This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1DS Freedman , LK Khan , MK Serdula , DA Galuska , WH Dietz . Trends and correlates of class 3 obesity in the United States from 1990 through 2000. JAMA 2002; 288: 1758–1761.
2D Thompson , J Edelsberg , GA Colditz , AP Bird , G Oster . Lifetime health and economic consequences of obesity. Archives of Internal Medicine 1999; 159: 2177–2183.
3JB Meigs . Epidemiology of the insulin resistance syndrome. Current Diabetes Report 2003; 3: 73–79.
4S Haffner , H Taegtmeyer . Epidemic obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Circulation 2003; 108: 1541–1545.
5AM Sharma . Is there a rationale for angiotensin blockade in the management of obesity hypertension?0. Hypertension 2004; 44: 12–19.
6JE Hall . The kidney, hypertension and obesity. Hypertension 2003; 41 (Part 2): 625–633.
9E Reisen , M Weir , B Falkner , HG Hutchinson , DA Anzalone , ML Tuck . Lisinoprin versus hydrochlorothiazide in obese hypertensive patients. Hypertension 1997; 30: 140–145.
10S Engeli , AM Sharma . Role of adipose tissue for cardiovascular-renal regulation in health and disease. Hormone and Metabolic Research 2000; 32: 485–499.
11G Ailhaud , A Fukamizu , F Massiera , R Negrel , P Saint-Marc , M Teboul . Angiotensinogen, angiotensin II and adipose tissue development. International Journal of Obesity Related Metabolic Disorder 2000; 24: S33–S35.
12C Rotimi , R Cooper , O Ogunbiyi , L Morrison , M Ladipo , D Tewksbury , . Hypertension, serum angiotensinogen, and molecular variants of the angiotensinogen gene among Nigerians. Circulation 1997; 95: 2348–2350.
13JH Pratt , WT Ambrosius , DA Tewksbury , MA Wagner , L Zhou , MP Hanna . Serum angiotensinogen concentration in relation to gonadal hormones, body size, and genotype in growing young people. Hypertension 1998; 32: 875–879.
15M Furuhashi , N Ura , H Takizawa , D Yoshida , N Moniwa , H Murakami , . Blockade of the renin–angiotensin system decreases adipocyte size with improvement in insulin sensitivity. Journal of Hypertension 2004; 22: 1977–1982.
16L Yvan-Charvet , P Even , M Bloch-Faure , M Guerre-Millo , N Moustaid-Moussa , P Ferre , . Deletion of the angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) reduces adipocyte cell size and protects from diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. Diabetes 2005; 54: 991–999.
17G Ailhaud . Cross talk between adipocytes and their precursors: relationships with adipose tissue development and blood pressure. Annals of New York of Academic Science 1999; 892: 127–133.
18LA Cassis , VL English , K Bharadwaj , CM Boustany . Differential effects of local versus systemic angiotensin II in the regulation of leptin release from adipocytes. Endocrinology 2004; 145: 169–174.
19Y Arita , S Kihara , N Ouchi , M Takahashi , K Maeda , J Miyagawa , . Paradoxical decrease of an adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in obesity. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communication 1999; 257: 79–83.
20Y Okamoto , S Kihara , N Ouchi , M Nishida , Y Arita , M Kumada , . Adiponectin reduces atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Circulation 2002; 106: 2767–2770.
21M Furuhashi , N Ura , K Higashiura , H Murakami , M Tanaka , N Moniwa , . Blockade of the renin–angiotensin system increases adiponectin concentrations in patients with essential hypertension. Hypertension 2003; 42: 76–81.
22S Engeli , J Böhnke , K Gorzelniak , J Janke , P Schling , M Bader , . Weight loss and the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system. Hypertension 2005; 45: 356–362.
23K Rahmouni , MLG Correia , WG Haynes , AL Mark . Obesity-associated hypertension. New insights into mechanisms. Hypertension 2005; 45: 9–14.
24TL Goodfriend , DA Calhoun . Resistant hypertension, obesity, sleep apnea, and aldosterone: theory and therapy. Hypertension 2004; 43: 518–524.
25M Ehrhart-Bornstein , V Lamounier-Zepter , A Schraven , J Langenbach , HS Willenberg , A Barthel , . Human adipocytes secrete mineralocorticoid-releasing factors. Proceedings of the National Academic Science USA 2003; 100: 14211–14216.
26TL Goodfriend , DL Ball , BM Egan , WB Campbell , K Nithipatikom . Epoxy-keto derivative of linoleic acid stimulates aldosterone secretion. Hypertension 2004; 43: 358–363.
27RB de Paula , AA da Silva , JE Hall . Aldosterone antagonism attenuates obesity-induced hypertension and glomerular hyperfiltration. Hypertension 2004; 43: 41–47.
28G Reaven . Metabolic syndrome: pathophysiology and implications for management of cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2002; 106: 286–288.
29Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP). Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 2001; 285: 2486–2497.
30C Cuspidi , S Meani , V Fusi , B Severgnini , C Valerio , E Catini , . Metabolic syndrome and target organ damage in untreated essential hypertensives. Journal of Hypertension 2004; 22: 1991–1998.
31J Chen , P Muntner , LL Hamm , DW Jones , V Batuman , V Fonseca , . The metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease in US adults. Annals of Internal Medicine 2004; 140: 167–174.
32ME Safar , F Thomas , J Blacher , R Nzietchueng , JM Bureau , B Pannier , . Metabolic syndrome and age-related progression of aortic stiffness. Journal of Amercian College of Cardiology 2006; 47: 72–75.
33ES Ford , WH Giles , WH Dietz . Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA 2002; 287: 356–359.
34ES Ford , WH Giles , AH Mokdad . Increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US Adults. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 2444–2449.
35JR Banegas , LM Ruilope . Epidemic of metabolic diseases. A warning call. Medicina Clinica (Barcelona) 2003; 120: 99–100.
36J Segura , C Campo , C Roldan , H Christiansen , L Vigil , R García-Robles , . Hypertensive renal damage in metabolic syndrome is associated with glucose metabolism disturbances. Journal of American Society of Nephrology 2004; 15 (Suppl. 1): S37–S42.
37G Bruno , F Merletti , A Biggeri , G Bargero , S Ferrero , C Runzo , . Metabolic syndrome as a predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in type 2 diabetes: the Casale Monferrato Study. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 2689–2694.
38KG Alberti , P Zimmet , J Shaw , for the IDF Epidemiology Task Force Consensus Group. The metabolic syndrome – a new worldwide definition. Lancet 2005; 366: 1059–1062.
39SM Grundy , B Hansen , SC Smith Jr, JI Cleeman , RA Kahn , American Heart Association; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Diabetes Association. Clinical management of metabolic syndrome: report of the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/American Diabetes Association conference on scientific issues related to management. Circulation 2004; 109: 551–556.
40B Isomaa , P Almgren , T Tuomi , B Forsen , K Lahti , M Nissen , . Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 2001; 24: 683–689.
41HM Lakka , DE Laaksonen , TA Lakka , LK Niskanen , E Kumpusalo , J Tuomilehto , . The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men. Journal of American Medical Association 2002; 288: 2709–2716.
42S Yusuf , S Hawken , S Ounpuu , T Dans , A Avezum , F Lanas , ; INTERHEART Study Investigators. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case–control study. Lancet 2004; 364: 937–952.
43P Porier , TD Giles , GA Bray , Y Hong , JS Stern , FX Pi-Sunyer , . Obesity and cardiovascular disease. Pathophysiology, evaluation and effect of weight loss. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 2006; 26: 968–976.
45SR Srinivasan , L Myers , GS Berenson . Changes in metabolic syndrome variables since childhood in prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects. The Bogalusa Heart Study. Hypertension 2006; 48: 33–39.
46F Bacha , R Saad , N Gungor , SA Arslanian . Are obesity-related metabolic risk factors modulated by the degree of insulin resistance in adolescents. Diabetes Care 2006; 29: 1599–1604.
47JR Banegas , J Segura , LM Ruilope , M Luque , R García-Robles , C Campo , ; on behalf of the CLUE Study Group Investigators. Blood pressure control and physician management of hypertension in hospital hypertension units in Spain. Hypertension 2004; 43: 1338–1344.
48AV Chobanian , GL Bakris , HR Black , WC Cushman , LA Green , JL Izzo Jr, ; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure; National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: The JNC 7 Report. JAMA 2003; 289: 2560–2571.
49Guidelines Committee. 2003 European Society of Hypertension – European Society of Cardiology guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. Journal of Hypertension 2003; 21: 1011–1053.
50AM Sharma , T Pischon , S Engeli , J Scholze . Choice of drug treatment for obesity-related hypertension: where is the evidence? Journal of Hypertension 2001; 19: 667–674.
51J Segura , C Campo , LM Ruilope , JL Rodicio . Do we need to target ‘prediabetic’ hypertensive patients? Journal of Hypertension 2005; 23: 2119–2125.