Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The Disc Origin of the Milky Way Bulge

  • P. Di Matteo (a1)
Abstract

The Galactic bulge, that is the prominent out-of-plane over-density present in the inner few kiloparsecs of the Galaxy, is a complex structure, as the morphology, kinematics, chemistry, and ages of its stars indicate. To understand the nature of its main components—those at [Fe/H] ≳ −1 dex—it is necessary to make an inventory of the stellar populations of the Galactic disc(s), and of their borders: the chemistry of the disc at the solar vicinity, well known from detailed studies of stars over many years, is not representative of the whole disc. This finding, together with the recent revisions of the mass and sizes of the thin and thick discs, constitutes a major step in understanding the bulge complexity. N-body models of a boxy-/peanut-shaped bulge formed from a thin disc through the intermediary of a bar have been successful in interpreting a number of global properties of the Galactic bulge, but they fail in reproducing the detailed chemo-kinematic relations satisfied by its components and their morphology. It is only by adding the thick disc to the picture that we can understand the nature of the Galactic bulge.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The Disc Origin of the Milky Way Bulge
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The Disc Origin of the Milky Way Bulge
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The Disc Origin of the Milky Way Bulge
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
2 Email: paola.dimatteo@obspm.fr
References
Hide All
Adibekyan, V. Z., Sousa, S. G., Santos, N. C., Delgado Mena, E., González Hernández, J. I., Israelian, G., Mayor, M., & Khachatryan, G. 2012, A&A, 545, A32 10.1051/0004-6361/201219401 2012A&A. . .545A..32A
Alves-Brito, A., Meléndez, J., Asplund, M., Ramírez, I., & Yong, D. 2010, A&A, 513, A35 10.1051/0004-6361/200913444 2010A&A. . .513A..35A
Antoja, T., Valenzuela, O., Pichardo, B., Moreno, E., Figueras, F., & Fernández, D. 2009, ApJ, 700, L78 10.1088/0004-637X/700/2/L78 2009ApJ. . .700L..78A
Athanassoula, E. 2005, MNRAS, 358, 1477 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.08872.x 2005MNRAS.358.1477A
Babusiaux, C., & Gilmore, G. 2005, MNRAS, 358, 1309 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.08828.x 2005MNRAS.358.1309B
Babusiaux, C., et al. 2010, A&A, 519, A77 10.1051/0004-6361/201014353 2010A&A. . .519A..77B
Ballero, S. K., Matteucci, F., Origlia, L., & Rich, R. M. 2007, A&A, 467, 123 10.1051/0004-6361:20066596 2007A&A. . .467..123B
Bekki, K., & Chiba, M. 2001, ApJ, 558, 666 10.1086/322300 2001ApJ. . .558..666B
Bekki, K., & Tsujimoto, T. 2011, ApJ, 738, 4 10.1088/0004-637X/738/1/4 2011ApJ. . .738. . ..4B
Benjamin, R. A., et al. 2005, ApJ, 630, L149 10.1086/491785 2005ApJ. . .630L.149B
Bensby, T., Alves-Brito, A., Oey, M. S., Yong, D., & Meléndez, J. 2011, ApJ, 735, L46 10.1088/2041-8205/735/2/L46 2011ApJ. . .735L..46B
Bensby, T., Feltzing, S., & Oey, M. S. 2014, A&A, 562, A71 10.1051/0004-6361/201322631 2014A&A. . .562A..71B
Bensby, T., et al. 2010, A&A, 512, A41 10.1051/0004-6361/200913744 2010A&A. . .512A..41B
Bensby, T., et al. 2013, A&A, 549, A147 10.1051/0004-6361/201220678 2013A&A. . .549A.147B
Bernkopf, J., & Fuhrmann, K. 2006, MNRAS, 369, 673 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.10326.x 2006MNRAS.369..673B
Binney, J., Dehnen, W., & Bertelli, G. 2000, MNRAS, 318, 658 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2000.03720.x 2000MNRAS.318..658B
Binney, J., Gerhard, O., & Spergel, D. 1997, MNRAS, 288, 365 1997MNRAS.288..365B
Bird, J. C., Kazantzidis, S., Weinberg, D. H., Guedes, J., Callegari S., Mayer, L., & Madau, P. 2013, ApJ, 773, 43 10.1088/0004-637X/773/1/43 2013ApJ. . .773. . .43B
Bissantz, N., & Gerhard, O. 2002, MNRAS, 330, 591 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05116.x 2002MNRAS.330..591B
Bournaud, F., Elmegreen, B. G., & Martig, M. 2009, ApJ, 707, L1 10.1088/0004-637X/707/1/L1 2009ApJ. . .707L. . .1B
Bovy, J., Rix, H.-W., & Hogg, D. W. 2012a, ApJ, 751, 131 10.1088/0004-637X/751/2/131 2012ApJ. . .751..131B
Bovy, J., Rix, H.-W., Hogg, D. W., Beers, T. C., Lee, Y. S., & Zhang, L. 2012b, ApJ, 755, 115 10.1088/0004-637X/755/2/115 2012ApJ. . .755..115B
Bovy, J., Rix, H.-W., Liu, C., Hogg, D. W., Beers, T. C., & Lee, Y. S. 2012c, ApJ, 753, 148 10.1088/0004-637X/753/2/148 2012ApJ. . .753..148B
Bovy, J., Rix, H.-W., Schlafly, E. F., Nidever, D. L., Holtzman, J. A., Shetrone, M., & Beers, T. C. 2015, arXiv: 1509.05796 1509.05796
Brook, C. B., Kawata, D., Gibson, B. K., & Freeman, K. C. 2004, ApJ, 612, 894 10.1086/422709 2004ApJ. . .612..894B
Brook, C., Richard, S., Kawata, D., Martel, H., & Gibson, B. K. 2007, ApJ, 658, 60 10.1086/511056 2007ApJ. . .658. . .60B
Brook, C. B., et al. 2012, MNRAS, 426, 690 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21738.x 2012MNRAS.426..690B
Brown, T. M., et al. 2010, ApJ, 725, L19 10.1088/2041-8205/725/1/L19 2010ApJ. . .725L..19B
Brunetti, M., Chiappini, C., & Pfenniger, D. 2011, A&A, 534, A75 10.1051/0004-6361/201117566 2011A&A. . .534A..75B
Burkert, A., Truran, J. W., & Hensler, G. 1992, ApJ, 391, 651 10.1086/171378 1992ApJ. . .391..651B
Cabrera-Lavers, A., Hammersley, P. L., González-Fernández, C., López-Corredoira, M., Garzón, F., & Mahoney, T. J. 2007, A&A, 465, 825 10.1051/0004-6361:20066185 2007A&A. . .465..825C
Cao, L., Mao, S., Nataf, D., Rattenbury, N. J., & Gould, A. 2013, MNRAS, 434, 595 10.1093/mnras/stt1045 2013MNRAS.434..595C
Carlberg, R. G., & Sellwood, J. A. 1985, ApJ, 292, 79 10.1086/163134 1985ApJ. . .292. . .79C
Chakrabarty, D. 2007, A&A, 467, 145 10.1051/0004-6361:20066677 2007A&A. . .467..145C
Cheng, J. Y., et al. 2012, ApJ, 752, 51 10.1088/0004-637X/752/1/51 2012ApJ. . .752. . .51C
Chiappini, C., Matteucci, F., & Gratton, R. 1997, ApJ, 477, 765 1997ApJ. . .477..765C
Chiappini, C., Matteucci, F., Beers, T. C., & Nomoto, K. 1999, ApJ, 515, 226 10.1086/307006 1999ApJ. . .515..226C
Chiba, M., & Beers, T. C. 2000, AJ, 119, 2843 10.1086/301409 2000AJ. . ..119.2843C
Clarkson, W., et al. 2008, ApJ, 684, 1110 10.1086/590378 2008ApJ. . .684.1110C
Combes, F., & Sanders, R. H. 1981, A&A, 96, 164 1981A&A. . ..96..164C
Comerón, S., et al. 2011, ApJ, 741, 28 10.1088/0004-637X/741/1/28 2011ApJ. . .741. . .28C
de Grijs, R. 1998, MNRAS, 299, 595 10.1046/j.1365-8711.1998.01896.x 1998MNRAS.299..595D
de Jong, J. T. A., Yanny, B., Rix, H.-W., Dolphin, A. E., Martin, N. F., & Beers, T. C. 2010, ApJ, 714, 663 10.1088/0004-637X/714/1/663 2010ApJ. . .714..663D
Debattista, V. P., Mayer, L., Carollo, C. M., Moore, B., Wadsley, J., & Quinn, T. 2006, ApJ, 645, 209 10.1086/504147 2006ApJ. . .645..209D
Dehnen, W. 1999, ApJ, 524, L35 10.1086/312299 1999ApJ. . .524L..35D
Dehnen, W. 2000, AJ, 119, 800 10.1086/301226 2000AJ. . ..119..800D
Dehnen, W., & Binney, J. J. 1998, MNRAS, 298, 387 10.1046/j.1365-8711.1998.01600.x 1998MNRAS.298..387D
Dékány, I., Minniti, D., Catelan, M., Zoccali, M., Saito, R. K., Hempel, M., & Gonzalez, O. A. 2013, ApJ, 776, L19 10.1088/2041-8205/776/2/L19 2013ApJ. . .776L..19D
Dékány, I., et al. 2015, ApJ, 812, L29 10.1088/2041-8205/812/2/L29 2015ApJ. . .812L..29D
Di Matteo, P., Lehnert, M. D., Qu, Y., & van Driel, W. 2011, A&A, 525, L3 10.1051/0004-6361/201015822 2011A&A. . .525L. . .3D
Di Matteo, P., et al. 2014, A&A, 567, A122 10.1051/0004-6361/201322958 2014A&A. . .567A.122D
Di Matteo, P., et al. 2015, A&A, 577, A1 10.1051/0004-6361/201424457 2015A&A. . .577A. . .1D
Diemand, J., Madau, P., & Moore, B. 2005, MNRAS, 364, 367 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.09604.x 2005MNRAS.364..367D
Dwek, E., et al. 1995, ApJ, 445, 716 10.1086/175734 1995ApJ. . .445..716D
Edvardsson, B., Andersen, J., Gustafsson, B., Lambert, D. L., Nissen, P. E., & Tomkin, J. 1993, A&A, 275, 101 1993A&A. . .275..101E
Famaey, B., Pont, F., Luri, X., Udry, S., Mayor, M., & Jorissen, A. 2007, A&A, 461, 957 10.1051/0004-6361:20065706 2007A&A. . .461..957F
Famaey, B., Siebert, A., & Jorissen, A. 2008, A&A, 483, 453 10.1051/0004-6361:20078979 2008A&A. . .483..453F
Feltzing, S., & Gilmore, G. 2000, A&A, 355, 949 2000A&A. . .355..949F
Freeman, K. C. 1987, ARA&A, 25, 603 10.1146/annurev.aa.25.090187.003131 1987ARA&A..25..603F
Freeman, K. C. 1991, in Dynamics of Disc Galaxies, ed. Sundelius, B. (Göteborgs: Göteborgs University and Chalmers University of Technology), 15
Freeman, K., et al. 2013, MNRAS, 428, 3660 10.1093/mnras/sts305 2013MNRAS.428.3660F
Fuhrmann, K. 1998, A&A, 338, 161 1998A&A. . .338..161F
Fuhrmann, K. 2004, AN, 325, 3 10.1002/asna.200310173 2004AN. . ..325. . ..3F
Fuhrmann, K. 2008, MNRAS, 384, 173 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.12671.x 2008MNRAS.384..173F
Fuhrmann, K., Chini, R., Hoffmeister, V. H., & Bernkopf, J. 2012, MNRAS, 420, 1423 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.20127.x 2012MNRAS.420.1423F
Fux, R. 1997, A&A, 327, 983 1997A&A. . .327..983F
Fux, R. 2001, A&A, 373, 511 10.1051/0004-6361:20010561 2001A&A. . .373..511F
García Pérez, A. E., et al. 2013, ApJ, 767, L9 10.1088/2041-8205/767/1/L9 2013ApJ. . .767L. . .9G
Gardner, E., Debattista, V. P., Robin, A. C., Vásquez, S., & Zoccali, M. 2014, MNRAS, 438, 3275 10.1093/mnras/stt2430 2014MNRAS.438.3275G
Gerhard, O., & Martinez-Valpuesta, I. 2012, ApJ, 744, L8 10.1088/2041-8205/744/1/L8 2012ApJ. . .744L. . .8G
Gilmore, G., & Reid, N. 1983, MNRAS, 202, 1025 1983MNRAS.202.1025G
Gomez, A. E., Grenier, S., Udry, S., Haywood, M., Meillon, L., Sabas, V., Sellier, A., & Morin, D. 1997, in ESA Special Publication, Vol. 402, Kinematics of Disk Stars in the Solar Neighbourhood, ed. Bonnet, R. M. et al. (Venice: ESA), 621
Gonzalez, O. A., Rejkuba, M., Minniti, D., Zoccali, M., Valenti, E., & Saito, R. K. 2011a, A&A, 534, L14 10.1051/0004-6361/201117959 2011A&A. . .534L..14G
Gonzalez, O. A., Rejkuba, M., Zoccali, M., Valenti, E., & Minniti, D. 2011b, A&A, 534, A3 10.1051/0004-6361/201117601 2011A&A. . .534A. . .3G
Gonzalez, O. A., Rejkuba, M., Zoccali, M., Valent, E., Minniti, D., & Tobar, R. 2013, A&A, 552, A110 10.1051/0004-6361/201220842 2013A&A. . .552A.110G
Gonzalez, O. A., Zoccali, M., Debattista, V. P., Alonso-García J., Valenti, E., & Minniti, D. 2015a, A&A, 583, L5 10.1051/0004-6361/201527434 2015A&A. . .583L. . .5G
Gonzalez, O. A., et al. 2011c, A&A, 530, A54 10.1051/0004-6361/201116548 2011A&A. . .530A..54G
Gonzalez, O. A., et al. 2015b, A&A, 584, A46 10.1051/0004-6361/201526737 2015A&A. . .584A..46G
Guiglion, G., et al. 2015, A&A, 583, A91 10.1051/0004-6361/201525883 2015A&A. . .583A..91G
Halle, A., Di Matteo, P., Haywood, M., & Combes, F. 2015, A&A, 578, A58 10.1051/0004-6361/201525612 2015A&A. . .578A..58H
Hänninen, J., & Flynn, C. 2002, MNRAS, 337, 731 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05956.x 2002MNRAS.337..731H
Hayden, M. R., et al. 2015, ApJ, 808, 132 10.1088/0004-637X/808/2/132 2015ApJ. . .808..132H
Haywood, M. 2001, MNRAS, 325, 1365 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04510.x 2001MNRAS.325.1365H
Haywood, M. 2008, MNRAS, 388, 1175 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13395.x 2008MNRAS.388.1175H
Haywood, M., Di Matteo, P., Lehnert, M. D., Katz, D., & Gómez, A. 2013, A&A, 560, A109 10.1051/0004-6361/201321397 2013A&A. . .560A.109H
Haywood, M., Di Matteo, P., Snaith, O., & Lehnert, M. D. 2015, A&A, 579, A5 10.1051/0004-6361/201425459 2015A&A. . .579A. . .5H
Haywood, M., Lehnert, M. D., Di Matteo, P., Snaith, O., Schultheis, M., Katz, D., & Gomez, A. 2016, A&A, 589, 66 10.1051/0004-6361/201527567 2016A%26A. . .589A..66H
Hill, V., et al. 2011, A&A, 534, A80 10.1051/0004-6361/200913757 2011A&A. . .534A..80H
Holtzman, J. A., et al. 1993, AJ, 106, 1826 10.1086/116768 1993AJ. . ..106.1826H
House, E. L., et al. 2011, MNRAS, 415, 2652 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18891.x 2011MNRAS.415.2652H
Howard, C. D., Rich, R. M., Reitzel, D. B., Koch, A., De Propris, R., & Zhao, H. 2008, ApJ, 688, 1060 10.1086/592106 2008ApJ. . .688.1060H
Howard, C. D., et al. 2009, ApJ, 702, L153 10.1088/0004-637X/702/2/L153 2009ApJ. . .702L.153H
Howes, L. M., et al. 2014, MNRAS, 445, 4241 10.1093/mnras/stu1991 2014MNRAS.445.4241H
Howes, L. M., et al. 2015, NewA, 527, 484 10.1038/nature15747 2015Natur.527..484H
Huang, S., & Carlberg, R. G. 1997, ApJ, 480, 503 1997ApJ. . .480..503H
Inoue, S., & Saitoh, T. R. 2014, MNRAS, 441, 243 10.1093/mnras/stu544 2014MNRAS.441..243I
Johnson, C. I., Rich, R. M., Fulbright, J. P., Valenti, E., & McWilliam, A. 2011, ApJ, 732, 108 10.1088/0004-637X/732/2/108 2011ApJ. . .732..108J
Johnson, C. I., Rich, R. M., Kobayashi, C., & Fulbright, J. P. 2012, ApJ, 749, 175 10.1088/0004-637X/749/2/175 2012ApJ. . .749..175J
Johnson, C. I., Rich, R. M., Kobayashi, C., Kunder, A., & Koch, A. 2014, AJ, 148, 67 10.1088/0004-6256/148/4/67 2014AJ. . ..148. . .67J
Jurić, M., et al. 2008, ApJ, 673, 864 10.1086/523619 2008ApJ. . .673..864J
Kormendy, J., & Kennicutt, R. C. Jr 2004, ARA&A, 42, 603 10.1146/annurev.astro.42.053102.134024 2004ARA&A..42..603K
Kroupa, P. 2002, MNRAS, 330, 707 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05128.x 2002MNRAS.330..707K
Kunder, A., et al. 2012, AJ, 143, 57 10.1088/0004-6256/143/3/57 2012AJ. . ..143. . .57K
Lacey, C. G. 1984, MNRAS, 208, 687 1984MNRAS.208..687L
Lecureur, A., Hill, V., Zoccali, M., Barbuy, B., Gómez, A., Minniti, D., Ortolani, S., & Renzini, A. 2007, A&A, 465, 799 10.1051/0004-6361:20066036 2007A&A. . .465..799L
Loebman, S. R., Roškar, R., Debattista, V. P., Ivezić, Ž., Quinn, T. R., & Wadsley, J. 2011, ApJ, 737, 8 10.1088/0004-637X/737/1/8 2011ApJ. . .737. . ..8L
López-Corredoira, M., Cabrera-Lavers, A., & Gerhard, O. E. 2005, A&A, 439, 107 10.1051/0004-6361:20053075 2005A&A. . .439..107L
Lütticke, R., Dettmar, R.-J., & Pohlen, M. 2000, A&AS, 145, 405 10.1051/aas:2000354 2000A&AS..145..405L
Maihara, T., Oda, N., Sugiyama, T., & Okuda, H. 1978, PASJ, 30, 1 1978PASJ. . .30. . ..1M
Martinez-Valpuesta, I., & Gerhard, O. 2011, ApJ, 734, L20 10.1088/2041-8205/734/1/L20 2011ApJ. . .734L..20M
Martinez-Valpuesta, I., & Gerhard, O. 2013, ApJ, 766, L3 10.1088/2041-8205/766/1/L3 2013ApJ. . .766L. . .3M
Martinez-Valpuesta, I., Shlosman, I., & Heller, C. 2006, ApJ, 637, 214 10.1086/498338 2006ApJ. . .637..214M
Mashonkina, L., & Gehren, T. 2001, A&A, 376, 232 10.1051/0004-6361:20010965 2001A&A. . .376..232M
Matteucci, F., & Brocato, E. 1990, ApJ, 365, 539 10.1086/169508 1990ApJ. . .365..539M
Matteucci, F., & Romano, D. 1999, Ap&SS, 265, 311 10.1023/A:1002172113229 1999Ap%26SS.265..311M
McWilliam, A., & Rich, R. M. 1994, ApJS, 91, 749 10.1086/191954 1994ApJS. . .91..749M
McWilliam, A., & Rich, R. M. 2004, Carnegie Observatories Centennial Symposium, Vol. 4: Origin and Evolution of the Elements, ed. A. McWilliam and M. Rauch (Pasadena: Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington) 2004oee..sympE..38M
McWilliam, A., & Zoccali, M. 2010, ApJ, 724, 1491 10.1088/0004-637X/724/2/1491 2010ApJ. . .724.1491M
Meléndez, J., et al. 2008, A&A, 484, L21 10.1051/0004-6361:200809398 2008A&A. . .484L..21M
Minchev, I., Chiappini, C., & Martig, M. 2013, A&A, 558, A9 10.1051/0004-6361/201220189 2013A&A. . .558A. . .9M
Minchev, I., Famaey, B., Combes, F., Di Matteo, P., Mouhcine, M., & Wozniak, H. 2011, A&A, 527, A147 10.1051/0004-6361/201015139 2011A&A. . .527A.147M
Minchev, I., Famaey, B., Quillen, A. C., Dehnen, W., Martig, M., & Siebert, A. 2012, A&A, 548, A127 10.1051/0004-6361/201219714 2012A&A. . .548A.127M
Minchev, I., Nordhaus, J., & Quillen, A. C. 2007, ApJ, 664, L31 10.1086/520578 2007ApJ. . .664L..31M
Minchev, I., Martig, M., Streich, D., Scannapieco, C., de Jong, R. S., & Steinmetz, M. 2015, ApJ, 804, L9 10.1088/2041-8205/804/1/L9 2015ApJ. . .804L. . .9M
Minchev, I., et al. 2014, ApJ, 781, L20 10.1088/2041-8205/781/1/L20 2014ApJ. . .781L..20M
Minniti, D., et al. 2010, NewA, 15, 433 10.1016/j.newast.2009.12.002 2010NewA. . .15..433M
Miranda, M. S., et al. 2016, A&A, 587, 10 aa25789-15.html 2016A%26A. . .587A..10M
Moster, B. P., Macciò, A. V., Somerville, R. S., Johansson, P. H., & Naab, T. 2010, MNRAS, 403, 1009 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.16190.x 2010MNRAS.403.1009M
Moster, B. P., Macciò, A. V., Somerville, R. S., Naab, T., & Cox, T. J. 2012, MNRAS, 423, 2045 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.20915.x 2012MNRAS.423.2045M
Nataf, D. M., Udalski, A., Gould, A., Fouqué, P., & Stanek, K. Z. 2010, ApJ, 721, L28 10.1088/2041-8205/721/1/L28 2010ApJ. . .721L..28N
Ness, M., & Freeman, K. 2016, PASA, 33, 22 10.1017/pasa.2015.51
Ness, M., Debattista, V. P., Bensby, T., Feltzing, S., Roškar R., Cole, D. R., Johnson, J. A., & Freeman, K. 2014, ApJ, 787, L19 10.1088/2041-8205/787/2/L19 2014ApJ. . .787L..19N
Ness, M., et al. 2012, ApJ, 756, 22 10.1088/0004-637X/756/1/22 2012ApJ. . .756. . .22N
Ness, M., et al. 2013a, MNRAS, 430, 836 10.1093/mnras/sts629 2013MNRAS.430..836N
Ness, M., et al. 2013b, MNRAS, 432, 2092 10.1093/mnras/stt533 2013MNRAS.432.2092N
Ness, M., et al. 2016, ApJ, 819, 2 10.3847/0004-637X/819/1/2/meta;jsessionid=430517D3E63C1A017217211F6DB75507.c3.iopscience.cld.iop.org 1512.04948
Nishiyama, S., et al. 2005, ApJ, 621, L105 10.1086/429291 2005ApJ. . .621L.105N
Noguchi, M. 1996, ApJ, 469, 605 10.1086/177809 1996ApJ. . .469..605N
Nordström, B., et al. 2004, A&A, 418, 989 10.1051/0004-6361:20035959 2004A&A. . .418..989N
Norris, J. 1986, ApJS, 61, 667 10.1086/191128 1986ApJS. . .61..667N
Ojha, D. K. 2001, MNRAS, 322, 426 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04155.x 2001MNRAS.322..426O
Ojha, D. K., Bienayme, O., Robin, A. C., & Mohan, V. 1994, A&A, 290, 771 1994A&A. . .290..771O
Okuda, H., Maihara, T., Oda, N., & Sugiyama, T. 1977, Nate, 265, 515 10.1038/265515a0 1977Natur.265..515O
Ortolani, S., Renzini, A., Gilmozzi, R., Marconi, G., Barbuy, B., Bica, E., & Rich, R. M. 1995, Nate, 377, 701 10.1038/377701a0 1995Natur.377..701O
Pietrukowicz, P., et al. 2012, ApJ, 750, 169 10.1088/0004-637X/750/2/169 2012ApJ. . .750..169P
Purcell, C. W., Kazantzidis, S., & Bullock, J. S. 2009, ApJ, 694, L98 10.1088/0004-637X/694/2/L98 2009ApJ. . .694L..98P
Qu, Y., Di Matteo, P., Lehnert, M., van Driel, W., & Jog, C. J. 2010, A&A, 515, A11 10.1051/0004-6361/200913559 2010A&A. . .515A..11Q
Qu, Y., Di Matteo, P., Lehnert, M. D., & van Driel, W. 2011, A&A, 530, A10 10.1051/0004-6361/201015224 2011A&A. . .530A..10Q
Quillen, A. C., & Garnett, D. R. 2001, in ASP Conf. Ser., Vol. 230, Galaxy Disks and Disk Galaxies, ed. Funes, J. G., & Corsini, E. M. (Tucson: Univ. Arizona Press), 87
Quinn, P. J., Hernquist, L., & Fullagar, D. P. 1993, ApJ, 403, 74 10.1086/172184 1993ApJ. . .403. . .74Q
Rattenbury, N. J., Mao, S., Sumi, T., & Smith, M. C. 2007, MNRAS, 378, 1064 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.11843.x 2007MNRAS.378.1064R
Read, J. I., Lake, G., Agertz, O., & Debattista, V. P. 2008, MNRAS, 389, 1041 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13643.x 2008MNRAS.389.1041R
Reid, I. N. 2005, ARA&A, 43, 247 10.1146/annurev.astro.43.072103.150623 2005ARA&A..43..247R
Rich, R. M. 1988, AJ, 95, 828 10.1086/114681 1988AJ. . ...95..828R
Rich, R. M., & Origlia, L. 2005, ApJ, 634, 1293 10.1086/432592 2005ApJ. . .634.1293R
Richard, S., Brook, C. B., Martel, H., Kawata, D., Gibson, B. K., & Sanchez-Blazquez, P. 2010, MNRAS, 402, 1489 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.16008.x 2010MNRAS.402.1489R
Robin, A. C., Reylé, C., Derrière, S., & Picaud, S. 2003, A&A, 409, 523 10.1051/0004-6361:20031117 2003A&A. . .409..523R
Rojas-Arriagada, A., et al. 2014, A&A, 569, A103 10.1051/0004-6361/201424121 2014A&A. . .569A.103R
Roškar, R., Debattista, V. P., Stinson, G. S., Quinn, T. R., Kaufmann, T., & Wadsley, J. 2008, ApJ, 675, L65 10.1086/586734 2008ApJ. . .675L..65R
Ryde, N., et al. 2010, A&A, 509, A20 10.1051/0004-6361/200912687 2010A&A. . .509A..20R
Ryde, N., Schultheis, M., Grieco, V., Matteucci, F., Rich, R. M., & Uttenthaler, S. 2016, AJ, 151, 1 10.3847/0004-6256/151/1/1/meta 2016AJ. . ..151. . ..1R
Saha, K., & Gerhard, O. 2013, MNRAS, 430, 2039 10.1093/mnras/stt029 2013MNRAS.430.2039S
Saha, K., Martinez-Valpuesta, I., & Gerhard, O. 2012, MNRAS, 421, 333 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.20307.x 2012MNRAS.421..333S
Schönrich, R., & Binney, J. 2009a, MNRAS, 396, 203 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.14750.x 2009MNRAS.396..203S
Schönrich, R., & Binney, J. 2009b, MNRAS, 399, 1145 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15365.x 2009MNRAS.399.1145S
Seabroke, G. M., & Gilmore, G. 2007, MNRAS, 380, 1348 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.12210.x 2007MNRAS.380.1348S
Sellwood, J. A., & Binney, J. J. 2002, MNRAS, 336, 785 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05806.x 2002MNRAS.336..785S
Sellwood, J. A., Nelson, R. W., & Tremaine, S. 1998, ApJ, 506, 590 10.1086/306280 1998ApJ. . .506..590S
Shen, J., Rich, R. M., Kormendy, J., Howard, C. D., De Propris, R., & Kunder, A. 2010, ApJ, 720, L72 10.1088/2041-8205/720/1/L72 2010ApJ. . .720L..72S
Snaith, O. N., Haywood, M., Di Matteo, P., Lehnert, M. D., Combes, F., Katz, D., & Gómez, A. 2014, ApJ, 781, L31 10.1088/2041-8205/781/2/L31 2014ApJ. . .781L..31S
Snaith, O., Haywood, M., Di Matteo, P., Lehnert, M. D., Combes, F., & Katz, D., & Gómez, A. 2015, A&A, 578, A87 10.1051/0004-6361/201424281 2015A&A. . .578A..87S
Soto, M., Rich, R. M., & Kuijken, K. 2007, ApJ, 665, L31 10.1086/521098 2007ApJ. . .665L..31S
Soubiran, C., Bienaymé, O., Mishenina, T. V., & Kovtyukh, V. V. 2008, A&A, 480, 91 10.1051/0004-6361:20078788 2008A&A. . .480. . .91S
Spitzer, L. Jr, & Schwarzschild, M. 1951, ApJ, 114, 385 10.1086/145478 1951ApJ. . .114..385S
Stinson, G. S., et al. 2013, MNRAS, 436, 625 10.1093/mnras/stt1600 2013MNRAS.436..625S
Terndrup, D. M. 1988, AJ, 96, 884 10.1086/114855 1988AJ. . ...96..884T
Tumlinson, J. 2010, ApJ, 708, 1398 10.1088/0004-637X/708/2/1398 2010ApJ. . .708.1398T
Uttenthaler, S., Schultheis, M., Nataf, D. M., Robin, A. C., Lebzelter, T., & Chen, B. 2012, A&A, 546, A57 10.1051/0004-6361/201219055 2012A&A. . .546A..57U
Valenti, E., Zoccali, M., Renzini, A., Brown, T. M., Gonzalez, O. A., Minniti, D., Debattista, V. P., & Mayer, L. 2013, A&A, 559, A98 10.1051/0004-6361/201321962 2013A&A. . .559A..98V
van der Kruit, P. C., & Searle, L. 1982, A&A, 110, 61 1982A&A. . .110. . .61V
Van der Swaelmen, M., Barbuy, B., Hill, V., Zoccali, M., Minniti, D., Ortolani, S., & Gómez, A. 2016, A&A, 586, A1 10.1051/0004-6361/201525709 2016A&A. . .586A. . .1V
Velazquez, H., & White, S. D. M. 1999, MNRAS, 304, 254 10.1046/j.1365-8711.1999.02354.x 1999MNRAS.304..254V
Vera-Ciro, C., D’Onghia, E., Navarro, J., & Abadi, M. 2014, ApJ, 794, 173 10.1088/0004-637X/794/2/173 2014ApJ. . .794..173V
Villalobos, Á., & Helmi, A. 2008, MNRAS, 391, 1806 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13979.x 2008MNRAS.391.1806V
Villalobos, Á., & Helmi, A. 2009, MNRAS, 399, 166 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15085.x 2009MNRAS.399..166V
Walker, I. R., Mihos, J. C., & Hernquist, L. 1996, ApJ, 460, 121 10.1086/176956 1996ApJ. . .460..121W
Wegg, C., & Gerhard, O. 2013, MNRAS, 435, 1874 10.1093/mnras/stt1376 2013MNRAS.435.1874W
Wegg, C., Gerhard, O., & Portail, M. 2015, MNRAS, 450, 4050 10.1093/mnras/stv745 2015MNRAS.450.4050W
Weiland, J. L., et al. 1994, ApJ, 425, L81 10.1086/187315 1994ApJ. . .425L..81W
Wielen, R. 1977, A&A, 60, 263 1977A&A. . ..60..263W
Wyse, R. F. G., & Gilmore, G. 1986, AJ, 91, 855 10.1086/114064 1986AJ. . ...91..855W
Zhao, H., Spergel, D. N., & Rich, R. M. 1994, AJ, 108, 2154 10.1086/117227 1994AJ. . ..108.2154Z
Zoccali, M., et al. 2003, A&A, 399, 931 10.1051/0004-6361:20021604 2003A&A. . .399..931Z
Zoccali, M., et al. 2006, A&A, 457, L1 10.1051/0004-6361:20065659 2006A&A. . .457L. . .1Z
Zoccali, M., Hill, V., Lecureur, A., Barbuy, B., Renzini, A., Minniti, D., Gómez, A., & Ortolani, S. 2008, A&A, 486, 177 10.1051/0004-6361:200809394 2008A&A. . .486..177Z
Zoccali, M., et al. 2014, A&A, 562, A66 10.1051/0004-6361/201323120 2014A&26A. . .562A..66Z
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia
  • ISSN: 1323-3580
  • EISSN: 1448-6083
  • URL: /core/journals/publications-of-the-astronomical-society-of-australia
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed