1. Hedley AA, Ogden CL, Johnson CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR & Flegal KM (2004) Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children, adolescents, and adults, 1999–2002. JAMA 291, 2847–2850.
3. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kuczmarski RJ & Johnson CL (1998) Overweight and obesity in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1960–1994. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 22, 39–47.
4. Hill JO, Wyatt HR, Reed GW & Peters JC (2003) Obesity and the environment: where do we go from here? Science 299, 853–855.
5. Schmitz KH & Jeffery RW (2002) Prevention of obesity. In: Handbook of Obesity Treatment, pp. 556–594 [TA Wadden and AJ Stunkard, editors]. New York: The Guilford Press.
6. Johnson-Taylor WL & Everhart JE (2006) Modifiable environmental and behavioral determinants of overweight among children and adolescents: report of a workshop. Obes (Silver Spring) 14, 929–966.
7. Binkley JK, Eales J & Jekanowski M (2000) The relation between dietary change and rising US obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24, 1032–1039.
8. Summerbell CD, Waters E, Edmunds LD, Kelly S, Brown T & Campbell KJ (2005) Interventions for preventing obesity in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev issue 3, CD001871.
9. Kumanyika SK (2001) Minisymposium on obesity: overview and some strategic considerations. Annu Rev Public Health 22, 293–308.
10. World Health Organization (2003) Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series no. 916. Geneva: WHO.
11. Glanz K, Sallis JF, Saelens BE & Frank LD (2005) Healthy nutrition environments: concepts and measures. Am J Health Promot 19, 330–333.
12. Booth SL, Sallis JF, Ritenbaugh C et al. (2001) Environmental and societal factors affect food choice and physical activity: rationale, influences, and leverage points. Nutr Rev 59, S21–S39.
15. Mei Z, Grummer-Strawn LM, Pietrobelli A, Goulding A, Goran MI & Dietz WH (2002) Validity of body mass index compared with other body-composition screening indexes for the assessment of body fatness in children and adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 75, 978–985.
16. Garrow JS & Webster J (1985) Quetelet’s index (W/H2) as a measure of fatness. Int J Obes 9, 147–153.
19. Kirtland KA, Porter DE, Addy CL, Neet MJ, Williams JE, Sharpe PA, Neff LJ, Kimsey CD Jr & Ainsworth BE (2003) Environmental measures of physical activity supports: perception versus reality. Am J Prev Med 24, 323–331.
20. Reidpath DD, Burns C, Garrard J, Mahoney M & Townsend M (2002) An ecological study of the relationship between social and environmental determinants of obesity. Health Place 8, 141–145.
21. Block JP, Scribner RA & DeSalvo KB (2004) Fast food, race/ethnicity, and income: a geographic analysis. Am J Prev Med 27, 211–217.
22. Cummins SC, McKay L & MacIntyre S (2005) McDonald’s restaurants and neighborhood deprivation in Scotland and England. Am J Prev Med 29, 308–310.
23. Morland K, Wing S, Diez Roux A & Poole C (2002) Neighborhood characteristics associated with the location of food stores and food service places. Am J Prev Med 22, 23–29.
24. Moore LV & Diez Roux AV (2006) Associations of neighborhood characteristics with the location and type of food stores. Am J Public Health 96, 325–331.
25. Zenk SN, Schulz AJ, Israel BA, James SA, Bao S & Wilson ML (2005) Neighborhood racial composition, neighborhood poverty, and the spatial accessibility of supermarkets in metropolitan Detroit. Am J Public Health 95, 660–667.
26. Lewis LB, Sloane DC, Nascimento LM, Diamant AL, Guinyard JJ, Yancey AK & Flynn G; REACH Coalition of the African Americans Building a Legacy of Health Project (2005) African Americans’ access to healthy food options in south Los Angeles restaurants. Am J Public Health 95, 668–673.
27. Winkler E, Turrell G & Patterson C (2005) Does living in a disadvantaged area entail limited opportunities to purchase fresh fruit and vegetables in terms of price, availability, and variety? Findings from the Brisbane Food Study. Health Place 12, 741–748.
28. Macintyre S, McKay L, Cummins S & Burns C (2005) Out-of-home food outlets and area deprivation: case study in Glasgow, UK. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2, 16.
29. Edmonds J, Baranowski T, Baranowski J, Cullen KW & Myres D (2001) Ecological and socioeconomic correlates of fruit, juice, and vegetable consumption among African-American boys. Prev Med 32, 476–481.
30. Morland K, Wing S & Diez Roux A (2002) The contextual effect of the local food environment on residents’ diets: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Am J Public Health 92, 1761–1767.
31. Pearson T, Russell J, Campbell MJ & Barker ME (2005) Do ‘food deserts’ influence fruit and vegetable consumption? – a cross-sectional study. Appetite 45, 195–197.
32. Laraia BA, Siega-Riz AM, Kaufman JS & Jones SJ (2004) Proximity of supermarkets is positively associated with diet quality index for pregnancy. Prev Med 39, 869–875.
33. Boehmer TK, Lovegreen SL, Haire-Joshu D & Brownson RC (2006) What constitutes an obesogenic environment in rural communities? Am J Health Promot 20, 411–421.
34. Ayala GX, Mueller K, Lopez-Madurga E, Campbell NR & Elder JP. Restaurant and food shopping selections among Latino women in southern California. J Am Diet Assoc 105, 38–45.
35. Rabin BA, Boehmer TK & Brownson RC (2007) Cross-national comparison of environmental and policy correlates of obesity in Europe. Eur J Public Health 17, 53–61.
36. French SA & Stables G (2003) Environmental interventions to promote vegetable and fruit consumption among youth in school settings. Prev Med 37, 593–610.
37. Campbell KJ, Crawford DA & Ball K (2006) Family food environment and dietary behaviors likely to promote fatness in 5–6 year-old children. Int J Obes (Lond) 30, 1272–1280.
38. Burdette HL & Whitaker RC (2004) Neighborhood playgrounds, fast food restaurants, and crime: relationships to overweight in low-income preschool children. Prev Med 38, 57–63.
39. Inagami S, Cohen DA, Finch BK & Asch SM (2006) You are where you shop: grocery store locations, weight, and neighborhoods. Am J Prev Med 31, 10–17.
40. Jeffery RW, Baxter JE, McGuire MT & Linde JA (2006) Are fast food restaurants an environmental risk factor for obesity? Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 3, 2.
41. Maddock J (2004) The relationship between obesity and the prevalence of fast food restaurants: state-level analysis. Am J Health Promot 19, 137–143.
42. Morland K, Diez Roux AV & Wing S (2006) Supermarkets, other food stores, and obesity: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Am J Prev Med 30, 333–339.
43. Simmons D, McKenzie A, Eaton S, Cox N, Khan MA, Shaw J & Zimmet P (2005) Choice and availability of takeaway and restaurant food is not related to the prevalence of adult obesity in rural communities in Australia. Int J Obes (Lond) 29, 703–710.
44. Sturm R & Datar A (2005) Body mass index in elementary school children, metropolitan area food prices and food outlet density. Public Health 119, 1059–1068.
45. Gordis L (2004) Epidemiology. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders.
46. Wong D (1996) Aggregation effects in geo-referenced data. In Practical Handbook of Spatial Statistics, pp. 83–106 [S Lacch Arlinghaus, D Griffith, W Arlinghaus, W Drake and J Nystuen, editors]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
47. Booth KM, Pinkston MM & Poston WS (2005) Obesity and the built environment. J Am Diet Assoc 105, Suppl. 1, S110–S117.
49. Glanz K, Clawson M, Young M & Carvalho M (2006) Nutrition Environment Measures Training Manual. Atlanta, GA: Emory University.
50. Diez Roux AV (2001) Investigating neighborhood and area effects on health. Am J Public Health 91, 1783–1789.
51. Kumanyika S & Grier S (2006) Targeting interventions for ethnic minority and low-income populations. Future Child 16, 187–207.