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The International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia: five-year follow-up findings1

  • J. Leff (a1), N. Sartorius (a1), A. Jablensky (a1), A. Korten (a1) and G. Ernberg (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 July 2009

A five-year follow-up of the patients initially included in the International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia was conducted in eight of the nine centres. Adequate information was obtained for 807 patients, representing 76% of the initial cohort. Clinical and social outcomes were significantly better for patients in Agra and Ibadan than for those in the centres in developed countries. In Cali, only social outcome was significantly better.

Corresponding author
2 Address for correspondence: Dr Norman Sartorius, Division of Mental Health World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
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This paper on the 5-year follow-up of patients included in the International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia of the WHO was prepared on behalf of the collaborating investigators (see Appendix).

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This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

L. Ciompi (1980). Catamnestic long-term study on the course of life and aging of schizophrenics. Schizophrenia Bulletin 6, 606618.

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J. H. Jenkins , M. Karno , A. De La Selva & F. Santana (1986). Expressed Emotion in cross-cultural context: familial responses to schizophrenic illness among Mexican Americans. In Treatment of Schizophrenia (ed. M. J. Goldstein , I. Hand and K. Hahlweg ), pp. 3549. Springer-Verlag: Berlin.

P. Kulhara & N. N. Wig (1978). The chronicity of schizophrenia in North West India: results of a follow-up study. British Journal of Psychiatry 132, 186190.

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J. Leff , N. N. Wig , H. Bedi , D. K. Menon , L. Kuipers , A. Korten , G. Ernberg , R. Day , N. Sartorius & A. Jablensky (1990). Relatives' Expressed Emotion and the course of schizophrenia in Chandigarh. A two-year follow-up of a first-contact sample. British Journal of Psychiatry 156, 351356.

W. H. Lo & T. Lo (1977). A ten-year follow-up of Chinese schizophrenics in Hong Kong. British Journal of Psychiatry 131, 6366.

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M. T. Tsuang , R. F. Woolson & J. A. Fleming (1979). Long-term outcome of major psychoses. Archives of General Psychiatry 36, 12951301.

N. E. Waxler (1979). Is outcome for schizophrenia better in non-industrial societies? The case of Sri Lanka. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases 167, 144158.

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