reaction time. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 54, 262263.
Lader M. H. (1967). Palmar skin conductance measures in anxiety and phobic states. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11, 271281.
Lader M. H., Bond A. J., and James D. C. (1974). Clinical comparison of anxiolytic drug therapy. Psychological Medicine, 4, 381387.
Lader M. H., and Marks I. (1972). Clinical Anxiety. Heinemann: London.
Lader M. H., and Wing L. (1966). Physiological measures, sedative drugs and morbid anxiety. Maudsley Monographs, No. 14. Oxford University Press: London.
Mandler G., and Sarason S. B. (1952). A study of anxiety and learning. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 47, 166173.
Martin B. (1961). The assessment of anxiety by physiological behavioral measures. Psychological Bulletin, 58, 234255.
Matarazzo J. D., and Phillips J. S. (1955). Digit symbol performance as a function of increasing levels of anxiety. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 19, 131134.
Maxwell A. E. (1972). The WPPSI: a marked discrepancy in the correlations of the subtests for good and poor readers. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 25, 283291.
Öhman A., Kaye J. J., and Lader M. (1972). Regular interstimulus interval as a critical determinant of short-term “habituation” of the auditory averaged evoked response. Psychonomic Science, 27, 275278.
Roubiček J. (1969). Anxiety and higher nervous functions. In Studies of Anxiety, pp. 2125. Edited by M. H. Lader. British Journal of Psychiatry, Special Publication No. 3.
Rubin L. S. (1964). Autonomic dysfunction as a concomitant of neurotic behavior. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 138, 558574.
Sherman M., and Jost H. (1942). Frustration reactions of normal and neurotic persons. Journal of Psychology, 13, 319.
Stennett R. G. (1957). The relationship of alpha amplitude to the level of palmar conductance. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 9, 131138.
Strauss H. (1945). Clinical and electroencephalographic studies: the electroencephalogram in psychoneurotics. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 101, 1927.
Ulett G. A., Gleser G. C., Winokur G., and Lawler A. (1953). The EEG and reaction to photic stimulation as an index of anxiety-proneness. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 5, 2332.
Wechsler D. (1955). Manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Psychological Corporation: New York.
Wenar C. (1954). Reaction time as a function of manifest anxiety and stimulus intensity. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 49, 335340.
Wilkinson R. T., and Morlock H. C. (1967). Auditory evoked response and reaction time. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 23, 5056.
Wing L. (1964). Physiological effects of performing a difficult task in patients with anxiety states. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 7, 283294.
Woodworth R. S., and Schlosberg H. (1954). Experimental Psychology. 3rd edn.Methuen: London.
Yerkes R. M., and Dodson J. D. (1908). The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit formation. Journal of Comparative and Neurological Psychology, 18, 459482.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 22 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 254 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 25th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.