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Breakfast skipping and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of observational studies

  • Huashan Bi (a1), Yong Gan (a1), Chen Yang (a1), Yawen Chen (a1), Xinyue Tong (a1) and Zuxun Lu (a1)...
Abstract
Objective

Breakfast skipping has been reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the results are inconsistent. No meta-analyses have applied quantitative techniques to compute summary risk estimates. The present study aimed to conduct a meta-analysis of observational studies summarizing the evidence on the association between breakfast skipping and the risk of T2D.

Design

Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Setting

Relevant studies were identified by a search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and SINOMED up to 9 August 2014. We also reviewed reference lists from retrieved articles. We included studies that reported risk estimates (including relative risks, odds ratios and hazard ratios) with 95 % confidence intervals for the association between breakfast skipping and the risk of T2D.

Subjects

Eight studies involving 106 935 participants and 7419 patients with T2D were included in the meta-analysis.

Results

A pooled adjusted relative risk for the association between exposure to breakfast skipping and T2D risk was 1·21 (95 % CI 1·12, 1·31; P=0·984; I 2 =0·0 %) in cohort studies and the pooled OR was 1·15 (95 % CI, 1·05, 1·24; P=0·770; I 2 =0·0 %) in cross-sectional studies. Visual inspection of a funnel plot and Begg’s test indicated no evidence of publication bias.

Conclusions

Breakfast skipping is associated with a significantly increased risk of T2D. Regular breakfast consumption is potentially important for the prevention of T2D.

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Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Email zuxunlu@yahoo.com
Footnotes
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These authors have contributed equally to this work.

Footnotes
References
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Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
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