Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Expanding Confusion: Common Misconceptions of Cosmological Horizons and the Superluminal Expansion of the Universe

  • Tamara M. Davis (a1) and Charles H. Lineweaver (a2)
Abstract
Abstract

We use standard general relativity to illustrate and clarify several common misconceptions about the expansion of the universe. To show the abundance of these misconceptions we cite numerous misleading, or easily misinterpreted, statements in the literature. In the context of the new standard ΛCDM cosmology we point out confusions regarding the particle horizon, the event horizon, the ‘observable universe’ and the Hubble sphere (distance at which recession velocity = c). We show that we can observe galaxies that have, and always have had, recession velocities greater than the speed of light. We explain why this does not violate special relativity and we link these concepts to observational tests. Attempts to restrict recession velocities to less than the speed of light require a special relativistic interpretation of cosmological redshifts. We analyze apparent magnitudes of supernovae and observationally rule out the special relativistic Doppler interpretation of cosmological redshifts at a confidence level of 23σ.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Expanding Confusion: Common Misconceptions of Cosmological Horizons and the Superluminal Expansion of the Universe
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Expanding Confusion: Common Misconceptions of Cosmological Horizons and the Superluminal Expansion of the Universe
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Expanding Confusion: Common Misconceptions of Cosmological Horizons and the Superluminal Expansion of the Universe
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
BennettC. L., HalpernM., HinshawG., et al. 2003, ApJS, 148, 1
ChenH.-W., LanzettaK. M., & PascarelleS. 1999, Nature, 398, 586
DavisT. M., & LineweaverC. H. 2001, in Cosmology and Particle Physics 2000, eds. R. Durrer, J. Garcia-Bellido, & M. Shaposhnikov (New York: American Institute of Physics conference proceedings, Volume 555), 348
DavisT. M., & LineweaverC. H. 2004, in preparation
DavisT. M., LineweaverC. H., & WebbJ. K. 2003, AmJPh, 71, 358
EbertR., & TrümperM. 1975, NYASA, 262, 470
EllisG. F. R., & RothmanT. 1993, AmJPh, 61, 883
FanX., StraussM. A., SchneiderD. P., et al. 2003, AJ, 125, 1649
GoldhaberG., DustuaS., GabiS., et al. 1997, in Thermonuclear Supernovae, NATO ASIC Proceedings 486, eds. R. Canal, P. Ruiz-LaPuente, & J. Isern (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers), 777
GoldhaberG., GroomD. E., KimA., et al. 2001, ApJ, 558, 359
GudmundssonE. H., & BjörnssonG. 2002, ApJ, 565, 1
HarrisonE. R. 1981, Cosmology: the science of the universe, 1st Edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), and 2nd Edition (2000)
HarrisonE. R. 1993, ApJ, 403, 28
KiangT. 1991, AcASn, 11, 197
KiangT. 1997, ChA&A, 21, 1
KiangT. 2001, ChA&A, 25, 141
LakeK. 1981, ApJ, 247, 17
LandsbergP. T., & EvansD. A. 1977, Mathematical Cosmology, an Introduction (Oxford: Clarendon Press)
LeibundgutB., SchommerR., PhillipsM., et al. 1996, ApJ, 466, L21
LiskeJ. 2000, MNRAS, 319, 557
LoebA. 1998, ApJ, 499, L111
MurdochH. S. 1977, QJRAS, 18, 242
MurdochH. S. 1993, Quasars — how far? how fast?, unpublished, sect. 1
OutramP. J., ChaffeeF. H., & CarswellR. F. 1999, MNRAS, 310, 289
PageD. N. 1993, unpublished, gr-qc/9303008
PeacockJ.A. 1999, Cosmological Physics, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)
PerlmutterS., AlderingG., GoldhaberG., et al. 1999, ApJ, 517, 565
PressW. H., FlanneryB. P., TeukolskyS. A., & VetterlingW. T. 1989, Numerical Recipes (Fortran Version), (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)
RiessA. G., FilippenkoA. V., ChallisP., et al. 1998, AJ, 116, 1009
RiessA. G., FilippenkoA. V., LeonardD., et al. 1997, AJ, 114, 722
RindlerW. 1956, MNRAS, 6, 662
RindlerW. 1977, Essential relativity, special, general, and cosmological, (NewYork: Springer)
SandageA. 1962, ApJ, 136, 319
SilvermanA. N. 1986, AmJPh, 54, 1092
StuckeyW. M. 1992, AmJPh, 60, 142
WeinbergS. 1972, Gravitation and Cosmology (NewYork:Wiley)
WilsonO. C. 1939, ApJ, 90, 634
WrightE. L. 2001, Errors in tired light cosmology, http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/tiredlit.htm
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia
  • ISSN: 1323-3580
  • EISSN: 1448-6083
  • URL: /core/journals/publications-of-the-astronomical-society-of-australia
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 122
Total number of PDF views: 1315 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 3741 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.