Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 39
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Lee, Jennifer C. and Kye, Samuel 2016. Racialized Assimilation of Asian Americans. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 42, Issue. 1, p. 253.


    2012. Black–White Blood Pressure Disparities: Depressive Symptoms and Differential Vulnerability to Blood Lead. Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 121, Issue. 2, p. 205.


    Nicdao, Ethel G Noel, La Tonya Ai, Amy L Plummer, Carol and Groff, Sara 2013. Post disaster resilience. Disaster Health, Vol. 1, Issue. 1, p. 45.


    Müller, Matthias Johannes and Koch, Eckhardt 2016. Gender Differences in Stressors Related to Migration and Acculturation in Patients with Psychiatric Disorders and Turkish Migration Background. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health,


    Jang, Sae-Heon Park, Young-Nam Jae, Young-Myo Jun, Tae-Youn Lee, Min-Soo Kim, Jae-Min Jeong, Seung-Hee and Kim, Jung-Bum 2011. The Symptom Frequency Characteristics of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Possible Symptom Clusters of Depressive Disorders in Korea: The CRESCEND Study. Psychiatry Investigation, Vol. 8, Issue. 4, p. 312.


    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K. Elmore, Corinn A. Campbell, Cynthya L. and Wethington, Anna 2011. An Examination of the Tripartite Model of Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in African American Youth: Stressors and Coping Strategies as Common and Specific Correlates. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, Vol. 40, Issue. 3, p. 360.


    Montgomery, Stuart A. Gommoll, Carl P. Chen, Changzheng and Greenberg, William M. 2015. Efficacy of levomilnacipran extended-release in major depressive disorder: pooled analysis of 5 double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. CNS Spectrums, Vol. 20, Issue. 02, p. 148.


    Garg, J. Karim, M. Tang, H. Sandhu, G. S. DeSilva, R. Rodrigue, J. R. Pavlakis, M. Hanto, D. W. Baird, B. C. and Goldfarb-Rumyantzev, A. S. 2012. Social adaptability index predicts kidney transplant outcome: a single-center retrospective analysis. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, Vol. 27, Issue. 3, p. 1239.


    Luking, Katherine R. Pagliaccio, David Luby, Joan L. and Barch, Deanna M. 2016. Reward Processing and Risk for Depression Across Development. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 20, Issue. 6, p. 456.


    Xu, Yanmei 2011. Ethnic Variations in the Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and Psychological Distress Among Latino Adults. Race and Social Problems, Vol. 3, Issue. 3, p. 212.


    Bulut, Elif and Gayman, Matthew D. 2016. Acculturation and Self-Rated Mental Health Among Latino and Asian Immigrants in the United States: A Latent Class Analysis. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, Vol. 18, Issue. 4, p. 836.


    Vaeth, Patrice A. C. Caetano, Raul and Mills, Britain A. 2016. Factors Associated with Depression Among Mexican Americans Living in U.S.–Mexico Border and Non-Border Areas. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, Vol. 18, Issue. 4, p. 718.


    Overholser, James C. 2016. When Words are not Enough: Psychotherapy with Clients Who are Living Below the Poverty Level. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, Vol. 46, Issue. 2, p. 89.


    Müller, Matthias Johannes and Koch, Eckhardt 2011. Stressors Related to Immigration and Migration Background in Turkish Patients with Psychiatric Disorder: Validity of a Short Questionnaire (MIGSTR10). Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, Vol. 13, Issue. 6, p. 1019.


    Ai, Amy L. Weiss, Saskia I. and Fincham, Frank D. 2014. Family Factors Contribute to General Anxiety Disorder and Suicidal Ideation Among Latina Americans. Women's Health Issues, Vol. 24, Issue. 3, p. e345.


    Talati, A. Weissman, M. M. and Hamilton, S. P. 2013. Using the high-risk family design to identify biomarkers for major depression. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 368, Issue. 1615, p. 20120129.


    Hearld, Kristine Ria Budhwani, Henna and Chavez-Yenter, Daniel 2015. Panic attacks in minority Americans: The effects of alcohol abuse, tobacco smoking, and discrimination. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 174, p. 106.


    Wahler, Elizabeth A. and Otis, Melanie D. 2014. Social Stress, Economic Hardship, and Psychological Distress as Predictors of Sustained Abstinence from Substance Use After Treatment. Substance Use & Misuse, Vol. 49, Issue. 13, p. 1820.


    Alexander, Lisa A. de la Fey Rodríguez Muñoz, Maria Perry, Deborah F. and Le, Huynh-Nhu 2013. The Latent Symptom Structure of the Beck Depression Inventory: Second Edition in Latina Pregnant Women. Maternal and Child Health Journal,


    Gavin, Amelia R. Melville, Jennifer L. Rue, Tessa Guo, Yuqing Dina, Karen Tabb and Katon, Wayne J. 2011. Racial differences in the prevalence of antenatal depression. General Hospital Psychiatry, Vol. 33, Issue. 2, p. 87.


    ×

The associations between socio-economic status and major depressive disorder among Blacks, Latinos, Asians and non-Hispanic Whites: findings from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies

  • A. R. Gavin (a1), E. Walton (a2), D. H. Chae (a3), M. Alegria (a4), J. S. Jackson (a5) and D. Takeuchi (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291709006023
  • Published online: 22 May 2009
Abstract
Background

This study examined whether there were associations between individual measures of socio-economic status (SES) and the 12-month prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in representative samples of Blacks, Latinos, Asians and Whites in the USA.

Method

The data used were from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies (CPES).

Results

There was an association between household income and MDD among Whites. However, the association was not statistically significant. Statistically significant associations were present between educational attainment and MDD among Whites. Among both Whites and Latinos, being out of the labor force was significantly associated with MDD. In analyses by nativity, being out of the labor force was significantly associated with MDD among US-born and foreign-born Latinos.

Conclusions

Significant associations between various measures of SES and MDD were consistently observed among White and, in some cases, Latino populations. Future studies should continue to examine sociopsychological factors related to SES that increase the risk of MDD among people from racial-ethnic communities.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Dr A. R. Gavin, School of Social Work, University of Washington, 4101 15th Avenue NE, Seattle, WA98105-6299, USA. (Email: gavina@u.washington.edu)
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

N Adler , T Boyce , M Chesney , S Cohen , S Folkman , R Kahn , L Syme (1994). Socioeconomic status and health. American Psychologist 49, 1524.

M Alegria , R Bijl , E Lin , E Walters , R Kessler (2000). Income differences in persons seeking outpatient treatment for mental disorders: a comparison of the United States with Ontario and the Netherlands. Archives of General Psychiatry 57, 383391.

M Alegria , N Mulvaney-Day , M Torres , A Polo , Z Cao , G Canino (2007 a). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders across Latino subgroups in the United States. American Journal of Public Health 97, 6875.

M Alegria , P Shrout , M Woo , P Guarnaccia , W Sribney , D Vila , A Polo , Z Cao , N Mulvaney-Day , M Torres , G Canino (2007 b). Understanding differences in past year psychiatric disorders for Latinos living in the US. Social Science and Medicine 65, 214230.

M Alegria , D Takeuchi , G Canino , N Duan , P Shrout , X Meng , W Vega , N Zane , D Vila , M Woo , M Vera , P Guarnaccia , S Aguilar-Gaxiola , S Sue , J Escobar , K Lin , F Gong (2004). Considering context, place and culture: the National Latino and Asian American Study. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 13, 208220.

N Anderson , C Armstead (1995). Toward understanding the association of socioeconomic status and health: a new challenge for the biopsychosocial approach. Psychosomatic Medicine 57, 213225.

D Blazer , K George , R Landerman , M Pennybacker , M Melville , M Woodbury , K Manton , K Jordan , B Locke (1985). Psychiatric disorders: a rural/urban comparison. Archives of General Psychiatry 42, 651656.

M Bruce , D Takeuchi , P Leaf (1991). Poverty and psychiatric status: longitudinal evidence from the New Haven Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. Archives of General Psychiatry 48, 470474.

MJ Coiro (2001). Depressive symptoms among women receiving welfare. Women Health 32, 123.

WM Eaton , C Muntaner , G Bovasso , C Smith (2001). Socioeconomic status and depressive syndrome: the role of inter- and intra-generational mobility, government assistance, and work environment. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 42, 277294.

C Ellison , J Boardman , D Williams , J Jackson (2001). Religious involvement, stress and mental health: findings from the 1995 Detroit Area Study. Social Forces 80, 215249.

M Farmer , K Ferraro (2005). Are racial disparities in health conditional on socioeconomic status? Social Science and Medicine 60, 191204.

S Heeringa , J Wagner , M Torres , N Duan , T Adams , P Berglund (2004). Sample designs and sampling methods for the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies (CPES). International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 13, 221240.

D Herd , J Grube (1996). Black identity and drinking in the USA: a national study. Addiction 91, 845857.

J Jackson , M Torres , C Caldwell , H Neighbors , R Nesse , R Taylor , S Trierweiler , D Williams (2004). The National Survey of American Life: a study of racial, ethnic and cultural influences on mental disorders and mental health. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 13, 196207.

R Kessler (2003). Epidemiology of women and depression. Journal of Affective Disorders 74, 5–13.

R Kessler , P Berglund , O Demler , R Jin , D Koretz , K Merikangas , J Rush , E Walters , P Wang (2003). The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Journal of the American Medical Association 289, 30953105.

R Kessler , K McGonagle , S Zhao , C Nelson , M Hughes , S Eshleman , H Wittchen , K Kendler (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry 51, 8–19.

R Kessler , K Merikangas (2004). The National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 13, 6068.

R Kessler , T Ustun (2004). The World Mental Health (WMH) survey initiative version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 13, 93–121.

R Kessler , S Zhao , D Blazer , M Swartz (1997). Prevalence, correlates, and course of minor depression and major depression in the National Comorbidity Survey. Journal of Affective Disorders 45, 1930.

B Lee , A Newberg (2005). Religion and health: a review and critical analysis. Zygon 40, 443468.

V Lorant , D Deliege , W Eaton , A Robert , P Philippot , M Ansseau (2003). Socioeconomic inequalities in depression: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology 157, 98–112

K Mossakowski (2003). Coping with perceived discrimination: does ethnic identity protect mental health? Journal of Health and Social Behavior 44, 318331.

C Mutaner , W Eaton , R Miech , P O'Campo (2004). Socioeconomic position and major mental disorders. Epidemiological Reviews 26, 5362.

G Nestadt , O Bienvenu , G Cai , J Samuels , W Eaton (1998). Incidence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in adults. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 186, 401406.

P O'Campo , WW Eaton , C Muntaner (2004). Labor market experience, work organization, gender inequalities, and health status: results from a prospective study of US employed women. Social Science and Medicine 58, 585594.

R Reading , S Reynolds (2001). Debt, social disadvantage and maternal depression. Social Science and Medicine 53, 441453.

D Reiger , M Farmer , D Rae , J Myers , M Kramer , L Robins , L George , M Karno , B Locke (1993). One-month prevalence of mental disorders in the United States and sociodemographic characteristics: the Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandavica 88, 3547.

J Ritsher , V Warner , J Johnson , B Dohrenwend (2001). Inter-generational longitudinal study of social class and depression: a test of social causation and social selection models. British Journal of Psychiatry 178, s84s90.

G Simon , M VonKorff , M Piccinelli , C Fullerton , J Ormel (1999). An international study of the relation between somatic symptoms and depression. New England Journal of Medicine 341, 13291335.

D Takeuchi , N Zane , S Hong , D Chae , F Gong , G Gee , E Walton , S Sue , M Alegria (2007). Immigration-related factors and mental disorders among Asian Americans. American Journal of Public Health 97, 8490.

S Varon , A Riley (1999). Relationship between maternal church attendance and adolescent mental health and social functioning. Psychiatric Services 50, 799805.

J Wallace , T Forman (1998). Religion's role in promoting health and reducing risk among American youth. Health Education and Behavior 25, 721741.

D Williams , H Gonzalez , H Neighbors , R Nesse , J Abelson , J Sweetman , J Jackson (2007 b). Prevalence and distribution of major depressive disorder in African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic Whites: results from the National Survey of American Life. Archives of General Psychiatry 64, 305315.

D Williams , R Haile , H Gonzalez , H Neighbors , R Baser , J Jackson (2007 a). The mental health of Black Caribbean immigrants: results from the National Survey of American Life. American Journal of Public Health 97, 5259.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: