Skip to main content
×
Home

A systematic review of the effects of antipsychotic drugs on brain volume

  • J. Moncrieff (a1) and J. Leo (a2)
Abstract
Background

People with schizophrenia are often found to have smaller brains and larger brain ventricles than normal, but the role of antipsychotic medication remains unclear.

Method

We conducted a systematic review of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. We included longitudinal studies of brain changes in patients taking antipsychotic drugs and we examined studies of antipsychotic-naive patients for comparison purposes.

Results

Fourteen out of 26 longitudinal studies showed a decline in global brain or grey-matter volume or an increase in ventricular or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume during the course of drug treatment, including the largest studies conducted. The frontal lobe was most consistently affected, but overall changes were diffuse. One large study found different degrees of volume loss with different antipsychotics, and another found that volume changes were associated with taking medication compared with taking none. Analyses of linear associations between drug exposure and brain volume changes produced mixed results. Five out of 21 studies of patients who were drug naive, or had only minimal prior treatment, showed some differences from controls in volumes of interest. No global differences were reported in three studies of drug-naive patients with long-term illness. Studies of high-risk groups have not demonstrated differences from controls in global or lobar brain volumes.

Conclusions

Some evidence points towards the possibility that antipsychotic drugs reduce the volume of brain matter and increase ventricular or fluid volume. Antipsychotics may contribute to the genesis of some of the abnormalities usually attributed to schizophrenia.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Dr J. Moncrieff, Department of Mental Health Sciences, University College London, Charles Bell House, 67-73, Riding House Street, London, WIW7EJ, UK. (Email: j.moncrieff@ucl.ac.uk)
References
Hide All
Arango C, Moreno C, Martinez S, Parellada M, Desco M, Moreno D, Fraguas D, Gogtay N, James A, Rapoport J (2008). Longitudinal brain changes in early-onset psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 34, 341353.
Arnone D, Cavanagh J, Gerber D, Lawrie SM, Ebmeier KP, McIntosh AM (2009). Magnetic resonance imaging studies in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry 195, 194201.
Bachmann S, Bottmer C, Pantel J, Schroder J, Amann M, Essig M, Schad LR (2004). MRI-morphometric changes in first-episode schizophrenic patients at 14 months follow-up. Schizophrenia Research 67, 301303.
Borgwardt SJ, Riecher-Rossler A, Dazzan P, Chitnis X, Aston J, Drewe M, Gschwandtner U, Haller S, Pfluger M, Rechsteiner E, D'Souza M, Stieglitz RD, Radu EW, McGuire PK (2007). Regional gray matter volume abnormalities in the at risk mental state. Biological Psychiatry 61, 11481156.
Bottmer C, Bachmann S, Pantel J, Essig M, Amann M, Schad LR, Magnotta V, Schroder J (2005). Reduced cerebellar volume and neurological soft signs in first-episode schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 140, 239250.
Bruton CJ, Crow TJ, Frith CD, Johnstone EC, Owens DG, Roberts GW (1990). Schizophrenia and the brain: a prospective clinico-neuropathological study. Psychological Medicine 20, 285304.
Buchsbaum MS, Someya T, Teng CY, Abel L, Chin S, Najafi A, Haier RJ, Wu J, Bunney Jr. WE (1996). PET and MRI of the thalamus in never-medicated patients with schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 153, 191199.
Cahn W, Hulshoff Pol HE, Bongers M, Schnack HG, Mandl RC, van Haren NE, Durston S, Koning H, van der Linden JA, Kahn RS (2002 a). Brain morphology in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia: a study of multiple brain structures. British Journal of Psychiatry (Suppl.) 43, s66s72.
Cahn W, Hulshoff Pol HE, Lems EB, van Haren NE, Schnack HG, van der Linden JA, Schothorst PF, van Engeland H, Kahn RS (2002 b). Brain volume changes in first-episode schizophrenia: a 1-year follow-up study. Archives of General Psychiatry 59, 10021010.
Cahn W, Rais M, Stigter FP, van Haren NE, Caspers E, Hulshoff Pol HE, Xu Z, Schnack HG, Kahn RS (2009). Psychosis and brain volume changes during the first five years of schizophrenia. European Neuropsychopharmacology 19, 147151.
Chakos MH, Lieberman JA, Alvir J, Bilder R, Ashtari M (1995). Caudate nuclei volumes in schizophrenic patients treated with typical antipsychotics or clozapine. Lancet 345, 456457.
Chua SE, Cheung C, Cheung V, Tsang JT, Chen EY, Wong JC, Cheung JP, Yip L, Tai KS, Suckling J, McAlonan GM (2007). Cerebral grey, white matter and CSF in never-medicated, first-episode schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 89, 1221.
Crespo-Facorro B, Roiz-Santianez R, Perez-Iglesias R, Pelayo-Teran JM, Rodriguez-Sanchez JM, Tordesillas-Gutierrez D, Ramirez M, Martinez O, Gutierrez A, de Lucas EM, Vazquez-Barquero JL (2008). Effect of antipsychotic drugs on brain morphometry. A randomized controlled one-year follow-up study of haloperidol, risperidone and olanzapine. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 32, 19361943.
Davatzikos C, Shen D, Gur RC, Wu X, Liu D, Fan Y, Hughett P, Turetsky BI, Gur RE (2005). Whole-brain morphometric study of schizophrenia revealing a spatially complex set of focal abnormalities. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 12181227.
Dazzan P, Morgan KD, Orr K, Hutchinson G, Chitnis X, Suckling J, Fearon P, McGuire PK, Mallett RM, Jones PB, Leff J, Murray RM (2005). Different effects of typical and atypical antipsychotics on grey matter in first episode psychosis: the AESOP study. Neuropsychopharmacology 30, 765774.
Dazzan P, Morgan K, Reinders AAST, Morgan C, Fearon P, Zanelli J, Fisher H, Jones P, Murray R, McGuire P, Lappin J (2008). Grey and white matter volume changes 6 years after the onset of psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 102 (Suppl. 2), 69.
Dean CE (2006). Antipsychotic-associated neuronal changes in the brain: toxic, therapeutic, or irrelevant to the long-term outcome of schizophrenia? Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 30, 174189.
DeLisi LE, Hoff AL, Schwartz JE, Shields GW, Halthore SN, Gupta SM, Henn FA, Anand AK (1991). Brain morphology in first-episode schizophrenic-like psychotic patients: a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study. Biological Psychiatry 29, 159175.
DeLisi LE, Sakuma M, Maurizio AM, Relja M, Hoff AL (2004). Cerebral ventricular change over the first 10 years after the onset of schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 130, 5770.
DeLisi LE, Sakuma M, Tew W, Kushner M, Hoff AL, Grimson R (1997). Schizophrenia as a chronic active brain process: a study of progressive brain structural change subsequent to the onset of schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 74, 129140.
Dorph-Petersen KA, Pierri JN, Perel JM, Sun Z, Sampson AR, Lewis DA (2005). The influence of chronic exposure to antipsychotic medications on brain size before and after tissue fixation: a comparison of haloperidol and olanzapine in macaque monkeys. Neuropsychopharmacology 30, 16491661.
Ettinger U, Chitnis XA, Kumari V, Fannon DG, Sumich AL, O'Ceallaigh S, Doku VC, Sharma T (2001). Magnetic resonance imaging of the thalamus in first-episode psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry 158, 116118.
Gilbert AR, Rosenberg DR, Harenski K, Spencer S, Sweeney JA, Keshavan MS (2001). Thalamic volumes in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 158, 618624.
Gogtay N, Sporn A, Clasen LS, Nugent TF III, Greenstein D, Nicolson R, Giedd JN, Lenane M, Gochman P, Evans A, Rapoport JL (2004). Comparison of progressive cortical gray matter loss in childhood-onset schizophrenia with that in childhood-onset atypical psychoses. Archives of General Psychiatry 61, 1722.
Gur RE, Cowell P, Turetsky BI, Gallacher F, Cannon T, Bilker W, Gur RC (1998). A follow-up magnetic resonance imaging study of schizophrenia. Relationship of neuroanatomical changes to clinical and neurobehavioral measures. Archives of General Psychiatry 55, 145152.
Gur RE, Turetsky BI, Bilker WB, Gur RC (1999). Reduced gray matter volume in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 56, 905911.
Harrison PJ (1999 a). The neuropathological effects of antipsychotic drugs. Schizophrenia Research 40, 8799.
Harrison PJ (1999 b). The neuropathology of schizophrenia. A critical review of the data and their interpretation. Brain 122, 593624.
Ho BC, Andreasen NC, Nopoulos P, Arndt S, Magnotta V, Flaum M (2003). Progressive structural brain abnormalities and their relationship to clinical outcome: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study early in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 60, 585594.
Hulshoff Pol HE, Kahn RS (2008). What happens after the first episode? A review of progressive brain changes in chronically ill patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 34, 354366.
Ichimiya T, Okubo Y, Suhara T, Sudo Y (2001). Reduced volume of the cerebellar vermis in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 49, 2027.
James AC, James S, Smith DM, Javaloyes A (2004). Cerebellar, prefrontal cortex, and thalamic volumes over two time points in adolescent-onset schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 161, 10231029.
Jayakumar PN, Venkatasubramanian G, Gangadhar BN, Janakiramaiah N, Keshavan MS (2005). Optimized voxel-based morphometry of gray matter volume in first-episode, antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 29, 587591.
John JP, Burgess PW, Yashavantha BS, Shakeel MK, Halahalli HN, Jain S (2009). Differential relationship of frontal pole and whole brain volumetric measures with age in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenia and healthy subjects. Schizophrenia Research 109, 148158.
Joyal CC, Laakso MP, Tiihonen J, Syvalahti E, Vilkman H, Laakso A, Alakare B, Rakkolainen V, Salokangas RK, Hietala J (2002). A volumetric MRI study of the entorhinal cortex in first episode neuroleptic-naive schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 51, 10051007.
Joyal CC, Laakso MP, Tiihonen J, Syvalahti E, Vilkman H, Laakso A, Alakare B, Rakkolainen V, Salokangas RK, Hietala J (2003). The amygdala and schizophrenia: a volumetric magnetic resonance imaging study in first-episode, neuroleptic-naive patients. Biological Psychiatry 54, 13021304.
Kasai K, Shenton ME, Salisbury DF, Hirayasu Y, Lee CU, Ciszewski AA, Yurgelun-Todd D, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA, McCarley RW (2003 a). Progressive decrease of left superior temporal gyrus gray matter volume in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 160, 156164.
Kasai K, Shenton ME, Salisbury DF, Hirayasu Y, Onitsuka T, Spencer MH, Yurgelun-Todd DA, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA, McCarley RW (2003 b). Progressive decrease of left Heschl gyrus and planum temporale gray matter volume in first-episode schizophrenia: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study. Archives of General Psychiatry 60, 766775.
Keshavan MS, Haas GL, Kahn CE, Aguilar E, Dick EL, Schooler NR, Sweeney JA, Pettegrew JW (1998 a). Superior temporal gyrus and the course of early schizophrenia: progressive, static, or reversible? Journal of Psychiatric Research 32, 161167.
Keshavan MS, Rosenberg D, Sweeney JA, Pettegrew JW (1998 b). Decreased caudate volume in neuroleptic-naive psychotic patients. American Journal of Psychiatry 155, 774778.
Khorram B, Lang DJ, Kopala LC, Vandorpe RA, Rui Q, Goghari VM, Smith GN, Honer WG (2006). Reduced thalamic volume in patients with chronic schizophrenia after switching from typical antipsychotic medications to olanzapine. American Journal of Psychiatry 163, 20052007.
Lacerda AL, Hardan AY, Yorbik O, Vemulapalli M, Prasad KM, Keshavan MS (2007). Morphology of the orbitofrontal cortex in first-episode schizophrenia: relationship with negative symptomatology. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 31, 510516.
Lawrie SM, Whalley HC, Abukmeil SS, Kestelman JN, Donnelly L, Miller P, Best JJ, Owens DG, Johnstone EC (2001). Brain structure, genetic liability, and psychotic symptoms in subjects at high risk of developing schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 49, 811823.
Lawrie SM, Whalley HC, Abukmeil SS, Kestelman JN, Miller P, Best JJ, Owens DG, Johnstone EC (2002). Temporal lobe volume changes in people at high risk of schizophrenia with psychotic symptoms. British Journal of Psychiatry 181, 138143.
Lieberman J, Chakos M, Wu H, Alvir J, Hoffman E, Robinson D, Bilder R (2001). Longitudinal study of brain morphology in first episode schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 49, 487499.
Lieberman JA, Tollefson GD, Charles C, Zipursky R, Sharma T, Kahn RS, Keefe RS, Green AI, Gur RE, McEvoy J, Perkins D, Hamer RM, Gu H, Tohen M (2005). Antipsychotic drug effects on brain morphology in first-episode psychosis. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 361370.
Lui S, Deng W, Huang X, Jiang L, Ma X, Chen H, Zhang T, Li X, Li D, Zou L, Tang H, Zhou XJ, Mechelli A, Collier DA, Sweeney JA, Li T, Gong Q (2009). Association of cerebral deficits with clinical symptoms in antipsychotic-naive first–episode schizophrenia: an optimized voxel-based morphometry and resting state functional connectivity study. American Journal of Psychiatry 166, 196205.
MacMaster FP, El Sheikh R, Upadhyaya AR, Nutche J, Rosenberg DR, Keshavan M (2007). Effect of antipsychotics on pituitary gland volume in treatment-naive first-episode schizophrenia: a pilot study. Schizophrenia Research 92, 207210.
Mathalon DH, Sullivan EV, Lim KO, Pfefferbaum A (2001). Progressive brain volume changes and the clinical course of schizophrenia in men: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study. Archives of General Psychiatry 58, 148157.
McClure RK, Phillips I, Jazayerli R, Barnett A, Coppola R, Weinberger DR (2006). Regional change in brain morphometry in schizophrenia associated with antipsychotic treatment. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 148, 121132.
McCreadie RG, Thara R, Padmavati R, Srinivasan TN, Jaipurkar SD (2002). Structural brain differences between never-treated patients with schizophrenia, with and without dyskinesia, and normal control subjects: a magnetic resonance imaging study. Archives of General Psychiatry 59, 332336.
Molina V, Reig S, Sanz J, Palomo T, Benito C, Sanchez J, Sarramea F, Pascau J, Desco M (2005). Increase in gray matter and decrease in white matter volumes in the cortex during treatment with atypical neuroleptics in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 80, 6171.
Molina V, Sanz J, Benito C, Palomo T (2004). Direct association between orbitofrontal atrophy and the response of psychotic symptoms to olanzapine in schizophrenia. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 19, 221228.
Moorhead TW, McKirdy J, Sussmann JE, Hall J, Lawrie SM, Johnstone EC, McIntosh AM (2007). Progressive gray matter loss in patients with bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry 62, 894900.
Moreno D, Burdalo M, Reig S, Parellada M, Zabala A, Desco M, Baca-Baldomero E, Arango C (2005). Structural neuroimaging in adolescents with a first psychotic episode. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 44, 11511157.
Nair TR, Christensen JD, Kingsbury SJ, Kumar NG, Terry WM, Garver DL (1997) Progression of cerebroventricular enlargement and the subtyping of schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 74, 141150.
Nakamura M, Salisbury DF, Hirayasu Y, Bouix S, Pohl KM, Yoshida T, Koo MS, Shenton ME, McCarley RW (2007). Neocortical gray matter volume in first-episode schizophrenia and first-episode affective psychosis: a cross-sectional and longitudinal MRI study. Biological Psychiatry 62, 773783.
Narr KL, Bilder RM, Toga AW, Woods RP, Rex DE, Szeszko PR, Robinson D, Sevy S, Gunduz-Bruce H, Wang YP, Deluca H, Thompson PM (2005). Mapping cortical thickness and gray matter concentration in first episode schizophrenia. Cerebral Cortex 15, 708719.
Narr KL, Thompson PM, Szeszko P, Robinson D, Jang S, Woods RP, Kim S, Hayashi KM, Asunction D, Toga AW, Bilder RM (2004). Regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions in first-episode schizophrenia. NeuroImage 21, 15631575.
Navari S, Dazzan P (2009). Do antipsychotic drugs affect brain structure? A systematic and critical review of MRI findings. Psychological Medicine 39, 17631777.
Okugawa G, Nobuhara K, Takase K, Kinoshita T (2007) Cerebellar posterior superior vermis and cognitive cluster scores in drug-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Neuropsychobiology 56, 216219.
Owens DG, Johnstone EC, Crow TJ, Frith CD, Jagoe JR, Kreel L (1985). Lateral ventricular size in schizophrenia: relationship to the disease process and its clinical manifestations. Psychological Medicine 15, 2741.
Panenka WJ, Khorram B, Barr AM, Smith GN, Lang DJ, Kopala LC, Vandorpe RA, Honer WG (2007). A longitudinal study on the effects of typical versus atypical antipsychotic drugs on hippocampal volume in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 94, 288292.
Prasad KM, Patel AR, Muddasani S, Sweeney J, Keshavan MS (2004 a). The entorhinal cortex in first-episode psychotic disorders: a structural magnetic resonance imaging study. American Journal of Psychiatry 161, 16121619.
Prasad KM, Rohm BR, Keshavan MS (2004 b). Parahippocampal gyrus in first episode psychotic disorders: a structural magnetic resonance imaging study. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 28, 651658.
Puri BK, Hutton SB, Saeed N, Oatridge A, Hajnal JV, Duncan L, Chapman MJ, Barnes TR, Bydder GM, Joyce EM (2001). A serial longitudinal quantitative MRI study of cerebral changes in first-episode schizophrenia using image segmentation and subvoxel registration. Psychiatry Research 106, 141150.
Rapoport JL, Giedd JN, Blumenthal J, Hamburger S, Jeffries N, Fernandez T, Nicolson R, Bedwell J, Lenane M, Zijdenbos A, Paus T, Evans A (1999) Progressive cortical change during adolescence in childhood-onset schizophrenia. A longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study. Archives of General Psychiatry 56 649654.
Reig S, Moreno C, Moreno D, Burdalo M, Janssen J, Parellada M, Zabala A, Desco M, Arango C (2009). Progression of brain volume changes in adolescent-onset psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 35, 233243.
Saijo T, Abe T, Someya Y, Sassa T, Sudo Y, Suhara T, Shuno T, Asai K, Okubo Y (2001). Ten year progressive ventricular enlargement in schizophrenia: an MRI morphometrical study. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 55, 4147.
Salgado-Pineda P, Baeza I, Perez-Gomez M, Vendrell P, Junque C, Bargallo N, Bernardo M (2003) Sustained attention impairment correlates to gray matter decreases in first episode neutroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients. Neuroimage 19, 365375.
Schaufelberger MS, Duran FL, Lappin JM, Scazufca M, Amaro Jr. E, Leite CC, de Castro CC, Murray RM, McGuire PK, Menezes PR, Busatto GF (2007). Grey matter abnormalities in Brazilians with first-episode psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry (Suppl.) 51, s117s122.
Scherk H, Falkai P (2006). Effects of antipsychotics on brain structure. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 19, 145150.
Schulz SC, Koller M, Kishore PR, Hamer RM, Friedel RO (1982). Abnormal scans in young schizophrenics. Psychopharmacological Bulletin 18, 163164.
Selemon LD, Lidow MS, Goldman-Rakic PS (1999). Increased volume and glial density in primate prefrontal cortex associated with chronic antipsychotic drug exposure. Biological Psychiatry 46, 161172.
Sporn AL, Greenstein DK, Gogtay N, Jeffries NO, Lenane M, Gochman P, Clasen LS, Blumenthal J, Giedd JN, Rapoport JL (2003). Progressive brain volume loss during adolescence in childhood-onset schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 160, 21812189.
Steen RG, Mull C, McClure R, Hamer RM, Lieberman JA (2006). Brain volume in first-episode schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging studies. British Journal of Psychiatry 188, 510518.
Sullivan EV, Shear PK, Lim KO, Zipursky RB, Pfefferbaum A (1996). Cognitive and motor impairments are related to gray matter volume deficits in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 39, 234240.
Takahashi T, Wood SJ, Soulsby B, McGorry PD, Tanino R, Suzuki M, Velakoulis D, Pantelis C (2009 a). Follow-up MRI study of the insular cortex in first-episode psychosis and chronic schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 108, 4956.
Takahashi T, Wood SJ, Yung AR, Phillips LJ, Soulsby B, McGorry PD, Tanino R, Zhou SY, Suzuki M, Velakoulis D, Pantelis C (2009 b). Insular cortex gray matter changes in individuals at ultra-high-risk of developing psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 111, 94–102.
Takahashi T, Wood SJ, Yung AR, Soulsby B, McGorry PD, Suzuki M, Kawasaki Y, Phillips LJ, Velakoulis D, Pantelis C (2009 c). Progressive gray matter reduction of the superior temporal gyrus during transition to psychosis. Archives of General Psychiatry 66, 366376.
Tauscher-Wisniewski S, Tauscher J, Christensen BK, Mikulis DJ, Zipursky RB (2005) Volumetric MRI measurement of caudate nuclei in antipsychotic-naive patients suffering from a first episode of psychosis. Journal of Psychiatry Research 39, 365370.
Theberge J, Williamson KE, Aoyama N, Drost DJ, Manchanda R, Malla AK, Northcott S, Menon RS, Neufeld RW, Rajakumar N, Pavlosky W, Densmore M, Schaefer B, Williamson PC (2007). Longitudinal grey-matter and glutamatergic losses in first-episode schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 191, 325334.
Torrey EF (2002). Studies of individuals with schizophrenia never treated with antipsychotic medications: a review. Schizophrenia Research 58, 101115.
Upadhyaya AR, El Sheikh R, MacMaster FP, Diwadkar VA, Keshavan MS (2007). Pituitary volume in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenia: a structural MRI study. Schizophrenia Research 90, 266273.
van Haren NE, Pol HE, Schnack HG, Cahn W, Brans R, Carati I, Rais M, Kahn RS (2008). Progressive brain volume loss in schizophrenia over the course of the illness: evidence of maturational abnormalities in early adulthood. Biological Psychiatry 63, 106113.
Venkatasubramanian G, Jayakumar PN, Gangadhar BN, Keshavan MS (2008). Automated MRI parcellation study of regional volume and thickness of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 117, 420431.
Vita A, De Peri L (2007). The effects of antipsychotic treatment on cerebral structure and function in schizophrenia. International Review of Psychiatry 19, 429436.
Weinberger DR, DeLisi LE, Perman GP, Targum S, Wyatt RJ (1982). Computed tomography in schizophreniform disorder and other acute psychiatric disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 39, 778783.
Whitford TJ, Grieve SM, Farrow TF, Gomes L, Brennan J, Harris AW, Gordon E, Williams LM (2006). Progressive grey matter atrophy over the first 2–3 years of illness in first-episode schizophrenia: a tensor-based morphometry study. NeuroImage 32, 511519.
Whitworth AB, Kemmler G, Honeder M, Kremser C, Felber S, Hausmann A, Walch T, Wanko C, Weiss EM, Stuppaeck CH, Fleischhacker WW (2005). Longitudinal volumetric MRI study in first- and multiple-episode male schizophrenia patients. Psychiatry Research 140, 225237.
Wood SJ, Velakoulis D, Smith DJ, Bond D, Stuart GW, McGorry PD, Brewer WJ, Bridle N, Eritaia J, Desmond P, Singh B, Copolov D, Pantelis C (2001). A longitudinal study of hippocampal volume in first episode psychosis and chronic schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 52, 3746.
Wright IC, Rabe-Hesketh S, Woodruff PW, David AS, Murray RM, Bullmore ET (2000). Meta-analysis of regional brain volumes in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 157, 1625.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 11
Total number of PDF views: 133 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 794 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.