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    Martin, Anne Bland, Ruth M. Connelly, Andrew and Reilly, John J. 2016. Impact of adherence to WHO infant feeding recommendations on later risk of obesity and non-communicable diseases: systematic review. Maternal & Child Nutrition, Vol. 12, Issue. 3, p. 418.


    Parrino, C. Vinciguerra, F. La Spina, N. Romeo, L. Tumminia, A. Baratta, R. Squatrito, S. Vigneri, R. and Frittitta, L. 2016. Influence of early-life and parental factors on childhood overweight and obesity. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation,


    Rossiter, Melissa D. Colapinto, Cynthia K. Khan, Mohammad K. A. McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D. Williams, Patricia L. Kirk, Sara F. L. and Veugelers, Paul J. 2015. Breast, Formula and Combination Feeding in Relation to Childhood Obesity in Nova Scotia, Canada. Maternal and Child Health Journal, Vol. 19, Issue. 9, p. 2048.


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    Jonsdottir, Olof H Kleinman, Ronald E Wells, Jonathan C Fewtrell, Mary S Hibberd, Patricia L Gunnlaugsson, Geir and Thorsdottir, Inga 2014. Exclusive breastfeeding for 4 versus 6 months and growth in early childhood. Acta Paediatrica, Vol. 103, Issue. 1, p. 105.


    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano Alfenas, Rita de Cássia G. and Araújo, Raquel Maria A. 2014. Does breastfeeding influence the risk of developing diabetes mellitus in children? A review of current evidence. Jornal de Pediatria, Vol. 90, Issue. 1, p. 7.


    Pereira, Patrícia F. Alfenas, Rita de Cássia G. and Araújo, Raquel Maria A. 2014. Does breastfeeding influence the risk of developing diabetes mellitus in children? A review of current evidence. Jornal de Pediatria (Versão em Português), Vol. 90, Issue. 1, p. 7.


    Tseng, Marilyn Haapala, Irja Hodge, Allison and Yngve, Agneta 2013. Childhood obesity. Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 16, Issue. 02, p. 191.


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Infant feeding practices and prevalence of obesity in eight European countries – the IDEFICS study

  • Monica Hunsberger (a1), Anne Lanfer (a2), Anna Reeske (a2), Toomas Veidebaum (a3), Paola Russo (a4), Charalampos Hadjigeorgiou (a5), Luis A Moreno (a6), Dénes Molnar (a7), Stefaan De Henauw (a8) (a9), Lauren Lissner (a1) and Gabriele Eiben (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980012003850
  • Published online: 24 August 2012
Abstract
AbstractObjective

To assess the association between exclusive breast-feeding and childhood overweight.

Design

Cross-sectional data are from the baseline survey of the longitudinal cohort study IDEFICS. Exclusive rather than partial breast-feeding is the focus of the study due to the theoretical relationship between exclusive breast-feeding and development of dietary self-regulation. Children's measured heights and weights were used to calculate weight status, while waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) and skinfold measures were examined as alternative indicators of adiposity and fat patterning.

Setting

Examination centres in eight European countries (Italy, Estonia, Cyprus, Belgium, Sweden, Hungary, Germany and Spain).

Subjects

The analysis included 14 726 children aged 2–9 years for whom early feeding practices were reported by parents in standardized questionnaires.

Results

After controlling for education, income and other potential confounders, breast-feeding exclusively for 4–6 months was protective of overweight (including obesity) when compared with children never exclusively breast-fed (OR = 0·73; 95 % CI 0·63, 0·85) across all measures of overweight. Exclusively breast-feeding for 6 months offered slightly more protection than for 4 and 5 months combined (OR = 0·71; 95 % CI 0·58, 0·85). The associations could not be explained by socio-economic characteristics or maternal overweight.

Conclusions

This multi-country investigation indicated that exclusive breast-feeding for 4–6 months may confer protection against overweight in addition to other known benefits. There was no demonstrated benefit of exclusive breast-feeding for more than 6 months or combination feeding for any duration across all measures of overweight examined.

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Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email monica.hunsberger@gu.se
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