Skip to main content

What have the genomics ever done for the psychoses?

  • M. Gill (a1), G. Donohoe (a1) and A. Corvin (a1)

Despite the substantial heritability of the psychoses and their genuine public health burden, the applicability of the genomic approach in psychiatry has been strongly questioned or prematurely dismissed.


A selective review of the recent literature on molecular genetic and genomic approaches to the psychoses including the early output from genome-wide association studies and the genomic analysis of DNA structural variation.


Susceptibility variants at strong candidate genes have been identified including neuregulin, dysbindin, DISC1 and neurexin 1. Rare but highly penetrant copy number variants and new mutations affecting genes involved in neurodevelopment, cell signalling and synaptic function have been described showing some overlapping genetic architecture with other developmental disorders including autism. The de-novo mutations described offer an explanation for the familial sporadic divide and the persistence of schizophrenia in the population. The functional effects of risk variants at the level of cognition and connectivity has been described and recently, ZNF804A has been identified, and the MHC re-identified as risk loci, and it has been shown that at least a third of the variation in liability is due to multiple common risk variants of small effect with a substantial shared genetic liability between schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder.


The genomics have done much for the psychoses to date and more is anticipated.

Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Professor M. Gill, Department of Psychiatry, Trinity Center for Health Sciences, St. James' Hospital, Dublin 8, Ireland. (Email:
Hide All
Aggarwal VS, Morrow BE (2008). Genetic modifiers of the physical malformations in velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome. Developmental Disability Research Reviews 14, 1925.
Arinami T (2006). Analyses of the associations between the genes of 22q11 deletion syndrome and schizophrenia. Journal of Human Genetics 51, 10371045.
Austin CP, Ky B, Ma L, Morris JA, Shughrue PJ (2004). Expression of Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1, a schizophrenia-associated gene, is prominent in the mouse hippocampus throughout brain development. Neuroscience 124, 3–10.
Blackwood DH, Fordyce A, Walker MT, St Clair DM, Porteous DJ, Muir WJ (2001). Schizophrenia and affective disorders – cosegregation with a translocation at chromosome 1q42 that directly disrupts brain-expressed genes: clinical and P300 findings in a family. American Journal of Human Genetics 69, 428433.
Bray NJ, Preece A, Williams NM, Moskvina V, Buckland PR, Owen MJ, O'Donovan MC (2005). Haplotypes at the dystrobrevin binding protein 1 (DTNBP1) gene locus mediate risk for schizophrenia through reduced DTNBP1 expression. Human Molecular Genetics 14, 19471954.
Burdick KE, Goldberg TE, Funke B, Bates JA, Lencz T, Kucherlapati R, Malhotra AK (2007). DTNBP1 genotype influences cognitive decline in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 89, 169172.
Burdick KE, Hodgkinson CA, Szeszko PR, Lencz T, Ekholm JM, Kane JM, Goldman D, Malhotra AK (2005). DISC1 and neurocognitive function in schizophrenia. Neuroreport 16, 13991402.
Burdick KE, Lencz T, Funke B, Finn CT, Szeszko PR, Kane JM, Kucherlapati R, Malhotra AK (2006). Genetic variation in DTNBP1 influences general cognitive ability. Human Molecular Genetics 15, 15631568.
Camargo LM, Collura V, Rain JC, Mizuguchi K, Hermjakob H, Kerrien S, Bonnert TP, Whiting PJ, Brandon NJ (2007). Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 interactome: evidence for the close connectivity of risk genes and a potential synaptic basis for schizophrenia. Molecular Psychiatry 12, 7486.
Cannon TD, Hennah W, van Erp TG, Thompson PM, Lonnqvist J, Huttunen M, Gasperoni T, Tuulio-Henriksson A, Pirkola T, Toga AW, Kaprio J, Mazziotta J, Peltonen L (2005). Association of DISC1/TRAX haplotypes with schizophrenia, reduced prefrontal gray matter, and impaired short- and long-term memory. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 12051213.
Cedazo-Mínguez A (2007). Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer's disease: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities. Journal Cellular and Molecular Medicine 11, 12271238.
Chubb JE, Bradshaw NJ, Soares DC, Porteous DJ, Millar JK (2008). The DISC locus in psychiatric illness. Molecular Psychiatry 13, 3664.
Corvin A, Donohoe G, Nangle JM, Schwaiger S, Morris D, Gill M (2008). A dysbindin risk haplotype associated with less severe manic-type symptoms in psychosis. Neuroscience Letters 431, 146149.
Corvin AP, Morris DW, McGhee K, Schwaiger S, Scully P, Quinn J, Meagher D, Clair DS, Waddington JL, Gill M (2004). Confirmation and refinement of an ‘at-risk’ haplotype for schizophrenia suggests the EST cluster, Hs.97362, as a potential susceptibility gene at the Neuregulin-1 locus. Molecular Psychiatry 9, 208213.
Craddock N, O'Donovan MC, Owen MJ (2006). Genes for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder? Implications for psychiatric nosology. Schizophrenia Bulletin 32, 9–16.
Craig AM, Kang Y (2007). Neurexin-neuroligin signaling in synapse development. Current Opinions in Neurobiology 17, 4352.
Crow TJ (2008). The emperors of the schizophrenia polygene have no clothes. Psychological Medicine 38, 16811685.
Demirhan O, Taştemir D (2003). Chromosome aberrations in a schizophrenia population. Schizophrenia Research 65, 17.
Donohoe G, Morris DW, Clarke S, McGhee KA, Schwaiger S, Nangle JM, Garavan H, Robertson IH, Gill M, Corvin A (2007). Variance in neurocognitive performance is associated with dysbindin-1 in schizophrenia: a preliminary study. Neuropsychologia 45, 454458.
Donohoe G, Morris DW, De Sanctis P, Magno E, Montesi JL, Garavan HP, Robertson IH, Javitt DC, Gill M, Corvin AP, Foxe JJ (2008). Early visual processing deficits in dysbindin-associated schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 63, 484489.
Duan X, Chang JH, Ge S, Faulkner RL, Kim JY, Kitabatake Y, Liu XB, Yang CH, Jordan JD, Ma DK, Liu CY, Ganesan S, Cheng HJ, Ming GL, Lu B, Song H (2007). Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 regulates integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain. Cell 130, 11461158.
Dubois PC, van Heel DA (2008). New susceptibility genes for ulcerative colitis. Nature Genetics 40, 686688.
Egeland JA, Gerhard DS, Pauls DL, Sussex JN, Kidd KK, Allen CR, Hostetter AM, Housman DE (1987). Bipolar affective disorders linked to DNA markers on chromosome 11. Nature 325, 783787.
Esslinger C, Walter H, Kirsch P, Erk S, Schnell K, Arnold C, Haddad L, Mier D, Optiz von Boberfeld C, Raab K, Witt SH, Rietschel M, Cichon S, Meyer-Lindenberg A (2009). Neural mechanisms of a genome-wide supported psychosis variant. Science 324, 605.
Fallgatter AJ, Herrmann MJ, Hohoff C, Ehlis AC, Jarczok TA, Freitag CM, Deckert J (2006). DTNBP1 (dysbindin) gene variants modulate prefrontal brain function in healthy individuals. Neuropsychopharmacology 31, 20022010.
Fanous AH, van den Oord EJ, Riley BP, Aggen SH, Neale MC, O'Neill FA, Walsh D, Kendler KS (2005). Relationship between a high-risk haplotype in the DTNBP1 (dysbindin) gene and clinical features of schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 18241832.
Ferreira MA, O'Donovan MC, Meng YA, Jones IR, Ruderfer DM, Jones L, Fan J, Kirov G, Perlis RH, Green EK, Smoller JW, Grozeva D, Stone J, Nikolov I, Chambert K, Hamshere ML, Nimgaonkar VL, Moskvina V, Thase ME, Caesar S, Sachs GS, Franklin J, Gordon-Smith K, Ardlie KG, Gabriel SB, Fraser C, Blumenstiel B, Defelice M, Breen G, Gill M, Morris DW, Elkin A, Muir WJ, McGhee KA, Williamson R, MacIntyre DJ, MacLean AW, St CD, Robinson M, Van Beck M, Pereira AC, Kandaswamy R, McQuillin A, Collier DA, Bass NJ, Young AH, Lawrence J, Ferrier IN, Anjorin A, Farmer A, Curtis D, Scolnick EM, McGuffin P, Daly MJ, Corvin AP, Holmans PA, Blackwood DH, Gurling HM, Owen MJ, Purcell SM, Sklar P, Craddock N, Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (2008). Collaborative genome-wide association analysis supports a role for ANK3 and CACNA1C in bipolar disorder. Nature Genetics 40, 10561058.
Friedman JI, Vrijenhoek T, Markx S, Janssen IM, van der Vliet WA, Faas BH, Knoers NV, Cahn W, Kahn RS, Edelmann L, Davis KL, Silverman JM, Brunner HG, van Kessel AG, Wijmenga C, Ophoff RA, Veltman JA (2008). CNTNAP2 gene dosage variation is associated with schizophrenia and epilepsy. Molecular Psychiatry 13, 261266.
Gothelf D, Schaer M, Eliez S (2008). Genes, brain development and psychiatric phenotypes in velo-cardio-facial syndrome. Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 14, 5968.
Hahn CG, Wang HY, Cho DS, Talbot K, Gur RE, Berrettini WH, Bakshi K, Kamins J, Borgmann-Winter KE, Siegel SJ, Gallop RJ, Arnold SE (2006). Altered neuregulin 1-erbB4 signaling contributes to NMDA receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia. Nature Medicine 12, 824828.
Harrison PJ, Law AJ (2006). Neuregulin 1 and schizophrenia: genetics, gene expression, and neurobiology. Biological Psychiatry 60, 132140.
Hennah W, Varilo T, Kestilä M, Paunio T, Arajärvi R, Haukka J, Parker A, Martin R, Levitzky S, Partonen T, Meyer J, Lönnqvist J, Peltonen L, Ekelund J (2003). Haplotype transmission analysis provides evidence of association for DISC1 to schizophrenia and suggests sex-dependent effects. Human Molecular Genetics 12, 31513159.
Hindorff LA, Junkins HA, Mehta JP, Manolio TA (2009). A catalog of published genome-wide association studies ( Accessed 23 July 2009.
Hindorff LA, Sethupathy P, Junkins HA, Ramos EM, Mehta JP, Collins FS, Manolio TA (2009). Potential etiologic and functional implications of genome-wide association loci for human diseases and traits. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106, 93629367.
Iizuka Y, Sei Y, Weinberger DR, Straub RE (2007). Evidence that the BLOC-1 protein dysbindin modulates dopamine D2 receptor internalization and signaling but not D1 internalization. Journal of Neurosciences 27, 1239012395.
International Schizophrenia Consortium (2008). Rare chromosomal deletions and duplications increase risk of schizophrenia. Nature 455, 237241.
International Schizophrenia Consortium (2009). Common polygenic variation contributes to risk of schizophrenia that overlaps with bipolar disorder. Nature 460, 748752.
Jacobs PA, Brunton M, Frackiewicz A, Newton M, Cook PJL, Robson EB (1970). Studies on a family with three cytogenetic markers. Annals of Human Genetics 33, 325336.
Karayiorgou M, Gogos JA (2004). The molecular genetics of the 22q11-associated schizophrenia. Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research 132, 95–104.
Kelsoe JR, Ginns EI, Egeland JA, Gerhard DS, Goldstein AM, Bale SJ, Pauls DL, Long RT, Kidd KK, Conte G, Housman DE, Paul DM (1989). Re-evaluation of the linkage relationship between chromosome 11p loci and the gene for bipolar affective disorder in the Old Order Amish. Nature 342, 238243.
Kilpinen H, Ylisaukko-Oja T, Hennah W, Palo OM, Varilo T, Vanhala R, Nieminen-von Wendt T, von Wendt L, Paunio T, Peltonen L (2008). Association of DISC1 with autism and Asperger syndrome. Molecular Psychiatry 13, 187196.
Kim HG, Kishikawa S, Higgins AW, Seong IS, Donovan DJ, Shen Y, Lally E, Weiss LA, Najm J, Kutsche K, Descartes M, Holt L, Braddock S, Troxell R, Kaplan L, Volkmar F, Klin A, Tsatsanis K, Harris DJ, Noens I, Pauls DL, Daly MJ, MacDonald ME, Morton CC, Quade BJ, Gusella JF (2008). Disruption of neurexin 1 associated with autism spectrum disorder. American Journal of Human Genetics 82, 199207.
Kirov G, Gumus D, Chen W, Norton N, Georgieva L, Sari M, O'Donovan MC, Erdogan F, Owen MJ, Ropers HH, Ullmann R (2008). Comparative genome hybridization suggests a role for NRXN1 and APBA2 in schizophrenia. Human Molecular Genetics 17, 458465.
Korbel JO, Kim PM, Chen X, Urban AE, Weissman S, Snyder M, Gerstein MB (2008). The current excitement about copy-number variation: how it relates to gene duplications and protein families. Current Opinions in Structural Biology 18, 366374.
Liao J, Kochilas L, Nowotschin S, Arnold JS, Aggarwal VS, Epstein JA, Brown MC, Adams J, Morrow BE (2004). Full spectrum of malformations in velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome mouse models by altering Tbx1 dosage. Human Molecular Genetics 13, 1577–85.
Lichtenstein P, Yip BH, Björk C, Pawitan Y, Cannon TD, Sullivan PF, Hultman CM (2009). Common genetic determinants of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in Swedish families: a population-based study. Lancet 373, 234239.
López-Bendito G, Cautinat A, Sánchez JA, Bielle F, Flames N, Garratt AN, Talmage DA, Role LW, Charnay P, Marín O, Garel S (2006). Tangential neuronal migration controls axon guidance: a role for neuregulin-1 in thalamocortical axon navigation. Cell 125, 127142.
McIntosh AM, Moorhead TW, Job D, Lymer GK, Muñoz Maniega S, McKirdy J, Sussmann JE, Baig BJ, Bastin ME, Porteous D, Evans KL, Johnstone EC, Lawrie SM, Hall J (2008). The effects of a neuregulin 1 variant on white matter density and integrity. Molecular Psychiatry 13, 10541059.
MacIntyre DJ, Blackwood DH, Porteous DJ, Pickard BS, Muir WJ (2003). Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness. Molecular Psychiatry 8, 275287.
Mao Y, Ge X, Frank CL, Madison JM, Koehler AN, Doud MK, Tassa C, Berry EM, Soda T, Singh KK, Biechele T, Petryshen TL, Moon RT, Haggarty SJ, Tsai LH (2009). Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 regulates neuronal progenitor proliferation via modulation of GSK3beta/beta-catenin signaling. Cell 136, 10171031.
Merikangas KR, Risch N (2003). Will the genomics revolution revolutionize psychiatry? American Journal of Psychiatry 160, 625635.
Moon HJ, Yim SV, Lee WK, Jeon YW, Kim YH, Ko YJ, Lee KS, Lee KH, Han SI, Rha HK (2006). Identification of DNA copy-number aberrations by array-comparative genomic hybridization in patients with schizophrenia. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 344, 531539.
O'Donovan MC, Craddock N, Norton N, Williams H, Peirce T, Moskvina V, Nikolov I, Hamshere M, Carroll L, Georgieva L, Dwyer S, Holmans P, Marchini JL, Spencer CC, Howie B, Leung HT, Hartmann AM, Möller HJ, Morris DW, Shi Y, Feng G, Hoffmann P, Propping P, Vasilescu C, Maier W, Rietschel M, Zammit S, Schumacher J, Quinn EM, Schulze TG, Williams NM, Giegling I, Iwata N, Ikeda M, Darvasi A, Shifman S, He L, Duan J, Sanders AR, Levinson DF, Gejman PV, Cichon S, Nöthen MM, Gill M, Corvin A, Rujescu D, Kirov G, Owen MJ, Buccola NG, Mowry BJ, Freedman R, Amin F, Black DW, Silverman JM, Byerley WF, Cloninger CR (2008). Molecular Genetics of Schizophrenia Collaboration. Identification of loci associated with schizophrenia by genome-wide association and follow-up. Nature Genetics 40, 10531055.
Owen MJ (1992). Will schizophrenia become a graveyard for molecular geneticists? Psychological Medicine 22, 289293.
Paylor R, Glaser B, Mupo A, Ataliotis P, Spencer C, Sobotka A, Sparks C, Choi CH, Oghalai J, Curran S, Murphy KC, Monks S, Williams N, O'Donovan MC, Owen MJ, Scambler PJ, Lindsay E (2006). Tbx1 haploinsufficiency is linked to behavioral disorders in mice and humans: implications for 22q11 deletion syndrome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103, 77297734.
Paylor R, Lindsay E (2006). Mouse models of 22q11 deletion syndrome. Biological Psychiatry 59, 1172–9.
Penrose LS (1971). Psychiatric genetics. Psychological Medicine 1, 265266.
Pharoah PD, Antoniou AC, Easton DF, Ponder BAJ (2008). Polygenes, risk prediction and targeted prevention of breast cancer. New England Journal of Medicine 358, 27962803.
Porteous DJ, Millar JK (2006). Disrupted in schizophrenia 1: building brains and memories. Trends in Molecular Medicine 12, 255261.
Psychiatric GWAS Consortium Steering Committee (2009). A framework for interpreting genome-wide association studies of psychiatric disorders. Molecular Psychiatry 14, 1017.
Rogowski WH, Grosse SD, Khoury MJ (2009). Challenges of translating genetic tests into clinical and public health practice. Nature Reviews Genetics 10, 489495.
Rose S (1998). What is wrong with reductionist explanations of behaviour? Novartis Foundation Symposia 213, 176186.
Rujescu D, Ingason A, Cichon S, Pietiläinen OP, Barnes MR, Toulopoulou T, Picchioni M, Vassos E, Ettinger U, Bramon E, Murray R, Ruggeri M, Tosato S, Bonetto C, Steinberg S, Sigurdsson E, Sigmundsson T, Petursson H, Gylfason A, Olason PI, Hardarsson G, Jonsdottir GA, Gustafsson O, Fossdal R, Giegling I, Möller HJ, Hartmann AM, Hoffmann P, Crombie C, Fraser G, Walker N, Lonnqvist J, Suvisaari J, Tuulio-Henriksson A, Djurovic S, Melle I, Andreassen OA, Hansen T, Werge T, Kiemeney LA, Franke B, Veltman J, Buizer-Voskamp JE; GROUP Investigators, Sabatti C, Ophoff RA, Rietschel M, Nöthen MM, Stefansson K, Peltonen L, St Clair D, Stefansson H, Collier DA (2009). Disruption of the neurexin 1 gene is associated with schizophrenia. Human Molecular Genetics 18, 988996.
Sawamura N, Sawa A (2006). Disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1): a key susceptibility factor for major mental illnesses. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1086, 126133.
Schurov IL, Handford EJ, Brandon NJ, Whiting PJ (2004). Expression of disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) protein in the adult and developing mouse brain indicates its role in neurodevelopment. Molecular Psychiatry 9, 11001110.
Schwartz JI, Dunbar S, Yuan J, Li S, Gipson A, Rosko K, Johnson-Levonas AO, Lasseter KC, Addy C, Stoch AS, Wagner JA (2008). Influence of taranabant, a cannabinoid-1 receptor inverse agonist, on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin. Advanced Therapeutics 25, 11751190.
Sebat J (2007). Major changes in our DNA lead to major changes in our thinking. Nature Genetics 39 (7 Suppl.), S3–5.
Sebat J, Lakshmi B, Troge J, Alexander J, Young J, Lundin P, Månér S, Massa H, Walker M, Chi M, Navin N, Lucito R, Healy J, Hicks J, Ye K, Reiner A, Gilliam TC, Trask B, Patterson N, Zetterberg A, Wigler M (2004). Large-scale copy number polymorphism in the human genome. Science 305, 525528.
Sherrington R, Brynjolfsson J, Petursson H, Potter M, Dudleston K, Barraclough B, Wasmuth J, Dobbs M, Gurling H (1988). Localization of a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia on chromosome 5. Nature 336, 164167.
Shifman S, Johannesson M, Bronstein M, Chen SX, Collier DA, Craddock NJ, Kendler KS, Li T, O'Donovan M, O'Neill FA, Owen MJ, Walsh D, Weinberger DR, Sun C, Flint J, Darvasi A (2008). Genome-wide association identifies a common variant in the reelin gene that increases the risk of schizophrenia only in women. PLoS Genetics 4, e28.
Stark KL, Xu B, Bagchi A, Lai WS, Liu H, Hsu R, Wan X, Pavlidis P, Mills AA, Karayiorgou M, Gogos JA (2008). Altered brain microRNA biogenesis contributes to phenotypic deficits in a 22q11-deletion mouse model. Nature Genetics 40, 751760.
St Clair D, Blackwood D, Muir W, Carothers A, Walker M, Spowart G, Gosden C, Evans HJ (1990). Association within a family of a balanced autosomal translocation with major mental illness. Lancet 336, 1316.
Stefanis NC, Trikalinos TA, Avramopoulos D, Smyrnis N, Evdokimidis I, Ntzani EE, Ioannidis JP, Stefanis CN (2007). Impact of schizophrenia candidate genes on schizotypy and cognitive endophenotypes at the population level. Biological Psychiatry 62, 784792.
Stefansson H, Rujescu D, Cichon S, Pietiläinen OP, Ingason A, Steinberg S, Fossdal R, Sigurdsson E, Sigmundsson T, Buizer-Voskamp JE, Hansen T, Jakobsen KD, Muglia P, Francks C, Matthews PM, Gylfason A, Halldorsson BV, Gudbjartsson D, Thorgeirsson TE, Sigurdsson A, Jonasdottir A, Jonasdottir A, Bjornsson A, Mattiasdottir S, Blondal T, Haraldsson M, Magnusdottir BB, Giegling I, Möller HJ, Hartmann A, Shianna KV, Ge D, Need AC, Crombie C, Fraser G, Walker N, Lonnqvist J, Suvisaari J, Tuulio-Henriksson A, Paunio T, Toulopoulou T, Bramon E, Di Forti M, Murray R, Ruggeri M, Vassos E, Tosato S, Walshe M, Li T, Vasilescu C, Mühleisen TW, Wang AG, Ullum H, Djurovic S, Melle I, Olesen J, Kiemeney LA, Franke B; GROUP, Sabatti C, Freimer NB, Gulcher JR, Thorsteinsdottir U, Kong A, Andreassen OA, Ophoff RA, Georgi A, Rietschel M, Werge T, Petursson H, Goldstein DB, Nöthen MM, Peltonen L, Collier DA, St Clair D, Stefansson K (2008). Large recurrent microdeletions associated with schizophrenia. Nature 455, 232236.
Stefansson H, Sigurdsson E, Steinthorsdottir V, Bjornsdottir S, Sigmundsson T, Ghosh S, Brynjolfsson J, Gunnarsdottir S, Ivarsson O, Chou TT, Hjaltason O, Birgisdottir B, Jonsson H, Gudnadottir VG, Gudmundsdottir E, Bjornsson A, Ingvarsson B, Ingason A, Sigfusson S, Hardardottir H, Harvey RP, Lai D, Zhou M, Brunner D, Mutel V, Gonzalo A, Lemke G, Sainz J, Johannesson G, Andresson T, Gudbjartsson D, Manolescu A, Frigge ML, Gurney ME, Kong A, Gulcher JR, Petursson H, Stefansson K (2002). Neuregulin 1 and susceptibility to schizophrenia. American Journal of Human Genetics 71, 877892.
Südhof TC (2008). Neuroligins and neurexins link synaptic function to cognitive disease. Nature 455, 903911.
Sullivan PF, Lin D, Tzeng JY, van den Oord E, Perkins D, Stroup TS, Wagner M, Lee S, Wright FA, Zou F, Lin W, Downing AM, Lieberman J, Close SL (2008). Genomewide association for schizophrenia in the CATIE Study: results of stage 1. Molecular Psychiatry 13, 570584.
Talbot K, Eidem WL, Tinsley CL, Benson MA, Thompson EW, Smith RJ, Hahn CG, Siegel SJ, Trojanowski JQ, Gur RE, Blake DJ, Arnold SE (2004). Dysbindin-1 is reduced in intrinsic, glutamatergic terminals of the hippocampal formation in schizophrenia. Journal of Clinical Investigation 113, 13531363.
Urban AE, Korbel JO, Selzer R, Richmond T, Hacker A, Popescu GV, Cubells JF, Green R, Emanuel BS, Gerstein MB, Weissman SM, Snyder M (2006). High-resolution mapping of DNA copy alterations in human chromosome 22 using high-density tiling oligonucleotide arrays. Procedures of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103, 45344539.
van den Oord EJ (2002). Association studies in psychiatric genetics: what are we doing? Molecular Psychiatry 7, 827828.
Walsh T, McClellan JM, McCarthy SE, Addington AM, Pierce SB, Cooper GM, Nord AS, Kusenda M, Malhotra D, Bhandari A, Stray SM, Rippey CF, Roccanova P, Makarov V, Lakshmi B, Findling RL, Sikich L, Stromberg T, Merriman B, Gogtay N, Butler P, Eckstrand K, Noory L, Gochman P, Long R, Chen Z, Davis S, Baker C, Eichler EE, Meltzer PS, Nelson SF, Singleton AB, Lee MK, Rapoport JL, King MC, Sebat J (2008). Rare structural variants disrupt multiple genes in neurodevelopmental pathways in schizophrenia. Science 320, 539543.
Wang K, Zhang H, Ma D, Bucan M, Glessner JT, Abrahams BS, Salyakina D, Imielinski M, Bradfield JP, Sleiman PM, Kim CE, Hou C, Frackelton E, Chiavacci R, Takahashi N, Sakurai T, Rappaport E, Lajonchere CM, Munson J, Estes A, Korvatska O, Piven J, Sonnenblick LI, Alvarez Retuerto AI, Herman EI, Dong H, Hutman T, Sigman M, Ozonoff S, Klin A, Owley T, Sweeney JA, Brune CW, Cantor RM, Bernier R, Gilbert JR, Cuccaro ML, McMahon WM, Miller J, State MW, Wassink TH, Coon H, Levy SE, Schnitz RT, Nurnberger JI, Haines JL, Sutcliffe JS, Cook EH, Minshew NJ, Buxbaum JD, Dawson G, Grant SF, Geschwind DH, Pericak-Vance MA, Schelienberg GD, Hakonarson H (2009). Common genetic variants on 5p14.1 associate with autism spectrum disorders Nature 459, 528533.
Weickert CS, Straub RE, McClintock BW, Matsumoto M, Hashimoto R, Hyde TM, Herman MM, Weinberger DR, Kleinman JE (2004). Human dysbindin (DTNBP1) gene expression in normal brain and in schizophrenic prefrontal cortex and midbrain. Archives of General Psychiatry 61, 544555.
Williams NM, O'Donovan MC, Owen MJ (2005). Is the dysbindin gene (DTNBP1) a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia? Schizophrenia Bulletin 31, 800805.
Wilson GM, Flibotte S, Chopra V, Melnyk BL, Honer WG, Holt RA (2006). DNA copy-number analysis in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia reveals aberrations in genes involved in glutamate signaling. Human Molecular Genetics 15, 743749.
Xu B, Roos JL, Levy S, van Rensburg EJ, Gogos JA, Karayiorgou M (2008). Strong association of de novo copy number mutations with sporadic schizophrenia. Nature Genetics 40, 880885.
Zeggini E, Scott LJ, Saxena R, Voight BF, Marchini JL, Hu T, de Bakker PI, Abecasis GR, Almgren P, Andersen G, Ardlie K, Boström KB, Bergman RN, Bonnycastle LL, Borch-Johnsen K, Burtt NP, Chen H, Chines PS, Daly MJ, Deodhar P, Ding CJ, Doney AS, Duren WL, Elliott KS, Erdos MR, Frayling TM, Freathy RM, Gianniny L, Grallert H, Grarup N, Groves CJ, Guiducci C, Hansen T, Herder C, Hitman GA, Hughes TE, Isomaa B, Jackson AU, Jørgensen T, Kong A, Kubalanza K, Kuruvilla FG, Kuusisto J, Langenberg C, Lango H, Lauritzen T, Li Y, Lindgren CM, Lyssenko V, Marvelle AF, Meisinger C, Midthjell K, Mohlke KL, Morken MA, Morris AD, Narisu N, Nilsson P, Owen KR, Palmer CN, Payne F, Perry JR, Pettersen E, Platou C, Prokopenko I, Qi L, Qin L, Rayner NW, Rees M, Roix JJ, Sandbaek A, Shields B, Sjögren M, Steinthorsdottir V, Stringham HM, Swift AJ, Thorleifsson G, Thorsteinsdottir U, Timpson NJ, Tuomi T, Tuomilehto J, Walker M, Watanabe RM, Weedon MN, Willer CJ, Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, Illig T, Hveem K, Hu FB, Laakso M, Stefansson K, Pedersen O, Wareham NJ, Barroso I, Hattersley AT, Collins FS, Groop L, McCarthy MI, Boehnke M, Altshuler D (2008). Meta-analysis of genome-wide association data and large-scale replication identifies additional susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes. Nature Genetics 40, 638645.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0033-2917
  • EISSN: 1469-8978
  • URL: /core/journals/psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 5
Total number of PDF views: 27 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 173 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 25th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.