Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

The Psychogeriatric Assessment Scales: a multidimensional alternative to categorical diagnoses of dementia and depression in the elderly

  • A. F. Jorm (a1), A. J. Mackinnon (a1), A. S. Henderson (a1), R. Scott (a1), H. Christensen (a1), A. E. Korten (a1), J. S. Cullen (a1) and R. Mulligan (a1)...

The Psychogeriatric Assessment Scales (PAS) provide an assessment of the clinical changes seen in dementia and depression. Principal components analysis and latent trait analysis were used to develop a set of scales to summarize these clinical changes. There are three scales derived from an interview with the subject (Cognitive Impairment, Depression, Stroke) and three from an interview with an informant (Cognitive Decline, Behaviour Change, Stroke). Results are reported on the reliability and validity of these scales using data from clinical samples in Sydney and Geneva and a population sample from Canberra. The scales were found to have excellent validity when judged against clinical diagnoses of dementia and depression and could distinguish Alzheimer's from vascular dementia. Cut-off points were developed to indicate correspondence between scale scores and clinical diagnoses. Percentile rank norms were developed from the Canberra population sample. The PAS is easy to administer and score and can be used by lay interviewers after training. It is intended for application both in research and in services for the elderly.

Corresponding author
1 Address for correspondence: Dr A. F. Jorm, NH&MRC Social Psychiatry Research Unit, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia.
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

J. R. M. Copeland , B. J. Gurland , M. E. Dewey , M. J. Kelleher , A. M. R. Smith & I. A. Davidson (1987). Is there more dementia, depression and neurosis in New York? A comparative study of the elderly in New York and London using the computer diagnosis AGECAT. British Journal of Psychiatry 151, 466473.

M. F. Folstein , S. E. Folstein & P. R. McHugh (1975). ‘Mini-Mental State’: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research 12, 189198.

D. Goldberg , K. Bridges , P. Duncan-Jones & D. Grayson (1988). Detecting anxiety and depression in general medical settings. British Medical Journal 297, 897899.

L. Gustafson & L. Nilsson (1982). Differential diagnosis of presenile dementia on clinical grounds. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 65, 194209.

V. C. Hachinski , L. D. Iliff , E. Zilhka , G. H. Du Boulay , V. L. McAllister , J. Marshall , R. W. R. Russell & L. Symon (1975). Cerebral blood flow in dementia. Archives of Neurology 32, 632637.

J. A. Hanley & B. J. McNeil (1982). The meaning and use of the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Radiology 143, 2936.

A. F. Jorm , L. Fratiglioni & B. Winblad (1993). Differential diagnosis in dementia: Principal components analysis of clinical data from a population survey. Archives of Neurology 50, 7277.

A. Mackinnon , H. Christensen , J. S. Cullen , C. J. Doyle , A. S. Henderson , A. F. Jorm , A. E. Korten & L. R. Scott (1993). The Canberra Interview for the Elderly: assessment of its validity in the diagnosis of dementia and depression. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 87, 146151.

R. Mulligan , A. Mackinnon , P. Berney & P. Giannakopulos (1994). The reliability and validity of the French version of the Canberra Interview for the Elderly. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 89, 268273.

H. E. Nelson & A. O'Connell (1978). Dementia: the estimation of premorbid intelligence levels using the New Adult Reading Test. Cortex 14, 234244.

M. Roth , E. Tym , C. Q. Mountjoy , F. A. Huppert , H. Hendrie S. Verma & R. Goddard (1986). CAMDEX: a standardized instrument for the diagnosis of mental disorder in the elderly with special reference to the early detection of dementia. British Journal of Psychiatry 149, 698709.

Social Psychiatry Research Unit (1992). The Canberra Interview for the Elderly: a new field instrument for the diagnosis of dementia and depression by ICD-10 and DSM-III-R. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 85, 105113.

J. Yesavage , T. L. Brink , T. L. Rose , O. Lum , V. Huang , M. Adey & V. O. Leiver (1983). Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: a preliminary report. Journal of Psychiatric Research 17, 3749.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 12 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 148 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 28th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.