1. ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition: Agostoni C, Braegger C, Decsi Tet al. (2009) Breast-feeding: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 49, 112–125.
2.Ladomenou F, Moschandreas J, Kafatos Aet al. (2010) Protective effect of exclusive breastfeeding against infections during infancy: a prospective study. Arch Dis Child 95, 1004–1008.
3.McNiel ME, Labbok MH & Abrahams SW (2010) What are the risks associated with formula feeding? A re-analysis and review. Birth 37, 50–58.
4.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity (2007) Does Breastfeeding Reduce the Risk of Pediatric Overweight? Research to Practice Series no. 4. Atlanta, GA: CDC.
5.Kramer MS (1981) Do breast-feeding and delayed introduction of solid foods protect against subsequent obesity? J Pediatr 98, 883–887.
6.Arenz S, Ruckerl R, Koletzko Bet al. (2004) Breastfeeding and childhood obesity – systematic review. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28, 1247–1256.
7.Harder T, Bergmann R, Kallischnigg Get al. (2005) Duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight: a meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol 162, 397–403.
8.von Kries R, Doletzko B, Sauerwald Tet al. (1999) Breast feeding and obesity: cross sectional study. BMJ 319, 147–150.
9.Woo JG, Dolan LM, Morrow ALet al. (2008) Breastfeeding helps explain racial and socioeconomic status disparities in adolescent adiposity. Pediatrics 121, 458–465.
10.Gillman MW, Rifas-Shiman SL, Camargo CAet al. (2001) Risk of overweight among adolescents who were breastfed as infants. JAMA 285, 2461–2467.
11.Toschke AM, Martin RM, von Kries Ret al. (2007) Infant feeding method and obesity: body mass index and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements at 9–10 y of age from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Am J Clin Nutr 85, 1578–1585.
12.Seach KA, Dharmage SC, Lowe AJet al. (2010) Delayed introduction of solid feeding reduces child overweight and obesity at 10 years. Int J Obes (Lond) 34, 1475–1479.
13.Huus K, Ludvigsson JF, Enskär Ket al. (2008) Exclusive breastfeeding of Swedish children and its possible influence on the development of obesity: a prospective cohort study. BMC Pediatr 8, 42–47.
14.Kramer MS, Matush L, Vanilovich Iet al. for the PROBIT Study Group (2007) Effects of prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding on child height, weight, adiposity, and blood pressure at age 6.5 y: evidence from a large randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 1717–1721.
15.Michels KB, Willett WC, Graubard BIet al. (2007) A longitudinal study of infant feeding and obesity throughout life course. Int J Obes (Lond) 31, 1078–1085.
17.Owens CG, Martin RM, Whincup PHet al. (2005) The effect of breastfeeding on mean body mass index throughout life: a quantitative review of published and unpublished observational evidence. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 1298–1307.
19.Kramer MS & Kakuma R (2009) Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding (review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev issue 1, CD003517.
20.Ahrens W, Bammann K, Siani Aet al. (2011) The IDEFICS study: design, characteristics and participation in the baseline survey. Int J Obes (Lond) 35, Suppl. 1, S3–S15.
21.Launer LJ, Forman MR, Hundt GLet al. (1992) Maternal recall of infant feeding events is accurate. J Epidemiol Community Health 46, 203–206.
22.Promislow JHE, Gladen BC & Sandler DP (2005) Maternal recall of breastfeeding duration by elderly women. Am J Epidemiol 161, 289–296.
23.Li R, Scanlon KS & Serdula MK (2005) The validity and reliability of maternal recall of breastfeeding practice. Nutr Rev 63, 103–110.
24.Bammann K, Peplies J, Sjöström Met al. (2006) Assessment of diet, physical activity and biological, social and environmental factors in a multi-centre European project on diet- and lifestyle-related disorders in children (IDEFICS). Public Health 14, 279–289.
25.Stomfai S, Ahrens W, Bammann Ket al. on behalf of the IDEFICS Consortium (2011) Intra- and inter-observer reliability in anthropometric measurements in children. Int J Obes (Lond) 35, Suppl. 1, S45–S51.
26.Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KMet al. (2000) Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 320, 1240–1243.
27.Slaughter MH, Lohman TG, Boileau RAet al. (1988) Skinfold equations for estimation of body fatness in children and youth. Hum Biol 60, 709–723.
28.Yan W, Bingxian H, Hua Yet al. (2007) Waist-to-height ratio is an accurate and easier index for evaluating obesity in children and adolescents. Obesity (Silver Spring) 15, 748–752.
30.Beyerlein A & von Kries R (2011) Breastfeeding and body composition in children: will there ever be conclusive empirical evidence for a protective effect against overweight? Am J Clin Nutr 94, 6 Suppl., 1772S–1775S.
31.Grummer-Strawn LM & Mei Z (2004) Does breastfeeding protect against pediatric overweight? Analysis of Longitudinal Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System. Pediatrics 113, e81–e86.
32.Dewey K on behalf of the WHO Complementary Feeding Consortium (2001) Guiding Principles for Complementary Feeding of the Breastfed Child. Geneva: WHO.
33.Fisher JO, Birch LL, Smiciklas-Wright Het al. (2000) Breastfeeding through the first year predicts maternal control in feeding and subsequent toddler energy intakes. J Am Diet Assoc 100, 641–646.
34.Salmenperä L, Perheentupa J, Siimes MAet al. (1988) Effects of feeding regimen on blood glucose levels and plasma concentrations of pancreatic hormones and gut regulatory peptides at 9 months of age: comparison between infants fed with milk formula and infants exclusively breast-fed from birth. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 7, 651–656.
35.Singhal A, Kennedy K, Lanigan Jet al. (2010) Nutrition in infancy and long-term risk of obesity: evidence from 2 randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 1133–1144.
36.Huërou-Luron I, Blat S & Bourdy G (2010) Breast v. formula-feeding: impacts on the digestive tract and immediate and long-term health effects. Nutr Res Rev 23, 23–36.
37.Socha P, Grote V, Gruszfeld Det al. for the European Childhood Obesity Trial Study Group (2011) Milk protein intake, the metabolic-endocrine response, and growth in infancy: data from a randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr 94, 6 Suppl., 1776S–1784S.
38.Herrmann D, Suling M, Reisch Let al. (2005) Repeatability of maternal report on prenatal, perinatal and early postnatal factors: findings from the IDEFICS parental questionnaire. Int J Obes (Lond) 35, Suppl. 1, S52–S60.